Virucidal Efficacy of Olanexidine Gluconate as a Hand Antiseptic Against Human Norovirus.
ABSTRACT: Human noroviruses are the major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since no therapeutic agent has been proven to prevent human norovirus infection yet, preventive healthcare interventions to block the infection routes play an important role in infection control. One of the possible infection routes of human noroviruses are through contaminated hands, but no hand antiseptics have been proven effective. Olanexidine gluconate is a new biguanide compound that has already been approved for sale as an antiseptic for the surgical field in Japan. A new hand antiseptic was developed using olanexidine gluconate in this study, and its virucidal efficacy against human noroviruses was evaluated using modified RT-qPCR that can account for genome derived from intact viruses using RNase A and photo-reactive intercalators. We tested the virucidal efficacy of five materials; two olanexidine gluconate antiseptics (hand rub formulation and surgical field formulation), two kinds of ethanol solutions at different pH (approx. 3 or 7), and a base component of olanexidine gluconate hand rub formulation against 11 human norovirus genotypes by culture-independent methods. The infectivity of murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, was significantly reduced after use of the antiseptics. The olanexidine gluconate hand rub demonstrated the strongest virucidal efficacy against human norovirus among the five tested materials. This study showed that olanexidine gluconate has the potential to become a strong tool for the prevention of human norovirus infection.
Project description:Facing the lack in specific antiviral treatment, it is necessary to develop new means of prevention. In the case of the Coronaviridae this family is now recognized as including potent human pathogens causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections as well as nosocomial ones. Within the purpose of developing new antiseptics molecules, the antiseptic virucidal activity of two calixarene derivatives, the tetra-para-sulfonato-calixarene (CS) and the 1,3-bis(bithiazolyl)-tetra-para-sulfonato-calixarene (CS-BTZ) were evaluated toward the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV 229E). Comparing these results with some obtained previously with chlorhexidine and hexamidine, (i) these two calixarenes did not show any cytotoxicity contrary to chlorhexidine and hexamidine, (ii) CS showed as did hexamidine, a very weak activity against HCoV 229E, and (iii) the CS-BTZ showed a stronger activity than chlorhexidine, i.e. 2.7 and 1.4log?? reduction in viral titer after 5min of contact with 10?³mol L?¹ solutions of CS-BTZ and chlorhexidine, respectively. Thus, the CS-BTZ appeared as a promising virucidal (antiseptic) molecule.
Project description:Alcohol-based disinfectants are widely used for the sanitization of microorganisms, especially those that cause infectious diseases, including viruses. However, since the germicidal mechanism of alcohol is lipolysis, alcohol-based disinfectants appear to have a minimal effect on non-enveloped viruses, such as noroviruses. Because there is no cultivation method for human norovirus (HuNoV) in vitro, murine norovirus and feline calicivirus have been used as surrogates for HuNoV to analyze the efficacy of disinfectant regents. Therefore, whether these disinfectants and their conditions are effective against HuNoVs remain unknown. In this study, we report that ethanol or isopropanol alone can sufficiently suppress GII.4 genotype HuNoV replication in human iPSC-derived intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, pH adjustments and salting-out may contribute toward the virucidal effect of alcohol against other HuNoV genotypes and cancel the impediment of organic substance contamination, respectively. Therefore, similar to sodium hypochlorite, alcohol-based disinfectants containing electrolytes can be used for HuNoV inactivation.
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is considered a major public health problem worldwide, and a significant number of reports on nosocomial and occupational outbreaks have been reported. This systematic investigation of HBV stability and susceptibility to different antiseptics revealed that HBV infectivity was very stable, with a half-life of >22 days at 37°C. At 4°C, infectivity was barely reduced for up to 9 months. Different alcohols and commercially available hand antiseptics had a virucidal effect against HBV. We propose that very strict compliance with established hygienic guidelines should be mandatory to avoid and prevent HBV infections.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:As of 22 June 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV)-2 has infected more than 8.95 million people worldwide, causing?>?468,000 deaths. The virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and physical contact from contaminated surfaces to the mucosa. Hand hygiene and oral decontamination among other measures are key to preventing the spread of the virus. We report the in vitro virucidal activity of topical and oral povidone-iodine (PVP-I) products against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS:Suspension assays were used to assess the virucidal activity of PVP-I against SARS-CoV-2. Products were tested at a contact time of 30 s for virucidal activity. Viral titres were calculated using the Spearman-Kärber method and reported as median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL. RESULTS:All four products [antiseptic solution (PVP-I 10%), skin cleanser (PVP-I 7.5%), gargle and mouth wash (PVP-I 1%) and throat spray (PVP-I 0.45%)] achieved???99.99% virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2, corresponding to???4 log10 reduction of virus titre, within 30 s of contact. CONCLUSION:This study provides evidence of rapid and effective virucidal activity of PVP-I against SARS-CoV-2. PVP-I-based products are widely available for medical and personal use for hand hygiene and oral decontamination, and could be readily integrated into coronavirus disease, COVID-19, infection control measures in hospital and community settings.
Project description:Human noroviruses are the major viral pathogens of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. These genetically diverse viruses comprise two major genogroups (GI and GII) and approximately 30 genotypes. Noroviruses recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in a diverse, strain-specific manner. Recently the crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of the GI Norwalk virus and the GII VA387 have been determined, which allows us to examine the genetic and structural relationships of the HBGA-binding interfaces of noroviruses with variable HBGA-binding patterns. Our hypothesis is that, if HBGAs are the viral receptors necessary for norovirus infection and spread, their binding interfaces should be under a selection pressure in the evolution of noroviruses.Structural comparison of the HBGA-binding interfaces of the two noroviruses has revealed shared features but significant differences in the location, sequence composition, and HBGA-binding modes. On the other hand, the primary sequences of the HBGA-binding interfaces are highly conserved among strains within each genogroup. The roles of critical residues within the binding sites have been verified by site-directed mutagenesis followed by functional analysis of strains with variable HBGA-binding patterns.Our data indicate that the human HBGAs are an important factor in norovirus evolution. Each of the two major genogroups represents an evolutionary lineage characterized by distinct genetic traits. Functional convergence of strains with the same HBGA targets subsequently resulted in acquisition of analogous HBGA binding interfaces in the two genogroups that share an overall structural similarity, despite their distinct locations and amino acid compositions. On the other hand, divergent evolution may have contributed to the observed overall differences between and within the two lineages. Thus, both divergent and convergent evolution, as well as the polymorphic human HBGAs, likely contribute to the diversity of noroviruses. The finding of genogroup-specific conservation of HBGA binding interfaces will facilitate the development of rational strategies to control and prevent norovirus-associated gastroenteritis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chlorhexidine and parachlorometaxylenol (PCMX) are antiseptics recommended for surgical hand antisepsis. To our knowledge, PCMX has not been evaluated for bactericidal efficacy "in vivo. METHODS:We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial to compare the bacterial loads on fingertips and fingernails under laboratory conditions after use of antiseptic test products, including chlorhexidine digluconate 4%, PCMX 3%, and a reference solution of propan-1-ol 60% (P-1). We assessed bacterial load after a prewash with soft soap, immediately after application of an antiseptic, and 3?hours after application and wearing of sterile, powder-free gloves. Our procedures followed those specified by European Norm (EN) 12791 for evaluating surgical hand antiseptics and using cotton swab for fingertips and fingernails. RESULTS:Chlorhexidine digluconate 4% and PCMX 3% did not decrease bacterial load on the hands. The bactericidal performances of chlorhexidine digluconate 4% and PCMX 3% did not differ significantly. Chlorhexidine digluconate 4% and PCMX 3% increased bacterial load on the fingertips after participants had worn gloves for 3?hours. Fingernails had greater bacterial loads than skin on the fingertips. CONCLUSIONS:Chlorhexidine digluconate 4% and PCMX 3% had similar bactericidal efficacy, but they failed to meet the EN 12791 efficacy standard. Fingernails should be a particular focus of antisepsis in preparation for surgery.The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02500758).
Project description:The cell tropism of human noroviruses and the development of an in vitro infection model remain elusive. Although susceptibility to individual human norovirus strains correlates with an individual's histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) profile, the biological basis of this restriction is unknown. We demonstrate that human and mouse noroviruses infected B cells in vitro and likely in vivo. Human norovirus infection of B cells required the presence of HBGA-expressing enteric bacteria. Furthermore, mouse norovirus replication was reduced in vivo when the intestinal microbiota was depleted by means of oral antibiotic administration. Thus, we have identified B cells as a cellular target of noroviruses and enteric bacteria as a stimulatory factor for norovirus infection, leading to the development of an in vitro infection model for human noroviruses.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus possessing either the smr gene or the qacA/B genes is associated with decreased susceptibility to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and other antiseptics. Previous studies of antiseptic-tolerant staphylococci have focused largely on high-risk populations, and the exact role of health care exposure in the acquisition of these organisms is unclear. We sought to describe the risk factors and features of infection caused by antiseptic-tolerant S. aureus in a general pediatric population. Isolates were selected from an ongoing S. aureus surveillance study. Every third sequential isolate in the year 2014 was selected for inclusion. All isolates underwent PCR for the genes qacA/B and smr Medical records were reviewed. Five hundred six isolates were included in the study, with 377 (74.3%) being community acquired. One hundred (19.8%) isolates were smr positive and 79 (15.6%) qacA/B positive. In univariable analyses, the presence of either gene was associated with underlying medical conditions, nosocomial acquisition, recent hospitalization, central venous lines, and CHG exposure. In multivariable analyses, only differences between patients with chronic medical conditions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 2.64) and nosocomial acquisition (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.16 to 8.17) remained statistically significant. Among patients without risk factors, 27.9% had infection with an antiseptic-tolerant isolate. smr- or qacA/B-positive S. aureus isolates are common in children and are independently associated with nosocomial acquisition and underlying medical conditions. These findings imply a role for the health care environment in acquisition of these organisms. However, genotypic antiseptic tolerance was seen in >25% of healthy children with an S. aureus infection, indicating that these organism are prevalent in the community as well.
Project description:Noroviruses, a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, present antigenic diversity that must be considered for the development of an effective vaccine. In this study, we explored approaches to increase the broad reactivity of virus-like particle (VLP) norovirus vaccine candidates. The immunogenicity of a GII.4 "Consensus" VLP that was engineered from sequences of three genetically distinct naturally occurring GII.4 strains was examined for its ability to induce cross-reactive immune responses against different clusters of GII.4 noroviruses. Rabbits immunized with GII.4 Consensus VLPs developed high serum antibody titers against VLPs derived from a number of distinct wild-type GII.4 viruses, including some that had been circulating over 30 years ago. Because the sera exhibited low cross-reactivity with antigenically distinct GI norovirus strains, we investigated the serum antibody response to a bivalent vaccine formulation containing GI.1 (Norwalk virus) and GII.4 Consensus VLPs that was administered to animals under varying conditions. In these studies, the highest homologous and heterologous antibody titers to the bivalent vaccine were elicited following immunization of animals by the intramuscular route using Alhydrogel (Al(OH)(3)) as adjuvant. Our data indicate that the use of both genetically engineered norovirus VLPs that incorporate relevant epitopes from multiple strains and multivalent vaccine formulations increase the breadth of the immune response to diverse variants within a genotype and, thus, prove helpful in the rational design of VLP-based vaccines against human noroviruses.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Human noroviruses (HuNV) are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HuNV attaches to cell surface carbohydrate structures known as histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) prior to internalization, and HBGA polymorphism among human populations is closely linked to susceptibility to HuNV. Noroviruses are divided into 6 genogroups, with human strains grouped into genogroups I (GI), II, and IV. Canine norovirus (CNV) is a recently discovered pathogen in dogs, with strains classified into genogroups IV and VI. Whereas it is known that GI to GIII noroviruses bind to HBGAs and GV noroviruses recognize terminal sialic acid residues, the attachment factors for GIV and GVI noroviruses have not been reported. This study sought to determine the carbohydrate binding specificity of CNV and to compare it to the binding specificities of noroviruses from other genogroups. A panel of synthetic oligosaccharides were used to assess the binding specificity of CNV virus-like particles (VLPs) and identified ?1,2-fucose as a key attachment factor. CNV VLP binding to canine saliva and tissue samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunohistochemistry confirmed that ?1,2-fucose-containing H and A antigens of the HBGA family were recognized by CNV. Phenotyping studies demonstrated expression of these antigens in a population of dogs. The virus-ligand interaction was further characterized using blockade studies, cell lines expressing HBGAs, and enzymatic removal of candidate carbohydrates from tissue sections. Recognition of HBGAs by CNV provides new insights into the evolution of noroviruses and raises concerns regarding the potential for zoonotic transmission of CNV to humans. IMPORTANCE:Infections with human norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis in millions of people each year worldwide. Noroviruses can also affect nonhuman species and are divided into 6 different groups based on their capsid sequences. Human noroviruses in genogroups I and II interact with histo-blood group antigen carbohydrates, bovine noroviruses (genogroup III) interact with alpha-galactosidase (?-Gal) carbohydrates, and murine norovirus (genogroup V) recognizes sialic acids. The canine-specific strains of norovirus are grouped into genogroups IV and VI, and this study is the first to characterize which carbohydrate structures they can recognize. Using canine norovirus virus-like particles, this work shows that representative genogroup IV and VI viruses can interact with histo-blood group antigens. The binding specificity of canine noroviruses is therefore very similar to that of the human norovirus strains classified into genogroups I and II. This raises interesting questions about the evolution of noroviruses and suggests it may be possible for canine norovirus to infect humans.