Blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and risk of erectile dysfunction in men with type I diabetes.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To gain insight into the effect of blood pressure on the pathophysiology of diabetic erectile dysfunction, we determined the onset, severity and treatment of hypertension and risk of incident erectile dysfunction in men with type I diabetes. METHODS:This prospective cohort study included 692 men without prevalent erectile dysfunction in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. Erectile dysfunction was assessed yearly for 16 years with a single question querying presence of impotence. Multivariable cox proportional hazards models examined associations of hypertension variables with risk for incident erectile dysfunction. RESULTS:Over 7762 person-years of follow-up, 337 of 692 men reported incident erectile dysfunction representing an unadjusted rate of 43.4 cases per 1000 person-years. Risk of erectile dysfunction significantly increased with each 10?mmHg of SBP elevation for those not taking antihypertensive medications, after adjustment for age, cigarette smoking and HbA1c levels [relative risk (RR)?=?1.21, 95% CI?=?1.04-1.41]. This relationship disappeared among those reporting antihypertensive medication use (RR?=?0.96, 95% CI?=?0.84-1.10) and the interaction between SBP and medication use was statistically significant (P?=?0.02). Antihypertensive medication did not confer any reduction of erectile dysfunction risk, with similar rates across all measures of blood pressure and hypertension. CONCLUSION:Among men with type 1 diabetes not using antihypertensive medications, higher SBP is associated with increased risk of developing erectile dysfunction. These findings provide evidence to support further investigation into the potential benefit of early blood pressure control on risk of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes regardless of age, blood pressure level, or glycemic control.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Erectile function, an important aspect of quality of life, is gaining increased research and clinical attention in older men with hypertension. AIM:To assess the cross-sectional association between blood pressure measures (systolic blood pressure [SBP]; diastolic blood pressure [DBP]; and pulse pressure [PP]) and (i) sexual activity and (ii) erectile function in hypertensive men. METHODS:We performed analyses of 1,255 male participants in a larger randomized clinical trial of 9,361 men and women with hypertension aged ?50 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The main outcome measures were self-reported sexual activity (yes/no) and erectile function using the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). RESULTS:857 participants (68.3%) reported being sexually active during the previous 4 weeks. The mean (SD) IIEF-5 score for sexually active participants was 18.0 (5.8), and 59.9% of the sample reported an IIEF-5 score <21, suggesting erectile dysfunction (ED). In adjusted logistic regression models, neither SBP (adjusted odds ratio = 0.998; P = .707) nor DBP (adjusted odds ratio = 1.001; P = .929) was significantly associated with sexual activity. In multivariable linear regression analyses in sexually active participants, lower SBP (? = -0.04; P = .025) and higher DBP (? = 0.05; P = .029) were associated with better erectile function. In additional multivariable analyses, lower PP pressure was associated with better erectile function (? = -0.04; P = .02). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS:Blood pressure is an important consideration in the assessment of erectile function in men with hypertension. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS:Assessments of blood pressure and clinical and psychosocial variables were performed using rigorous methods in this multi-ethnic and geographically diverse sample. However, these cross-sectional analyses did not include assessment of androgen or testosterone levels. CONCLUSIONS:Erectile dysfunction was highly prevalent in this sample of men with hypertension, and SBP, DBP, and PP were associated with erectile function in this sample. Foy CG, Newman JC, Berlowitz DR, et al. Blood Pressure, Sexual Activity, and Erectile Function in Hypertensive Men: Baseline Findings from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). J Sex Med 2019;16:235-247.
Project description:Importance:Erectile dysfunction, especially in younger men, is an early sign of cardiovascular disease and may decrease quality of life. Men may be motivated to adopt a healthy dietary pattern if it lowers their risk of erectile dysfunction. Objective:To assess the association between adherence to a diet quality index based on healthy dietary patterns and erectile dysfunction in men. Design, Setting, and Participants:This population-based prospective cohort study included men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study with follow-up from January 1, 1998, through January 1, 2014. Participants included US male health professionals aged 40 to 75 years at enrollment. Men with erectile dysfunction or a diagnosis of myocardial infarction, diabetes, stroke, or genitourinary cancer at baseline were excluded. Analyses were completed in February 2020. Exposures:A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine nutrient and food intake every 4 years. Main Outcomes and Measures:Diet quality was assessed by Mediterranean Diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 score, with higher scores indicating healthier diet. Dietary index scores were cumulatively updated from 1986 until men developed erectile dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, died, or were lost to follow-up. Incident erectile dysfunction was assessed with questionnaires in 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) by prespecified categories or quintiles of dietary index scores were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses stratified by age. Results:Among 21?469 men included in analysis, mean (SD) age at baseline was 62 (8.4) years. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 10.8 (5.4) years and 232?522 person-years, there were 968 incident erectile dysfunction cases among men younger than 60 years, 3703 cases among men aged 60 to less than 70 years, and 4793 cases among men aged 70 years or older. Men younger than 60 years and in the highest category of the Mediterranean Diet score had the lowest relative risk of incident erectile dysfunction compared with men in the lowest category (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.92). Higher Mediterranean diet scores were also inversely associated with incident erectile dysfunction among older men (age 60 to <70 years: HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.89; age ?70 years: HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00). Men scoring in the highest quintile of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 also had a lower risk of incident erectile dysfunction, particularly among men age younger than 60 years (quintile 5 vs quintile 1: HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63-0.97). Conclusions and Relevance:This cohort study found that adherence to healthy dietary patterns was associated with a lower risk for erectile dysfunction, suggesting that a healthy dietary pattern may play a role in maintaining erectile health.
Project description:The exact form of the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart failure (HF) risk in the elderly remains incompletely defined, especially in individuals not receiving antihypertensive drugs.To examine the association between SBP and HF risk in the elderly.Competing-risks proportional hazards modelling of incident HF risk, using 10-year follow-up data from two NIH-sponsored cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study (inception: 1989-90 and 1992-3) and the Health ABC Study (inception: 1997-8).Community-based cohorts.4408 participants (age, 72.8 (4.9) years; 53.1% women, 81.7% white; 18.3% black) without prevalent HF and not receiving antihypertensive drugs at baseline.Incident HF, defined as first adjudicated hospitalisation for HF.Over 10 years, 493 (11.2%) participants developed HF. Prehypertension (120-139 mm Hg), stage 1 (140-159 mm Hg), and stage 2 (?160 mm Hg) hypertension were associated with escalating HF risk; HRs versus optimal SBP (<120 mm Hg) in competing-risks models controlling for clinical characteristics were 1.63 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.16; p=0.001), 2.21 (95% CI 1.65 to 2.96; p<0.001) and 2.60 (95% CI 1.85 to 3.64; p<0.001), respectively. Overall 255/493 (51.7%) HF events occurred in participants with SBP <140 mm Hg at baseline. Increasing SBP was associated with higher HF risk in women than in men; no race-SBP interaction was seen. In analyses with continuous SBP, HF risk had a continuous positive association with SBP to levels as low as 113 mm Hg in men and 112 mm Hg in women.There is a continuous positive association between SBP and HF risk in the elderly for levels of SBP as low as <115 mm Hg; over half of incident HF events occur in individuals with SBP <140 mm Hg.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The link between type 2 diabetes and hypertension is well established and the conditions often coexist. High normal blood pressure, defined by WHO-ISH as systolic blood pressure (SBP) 130-139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 85-89 mm Hg, has been found to be an independent predictor for type 2 diabetes in studies, although with relatively limited follow-up periods of approximately 10 years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypertension, including mildly elevated blood pressure within the normal range, predicted subsequent development of type 2 diabetes in men over an extended follow-up of 35 years. METHODS: Data were derived from the Gothenburg Primary Prevention Study where a random sample of 7 494 men aged 47-55 years underwent a baseline screening investigation in the period 1970-1973. A total of 7 333 men were free from previous history of diabetes at baseline. During a 35-year follow-up diabetes was identified through the Swedish hospital discharge and death registries. The cumulative risk of diabetes adjusted for age and competing risk of death was calculated. Using Cox proportional hazard models we calculated the multiple adjusted hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) for diabetes at different blood pressure levels. RESULTS: During a 35-year follow-up, 956 men (13%) were identified with diabetes. The 35-year cumulative risk of diabetes after adjusting for age and competing risk of death in men with SBP levels <130 mm Hg, 130-139 mm Hg, 140-159 mm Hg and ?160 mm Hg were 19%, 30%, 31% and 49%, respectively. The HR for diabetes adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, antihypertensive treatment, smoking, physical activity and occupation were 1.43 (95% CI 1.12-1.84), 1.43 (95% CI 1.14-1.79) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.55-2.46) for men with SBP 130-139 mm Hg, 140-159 mm Hg, and ? 160 mm Hg, respectively (reference; SBP<130 mm Hg). CONCLUSION: In this population, at mid-life, even high-normal SBP levels were shown to be a significant predictor of type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI and other conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors over an extended follow-up.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Erectile dysfunction is an emerging risk marker for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events; however, evidence on dose response and specific CVD outcomes is limited. This study investigates the relationship between severity of erectile dysfunction and specific CVD outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We conducted a prospective population-based Australian study (the 45 and Up Study) linking questionnaire data from 2006-2009 with hospitalisation and death data to 30 June and 31 Dec 2010 respectively for 95,038 men aged ?45 y. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship of reported severity of erectile dysfunction to all-cause mortality and first CVD-related hospitalisation since baseline in men with and without previous CVD, adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, marital status, income, education, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia treatment. There were 7,855 incident admissions for CVD and 2,304 deaths during follow-up (mean time from recruitment, 2.2 y for CVD admission and 2.8 y for mortality). Risks of CVD and death increased steadily with severity of erectile dysfunction. Among men without previous CVD, those with severe versus no erectile dysfunction had significantly increased risks of ischaemic heart disease (adjusted relative risk [RR]?=?1.60, 95% CI 1.31-1.95), heart failure (8.00, 2.64-24.2), peripheral vascular disease (1.92, 1.12-3.29), "other" CVD (1.26, 1.05-1.51), all CVD combined (1.35, 1.19-1.53), and all-cause mortality (1.93, 1.52-2.44). For men with previous CVD, corresponding RRs (95% CI) were 1.70 (1.46-1.98), 4.40 (2.64-7.33), 2.46 (1.63-3.70), 1.40 (1.21-1.63), 1.64 (1.48-1.81), and 2.37 (1.87-3.01), respectively. Among men without previous CVD, RRs of more specific CVDs increased significantly with severe versus no erectile dysfunction, including acute myocardial infarction (1.66, 1.22-2.26), atrioventricular and left bundle branch block (6.62, 1.86-23.56), and (peripheral) atherosclerosis (2.47, 1.18-5.15), with no significant difference in risk for conditions such as primary hypertension (0.61, 0.16-2.35) and intracerebral haemorrhage (0.78, 0.20-2.97). CONCLUSIONS:These findings give support for CVD risk assessment in men with erectile dysfunction who have not already undergone assessment. The utility of erectile dysfunction as a clinical risk prediction tool requires specific testing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Data from before the 2000s indicate that the majority of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occur among US adults with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) ?140/90 mm?Hg. Over the past several decades, BP has declined and hypertension control has improved. METHODS:We estimated the percentage of incident CVD events that occur at SBP/DBP <140/90 mm?Hg in a pooled analysis of 3 contemporary US cohorts: the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke), the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) (n=31?856; REGARDS=21?208; MESA=6779; JHS=3869). Baseline study visits were conducted in 2003 to 2007 for REGARDS, 2000 to 2002 for MESA, and 2000 to 2004 for JHS. BP was measured by trained staff using standardized methods. Antihypertensive medication use was self-reported. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined by the first occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, or heart failure. Events were adjudicated in each study. RESULTS:Over a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, 2584 participants had incident CVD events. Overall, 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.9-71.1) of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP <140/90 mm?Hg; 58.4% (95% CI, 47.7-69.2) and 68.1% (95% CI, 60.1-76.0) among those taking and not taking antihypertensive medication, respectively. The majority of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP <140/90 mm?Hg among those <65 years of age (66.7%; 95% CI, 60.5-73.0) and ?65 years of age (60.3%; 95% CI, 51.0-69.5), women (61.4%; 95% CI, 49.9-72.9) and men (63.8%; 95% CI, 58.4-69.1), and for whites (68.7%; 95% CI, 66.1-71.3), blacks (59.0%; 95% CI, 49.5-68.6), Hispanics (52.7%; 95% CI, 45.1-60.4), and Chinese-Americans (58.5%; 95% CI, 45.2-71.8). Among participants taking antihypertensive medication with SBP/DBP <140/90 mm?Hg, 76.6% (95% CI, 75.8-77.5) were eligible for statin treatment, but only 33.2% (95% CI, 32.1-34.3) were taking one, and 19.5% (95% CI, 18.5-20.5) met the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) eligibility criteria and may benefit from a SBP target goal of 120 mm?Hg. CONCLUSIONS:Although higher BP levels are associated with increased CVD risk, in the modern era, the majority of incident CVD events occur in US adults with SBP/DBP <140/90 mm?Hg. While absolute risk and cost-effectiveness should be considered, additional CVD risk-reduction measures for adults with SBP/DBP <140/90 mm?Hg at high risk for CVD may be warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although several risk factors for erectile dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, data on the actual prevalence and cause of erectile dysfunction is limited. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) is a well-validated survey to determine the presence and severity of erectile dysfunction in men. We assessed (i) the prevalence and severity of erectile dysfunction, and (ii) risk factors for erectile dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS:In this prospective study, erectile dysfunction was defined as: absent (>21 IIEF-5-points), mild (12-21) and severe (5-11). Patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy, active alcohol abuse, extrahepatic malignancy, previous urologic surgery, previous liver transplantation and severe cardiac conditions were excluded. RESULTS:Among n = 151 screened patients, n = 41 met exclusion criteria and n = 30 were sexually inactive. Thus, a final number of n = 80 male patients with cirrhosis were included. Patient characteristics: age: 53 ± 9 years; model for end-stage liver disease score (MELD): 12.7 ± 3.9; Child-Pugh score (CPS) A: 30 (37.5%), B: 35 (43.8%), C: 15 (18.7%); alcohol: 38 (47.5%), viral: 25 (31.3%), alcohol/viral: 7 (8.8%) and others: 10 (12.5%). The presence of erectile dysfunction was found in 51 (63.8%) patients with 44 (55%) and 7 (8.8%) suffering from mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe erectile dysfunction. Mean MELD and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) were significantly higher in patients with erectile dysfunction (P = .021; P = .028). Child-Pugh score C, MELD, creatinine, age, arterial hypertension, diabetes, low libido, low testosterone and high HVPG were associated with the presence of erectile dysfunction. Interestingly, beta-blocker therapy was not associated with an increased risk. In multivariate models, arterial hypertension (OR: 6.36 [1.16-34.85]; P = .033), diabetes (OR: 7.40 [1.31-41.75]; P = .023), MELD (OR: 1.19 [1.03-1.36]; P = .015) and increasing HVPG (n = 48; OR: 1.11 [1.002-1.23]; P = .045) were independent risk factors for the presence of erectile dysfunction. CONCLUSION:About two-thirds of male patients with cirrhosis show erectile dysfunction. Severity of liver dysfunction, portal hypertension, arterial hypertension and diabetes were identified as risk factors for erectile dysfunction.
Project description:Men with erectile dysfunction often have concurrent medical conditions. Conversely, men with these conditions may also have underlying erectile dysfunction. The prevalence of unrecognized erectile dysfunction in men with comorbidities commonly associated with erectile dysfunction was determined in men invited to participate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sildenafil citrate.Men ?30 years old presenting with ?1 erectile dysfunction risk factor (controlled hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes, depression, lower urinary tract symptoms, obesity [body mass index ?30 kg/m2] or waist circumference ?40 inches), and not previously diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were evaluated. The screening question, "Do you have erectile dysfunction?," with responses of "no," "yes," and "unsure," and the Erectile Function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) were administered.Of 1084 men screened, 1053 answered the screening question and also had IIEF-EF scores. IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction occurred in 71% (744/1053), of whom 54% (399/744) had moderate or severe erectile dysfunction. Of 139 answering "yes," 526 answering "unsure," and 388 answering "no," 96%, 90%, and 36%, respectively, had some degree of erectile dysfunction. The mean±SD (range) number of risk factors was 2.9 ± 1.7 (3-8) in the "yes" group, 3.2 ± 1.7 (3-9) in the "unsure" group, and 2.6 ± 1.5 (2-8) in the "no" group.Although awareness of having erectile dysfunction was low, most men with risk factors had IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction should be suspected and assessed in men with risk factors, regardless of their apparent level of awareness of erectile dysfunction.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00343200.
Project description:We determined whether intensive glycemic therapy reduces the risk of erectile dysfunction in men with type 1 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial randomized 761 men with type 1 diabetes to intensive or conventional glycemic therapy at 28 sites between 1983 and 1989, of whom 366 had diabetes for 1 to 5 years and no microvascular complications (primary prevention cohort), and 395 had diabetes for 1 to 15 years with nonproliferative retinopathy or microalbuminuria (secondary intervention cohort). Subjects were treated until 1993, and followed in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. In 2003 we conducted an ancillary study using a validated assessment of erectile dysfunction in 571 men (80% participation rate), 291 in the primary cohort and 280 in the secondary cohort.Of the participants 23% reported erectile dysfunction. The prevalence was significantly lower in the intensive vs conventional treatment group in the secondary cohort (12.8% vs 30.8%, p = 0.001) but not in the primary cohort (17% vs 20.3%, p = 0.49). The risk of erectile dysfunction in primary and secondary cohorts was directly associated with mean HbA1c during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, and Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications combined. Age, peripheral neuropathy and lower urinary tract symptoms were other risk factors.A period of intensive therapy significantly reduced the prevalence of erectile dysfunction 10 years later among those men in the secondary intervention cohort but not in the primary prevention cohort. Higher HbA1c was significantly associated with risk in both cohorts. These findings provide further support for early implementation of intensive insulin therapy in young men with type 1 diabetes.
Project description:We evaluated the association between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, and erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in men with type 1 diabetes.Male type 1 diabetes participants (635) in the DCCT/EDIC were studied. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was assessed by standardized cardiovascular reflex tests including changes in respiratory rate variation with deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver (Valsalva ratio) and changes in supine to standing diastolic blood pressure. Erectile dysfunction was assessed by a proxy item from the International Index of Erectile Function, and lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed with the AUASI (American Urological Association Symptom Index). Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the association between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and erectile dysfunction and/or lower urinary tract symptoms, adjusting for time weighted glycemic control, blood pressure, age and other covariates.Men in whom erectile dysfunction and/or lower urinary tract symptoms developed during EDIC had a significantly lower respiratory rate variation and Valsalva ratio at DCCT closeout and EDIC year 16/17 compared to those without erectile dysfunction or lower urinary tract symptoms. In adjusted analysis, participants with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy had 2.65 greater odds of erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms (95% CI 1.47-4.79).These data suggest that cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy predicts the development of urological complications in men with long-standing type 1 diabetes. Studies evaluating the mechanisms contributing to these interactions are warranted for targeting effective prevention or treatment.