Reinforcement Quantum Annealing: A Hybrid Quantum Learning Automata.
ABSTRACT: We introduce the notion of reinforcement quantum annealing (RQA) scheme in which an intelligent agent searches in the space of Hamiltonians and interacts with a quantum annealer that plays the stochastic environment role of learning automata. At each iteration of RQA, after analyzing results (samples) from the previous iteration, the agent adjusts the penalty of unsatisfied constraints and re-casts the given problem to a new Ising Hamiltonian. As a proof-of-concept, we propose a novel approach for casting the problem of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) to Ising Hamiltonians and show how to apply the RQA for increasing the probability of finding the global optimum. Our experimental results on two different benchmark SAT problems (namely factoring pseudo-prime numbers and random SAT with phase transitions), using a D-Wave 2000Q quantum processor, demonstrated that RQA finds notably better solutions with fewer samples, compared to the best-known techniques in the realm of quantum annealing.
Project description:Quantum annealing aims at solving combinatorial optimization problems mapped to Ising interactions between quantum spins. Here, with the objective of developing a noise-resilient annealer, we propose a paradigm for quantum annealing with a scalable network of two-photon-driven Kerr-nonlinear resonators. Each resonator encodes an Ising spin in a robust degenerate subspace formed by two coherent states of opposite phases. A fully connected optimization problem is mapped to local fields driving the resonators, which are connected with only local four-body interactions. We describe an adiabatic annealing protocol in this system and analyse its performance in the presence of photon loss. Numerical simulations indicate substantial resilience to this noise channel, leading to a high success probability for quantum annealing. Finally, we propose a realistic circuit QED implementation of this promising platform for implementing a large-scale quantum Ising machine.
Project description:Physical annealing systems provide heuristic approaches to solving combinatorial optimization problems. Here, we benchmark two types of annealing machines-a quantum annealer built by D-Wave Systems and measurement-feedback coherent Ising machines (CIMs) based on optical parametric oscillators-on two problem classes, the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model and MAX-CUT. The D-Wave quantum annealer outperforms the CIMs on MAX-CUT on cubic graphs. On denser problems, however, we observe an exponential penalty for the quantum annealer [exp(-αDW N 2)] relative to CIMs [exp(-αCIM N)] for fixed anneal times, both on the SK model and on 50% edge density MAX-CUT. This leads to a several orders of magnitude time-to-solution difference for instances with over 50 vertices. An optimal-annealing time analysis is also consistent with a substantial projected performance difference. The difference in performance between the sparsely connected D-Wave machine and the fully-connected CIMs provides strong experimental support for efforts to increase the connectivity of quantum annealers.
Project description:Here we consider using quantum annealing to solve Set Cover with Pairs (SCP), an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that plays an important role in networking, computational biology, and biochemistry. We show an explicit construction of Ising Hamiltonians whose ground states encode the solution of SCP instances. We numerically simulate the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in order to test the performance of quantum annealing for random instances and compare with that of simulated annealing. We also discuss explicit embedding strategies for realizing our Hamiltonian construction on the D-wave type restricted Ising Hamiltonian based on Chimera graphs. Our embedding on the Chimera graph preserves the structure of the original SCP instance and in particular, the embedding for general complete bipartite graphs and logical disjunctions may be of broader use than that the specific problem we deal with.
Project description:Quantum annealing is a generic solver for optimization problems that uses fictitious quantum fluctuation. The most groundbreaking progress in the research field of quantum annealing is its hardware implementation, i.e., the so-called quantum annealer, using artificial spins. However, the connectivity between the artificial spins is sparse and limited on a special network known as the chimera graph. Several embedding techniques have been proposed, but the number of logical spins, which represents the optimization problems to be solved, is drastically reduced. In particular, an optimization problem including fully or even partly connected spins suffers from low embeddable size on the chimera graph. In the present study, we propose an alternative approach to solve a large-scale optimization problem on the chimera graph via a well-known method in statistical mechanics called the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation or its variants. The proposed method can be used to deal with a fully connected Ising model without embedding on the chimera graph and leads to nontrivial results of the optimization problem. We tested the proposed method with a number of partition problems involving solving linear equations and the traffic flow optimization problem in Sendai and Kyoto cities in Japan.
Project description:We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.
Project description:Transcription factors regulate gene expression, but how these proteins recognize and specifically bind to their DNA targets is still debated. Machine learning models are effective means to reveal interaction mechanisms. Here we studied the ability of a quantum machine learning approach to predict binding specificity. Using simplified datasets of a small number of DNA sequences derived from actual binding affinity experiments, we trained a commercially available quantum annealer to classify and rank transcription factor binding. The results were compared to state-of-the-art classical approaches for the same simplified datasets, including simulated annealing, simulated quantum annealing, multiple linear regression, LASSO, and extreme gradient boosting. Despite technological limitations, we find a slight advantage in classification performance and nearly equal ranking performance using the quantum annealer for these fairly small training data sets. Thus, we propose that quantum annealing might be an effective method to implement machine learning for certain computational biology problems.
Project description:The debate around the potential superiority of quantum annealers over their classical counterparts has been ongoing since the inception of the field. Recent technological breakthroughs, which have led to the manufacture of experimental prototypes of quantum annealing optimizers with sizes approaching the practical regime, have reignited this discussion. However, the demonstration of quantum annealing speedups remains to this day an elusive albeit coveted goal. We examine the power of quantum annealers to provide a different type of quantum enhancement of practical relevance, namely, their ability to serve as useful samplers from the ground-state manifolds of combinatorial optimization problems. We study, both numerically by simulating stoquastic and non-stoquastic quantum annealing processes, and experimentally, using a prototypical quantum annealing processor, the ability of quantum annealers to sample the ground-states of spin glasses differently than thermal samplers. We demonstrate that (i) quantum annealers sample the ground-state manifolds of spin glasses very differently than thermal optimizers (ii) the nature of the quantum fluctuations driving the annealing process has a decisive effect on the final distribution, and (iii) the experimental quantum annealer samples ground-state manifolds significantly differently than thermal and ideal quantum annealers. We illustrate how quantum annealers may serve as powerful tools when complementing standard sampling algorithms.
Project description:Quantum annealing (QA) serves as a specialized optimizer that is able to solve many NP-hard problems and that is believed to have a theoretical advantage over simulated annealing (SA) via quantum tunneling. With the introduction of the D-Wave programmable quantum annealer, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted to detect and quantify quantum speedup. While the debate over speedup remains inconclusive as of now, instead of attempting to show general quantum advantage, here, we focus on a novel real-world application of D-Wave in wireless networking-more specifically, the scheduling of the activation of the air-links for maximum throughput subject to interference avoidance near network nodes. In addition, D-Wave implementation is made error insensitive by a novel Hamiltonian extra penalty weight adjustment that enlarges the gap and substantially reduces the occurrence of interference violations resulting from inevitable spin bias and coupling errors. The major result of this paper is that quantum annealing benefits more than simulated annealing from this gap expansion process, both in terms of ST99 speedup and network queue occupancy. It is the hope that this could become a real-word application niche where potential benefits of quantum annealing could be objectively assessed.
Project description:We introduce Q-Nash, a quantum annealing algorithm for the NP-complete problem of finding pure Nash equilibria in graphical games. The algorithm consists of two phases. The first phase determines all combinations of best response strategies for each player using classical computation. The second phase finds pure Nash equilibria using a quantum annealing device by mapping the computed combinations to a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization formulation based on the Set Cover problem. We empirically evaluate Q-Nash on D-Wave’s Quantum Annealer 2000Q using different graphical game topologies. The results with respect to solution quality and computing time are compared to a Brute Force algorithm and the Iterated Best Response heuristic.
Project description:Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra.