Machine learning health-related applications in low-income and middle-income countries: a scoping review protocol.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Machine learning (ML) has been used in bio-medical research, and recently in clinical and public health research. However, much of the available evidence comes from high-income countries, where different health profiles challenge the application of this research to low/middle-income countries (LMICs). It is largely unknown what ML applications are available for LMICs that can support and advance clinical medicine and public health. We aim to address this gap by conducting a scoping review of health-related ML applications in LMICs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This scoping review will follow the methodology proposed by Levac et al. The search strategy is informed by recent systematic reviews of ML health-related applications. We will search Embase, Medline and Global Health (through Ovid), Cochrane and Google Scholar; we will present the date of our searches in the final review. Titles and abstracts will be screened by two reviewers independently; selected reports will be studied by two reviewers independently. Reports will be included if they are primary research where data have been analysed, ML techniques have been used on data from LMICs and they aimed to improve health-related outcomes. We will synthesise the information following evidence mapping recommendations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The review will provide a comprehensive list of health-related ML applications in LMICs. The results will be disseminated through scientific publications. We also plan to launch a website where ML models can be hosted so that researchers, policymakers and the general public can readily access them.
Project description:This protocol describes a systematic scoping review of chronic respiratory disease surveys in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) undertaken as part of the Four Country ChrOnic Respiratory Disease (4CCORD) study within the National Institute for Health Research Global Health Research Unit on Respiratory Health (RESPIRE). Understanding the prevalence and burden of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) underpins healthcare planning. We will systematically scope the literature to identify existing strategies (definitions/questionnaires/diagnostics/outcomes) used in surveys of CRDs in adults in low-resource settings. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI WoS, Global Health and WHO Global Health Library [search terms: prevalence AND CRD (COPD, asthma) AND LMICs, from 1995], and two reviewers will independently extract data from selected studies onto a piloted customised data extraction form. We will convene a workshop of the multidisciplinary 4CCORD research team with representatives from the RESPIRE partners (Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan and Edinburgh) at which the findings of the scoping review will be presented, discussed and interpreted. The findings will inform a future RESPIRE 4CCORD study, which will estimate CRD burden in adults in Asian LMICs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Research shows that there are inadequate interventions in resource-limited settings that could enable women of reproductive age to access and use health services in those settings. The main objective of this scoping review is to map the evidence on access to healthcare information by women of reproductive age in LMICs. METHOD AND ANALYSIS:The primary search will include Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, EBSCOhost (Academic search complete, CINAHL with full text, MEDLINE with full text, MEDLINE), Emerald, Embase, CDSR, PsycINFO, published and peer review journals, organisational projects, conference papers, reference list, grey literature sources, as well as reports related to this objective will be included in the study. Identified keywords will be used to search articles from the studies. The articles and abstracts will be screened by two independent reviewers (JS and TPMT). Inclusion and exclusion criteria will be considered to guide the screening. A thematic content analysis will be used to present the narrative account of the reviews, using NVivo computer software (version 11). DISCUSSIONS:The scoping review will focus on women of reproductive age in LMICs. We anticipate finding relevant literature on the interventions aimed at accessing health care services in LMICs. The study findings will help reveal research gaps to guide future research. SCOPING REVIEW REGISTRATION:Not registered with PROSPERO (not needed). PROTOCOL AND REGISTRATION:This scoping review was not registered.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The diabetes mellitus (DM) epidemic is a major public health concern globally, with the highest-burden in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes, and if left untreated can lead to visual impairment and blindness. Epidemiological studies suggest that the incidence of sight-threatening DR is decreasing in high-income countries due to improved treatments and management of DM; however, these trends are not replicated in LMICs. In this paper, we outline a scoping review protocol that aims to identify which LMICs have included DR in their national DM, non-communicable disease or prevention of blindness plans. The scoping review also aims to assess gaps when implementing national DR screening programmes in LMICs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This scoping review will follow the Arksey and O'Malley (2005) methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Review guidelines. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature will be conducted from October 1989 (St. Vincent Declaration) to February 2020. Studies will be identified from electronic databases; Medline, Embase and CENTRAL (Cochrane Library). To identify further relevant articles, a hand search will be conducted using the reference lists of included studies. Two reviewers will independently screen records for relevant data and disagreements about eligibility will be resolved through consensus or arbitration by a third reviewer. A quantitative analysis will be performed to highlight key findings and thematic analysis will be used to identify emerging themes and subthemes from included studies. The key themes will highlight countries progress in terms of national-level DR service planning and screening implementation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:No ethical approval is required because the scoping review methodology aims to synthesise information from publicly available resources. The results will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publication.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Colorectal cancer (CRC) imposes a significant global burden of disease. CRC survival rates are much lower in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Screening tends to lead to an improvement in cancer detection and the uptake of available treatments and, in turn, to better chances of cancer survival. Most evidence on CRC screening interventions comes from high-income countries. The objective of this scoping review is to map the available literature on the implementation of CRC screening interventions in LMICs.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>We will conduct a scoping review according to the framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley (2005). We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using a combination of terms such as "colorectal cancer", "screening" and "low-middle-income countries". Studies of CRC screening interventions/programmes conducted in the general adult population in LMICs as well as policy reviews (of interventions in LMICs) and commentaries on challenges and opportunities of delivering CRC screening in LMICs, published in the English language before February 2020 will be included in this review. The title and abstract screen will be conducted by one reviewer and two reviewers will screen full-texts and extract data from included papers, independently, into a data charting template that will include criteria from an adapted template for intervention description and replication checklist and implementation considerations. The presentation of the scoping review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews guidance.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>There are no ethical concerns. The results will be used to inform colorectal screening interventions in LMICs. We will publish the findings in a peer-reviewed journal and present them at relevant conferences.
Project description:The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 emphasises on reducing neonatal deaths caused by low birth weight (LBW) complications by the implementation and utilisation of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the empirical evidence of KMC optimising low-birth-weight infants' (LBWIs') survival, its advantages and the LMICs implementing the service, studies have shown that LBW infant deaths occurring in LMICs are largely contributing to global child mortality. The aim of this scoping review is to map out the literature on barriers, challenges and facilitators of KMC utilisation by parents with LBWIs.This scoping review will use Endnote X7 reference management software to manage articles. The review search strategy will use SCIELO and LILACS databases. Other databases will be used via EBSCOHost search engine and these are Academic search complete, CINAHL with full text, Education source, Health source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Medline with full text and Medline. We will also use Google Scholar, JSTOR, Open grey search engines and reference lists. A two-phase search mapping out process will be done. In phase 1, one reviewer will perform the title screening and removal of duplicates. Two reviewers will do a parallel abstract screening according to eligibility criteria. Phase 2 will involve the reading of full articles and exclusion of articles, in accordance with the eligibility criteria. Data extraction from the articles will be done by two reviewers independently and parallel to the data extraction form. The data quality assessment of the eligible studies will be done using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The extraction of the synthesised results and thematic content analysis of the studies will be done by NVIVO version 10.We expect to find studies on barriers, challenges and facilitating factors of KMC utilisation by parents with LBWIs in LMICs. The review outcomes will guide future research and practice and inform policy. The findings will be disseminated in print, electronic and conference presentations related to maternal child and neonatal health.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Multimorbidity is the coexistence of two or more chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in a given individual. Multimorbidity is increasing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and challenging health systems. Individuals with multimorbidity are facing the risk of premature mortality, lower quality of life and greater use of healthcare services. However, despite the huge challenge multimorbidity brings in LMICs, gaps remain in mapping and synthesising the available knowledge on the issue. The focus of this scoping review will be to synthesise the extent, range and nature of studies on the epidemiology and models of multimorbidity care in LMICs. METHODS:PubMed (MEDLINE) will be the main database to be searched. For articles that are not indexed in the PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases will be searched. Grey literature databases will also be explored. There will be no restrictions on study setting or year of publication. Articles will be searched using key terms, including comorbidity, co-morbidity, multimorbidity, multiple chronic conditions and model of care. Relevant articles will be screened by two independent reviewers and data will be charted accordingly. The result of this scoping review will be presented using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist and reporting guideline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This scoping review does not require ethical approval. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journal and presented at scientific conferences.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Improving maternal health remains a health priority at the global and national levels. As part of the global strategy, many low/middle-income countries (LMICs) have implemented free primary healthcare policies for different service packages including maternal health. Free maternal healthcare policies aim to improve maternal health by removing the financial burden of accessing maternal healthcare services. The objective of this scoping review is to assess evaluations of free maternal healthcare policies and the impact on maternal health in LMICs. This will help identify theoretical and methodological approaches (or gaps if any) for evaluating the impact of free maternal healthcare policies to inform future work. It will also provide an evidence base for policymakers and other stakeholder with an interest in planning, funding and implementing evidence based and effective interventions to improving maternal health outcomes.<h4>Methods</h4>The scoping review will follow the methodological framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley and refined by Joanna Briggs Institute. It will involve a literature search of the PubMed, Scopus ScienceDirect, Web of Science and CINAHL databases for peer-reviewed journal articles related to the impact of free maternal health policies in LMICs published from 2000 to the present. Two reviewers will screen and appraise eligible articles using preset criteria based on the 'population-concept-context' framework. A data extraction framework will be used to extract and chart data from the reviewed articles. The results will be analysed using descriptive numerical summary analysis and qualitative thematic analysis.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>Ethical approval is not required as the scoping review will synthesise information from publicly available materials. Dissemination will be through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation at relevant conferences and workshops.
Project description:There is growing interest in how different forms of knowledge can strengthen policy-making in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) health systems. Additionally, health policy and systems researchers are increasingly aware of the need to design effective institutions for supporting knowledge utilisation in LMICs. To address these interwoven agendas, this scoping review uses the Arskey and O'Malley framework to review the literature on knowledge utilisation in LMIC health systems, using eight public health and social science databases. Articles that described the process for how knowledge was used in policy-making, specified the type of knowledge used, identified actors involved (individual, organisation or professional), and were set in specific LMICs were included. A total of 53 articles, from 1999 to 2016 and representing 56 countries, were identified. The majority of articles in this review presented knowledge utilisation as utilisation of research findings, and to a lesser extent routine health system data, survey data and technical advice. Most of the articles centered on domestic public sector employees and their interactions with civil society representatives, international stakeholders or academics in utilising epistemic knowledge for policy-making in LMICs. Furthermore, nearly all of the articles identified normative dimensions of institutionalisation. While there is some evidence of how different uses and institutionalisation of knowledge can strengthen health systems, the evidence on how these processes can ultimately improve health outcomes remains unclear. Further research on the ways in which knowledge can be effectively utilised and institutionalised is needed to advance the collective understanding of health systems strengthening and enhance evidence-informed policy formulation.
Project description:Food environment research is increasingly gaining prominence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, in the absence of a systematic review of the literature, little is known about the emerging body of evidence from these settings. This systematic scoping review aims to address this gap. A systematic search of 6 databases was conducted in December 2017 and retrieved 920 records. In total, 70 peer-reviewed articles met the eligibility criteria and were included. Collectively, articles spanned 22 LMICs, including upper-middle-income countries (n = 49, 70%) and lower-middle-income countries (n = 18, 26%). No articles included low-income countries. Articles featured quantitative (n = 45, 64%), qualitative (n = 17, 24%), and mixed-method designs (n = 11, 8%). Studies analyzed the food environment at national, community, school, and household scales. Twenty-three articles (55%) assessed associations between food environment exposures and outcomes of interest, including diets (n = 14), nutrition status (n = 13), and health (n = 1). Food availability was associated with dietary outcomes at the community and school scales across multiple LMICs, although associations varied by vendor type. Evidence regarding associations between the food environment and nutrition and health outcomes was inconclusive. The paucity of evidence from high-quality studies is a severe limitation, highlighting the critical need for improved study designs and standardized methods and metrics. Future food environment research must address low-income and lower-middle-income countries, and include the full spectrum of dietary, nutrition, and health outcomes. Improving the quality of food environment research will be critical to the design of feasible, appropriate, and effective interventions to improve public health nutrition in LMICs.
Project description:Background: The burden of mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) disorders is greater in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The rapid growth of digital health (i.e., eHealth) approaches offer new solutions for transforming pediatric mental health services and have the potential to address multiple resource and system barriers. However, little work has been done in applying eHealth to promote young children's mental health in LMICs. It is also not clear how eHealth has been and might be applied to translating existing evidence-based practices/strategies (EBPs) to enable broader access to child mental health interventions and services. Methods: A scoping review was conducted to summarize current eHealth applications and evidence in child mental health. The review focuses on 1) providing an overview of existing eHealth applications, research methods, and effectiveness evidence in child mental health promotion (focused on children of 0-12 years of age) across diverse service contexts; and 2) drawing lessons learned from the existing research about eHealth design strategies and usability data in order to inform future eHealth design in LMICs. Results: Thirty-two (32) articles fitting our inclusion criteria were reviewed. The child mental health eHealth studies were grouped into three areas: i) eHealth interventions targeting families that promote child and family wellbeing; ii) eHealth for improving school mental health services (e.g., promote school staff's knowledge and management skills); and iii) eHealth for improving behavioral health care in the pediatric care system (e.g., promote use of integrated patient-portal and electronic decision support systems). Most eHealth studies have reported positive impacts. Although most pediatric eHealth studies were conducted in high-income countries, many eHealth design strategies can be adapted and modified to fit LMIC contexts. Most user-engagement strategies identified from high-income countries are also relevant for populations in LMICs. Conclusions: This review synthesizes patterns of eHealth use across a spectrum of individual/family and system level of eHealth interventions that can be applied to promote child mental health and strengthen mental health service systems. This review also summarizes critical lessons to guide future eHealth design and delivery models in LMICs. However, more research in testing combinations of eHealth strategies in LMICs is needed.