VIRMA-Dependent N6-Methyladenosine Modifications Regulate the Expression of Long Non-Coding RNAs CCAT1 and CCAT2 in Prostate Cancer.
ABSTRACT: RNA methylation at position N6 in adenosine (m6A) and its associated methyltransferase complex (MTC) are involved in tumorigenesis. We aimed to explore m6A biological function for long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in prostate cancer (PCa) and its clinical significance. m6A and MTC levels in PCa cells were characterized by ELISA and western blot. Putative m6A-regulated lncRNAs were identified and validated by lncRNA profiler qPCR array and bioinformatics analysis, followed by m6A/RNA co-immunoprecipitation. Impact of m6A depletion on RNA stability was assessed by Actinomycin D assay. The association of m6A-levels with PCa prognosis was examined in clinical samples. Higher m6A-levels and VIRMA overexpression were detected in metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC) cells (p < 0.05). VIRMA knockdown in PC-3 cells significantly decreased m6A-levels (p = 0.0317), attenuated malignant phenotype and suppressed the expression of oncogenic lncRNAs CCAT1 and CCAT2 (p < 0.00001). VIRMA depletion and m6A reduction decreased the stability and abundance of CCAT1/2 transcripts. Higher expression of VIRMA, CCAT1, and CCAT2 as a group variable was an independent predictor of poor prognosis (HR = 9.083, CI95% 1.911-43.183, p = 0.006). VIRMA is a critical factor sustaining m6A-levels in PCa cells. VIRMA downregulation attenuates the aggressive phenotype of PCa by overall reduction of m6A-levels decreasing stability and abundance of oncogenic lncRNAs.
Project description:8q24.21 is a frequently amplified genomic region in colorectal cancer (CRC). This region is often referred to as a 'gene desert' due to lack of any important protein-coding genes, highlighting the potential role of noncoding RNAs, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) located around the proto-oncogene MYC. In this study, we have firstly evaluated the clinical significance of altered expression of lncRNAs mapped to this genomic locus in CRC.A total of 300 tissues, including 280 CRC and 20 adjacent normal mucosa specimens were evaluated for the expression of 12 lncRNAs using qRT-PCR assays. We analyzed the associations between lncRNA expression and various clinicopathological features, as well as with recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in two independent cohorts.The expression of CCAT1, CCAT1-L, CCAT2, PVT1, and CASC19 were elevated in cancer tissues (P = 0.039, <0.001, 0.018, <0.001, 0.002, respectively). Among these, high expression of CCAT1 and CCAT2 was significantly associated with poor RFS (P = 0.049 and 0.022, respectively) and OS (P = 0.028 and 0.015, respectively). These results were validated in an independent patient cohort, in which combined expression of CCAT1 and CCAT2 expression was significantly associated with a poor RFS (HR:2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-6.06, P = 0.042) and a poor OS (HR:8.38, 95%CI: 2.68-37.0, P < 0.001). We established a RFS prediction model which revealed that combined expression of CCAT1, CCAT2, and carcinoembryonic antigen was a significant determinant for efficiently predicting RFS in stage II (P = 0.034) and stage III (P = 0.001) CRC patients.Several lncRNAs located in 8q24.21 locus are highly over-expressed in CRC. High expression of CCAT1 and CCAT2 significantly associates with poor RFS and OS. The expression of these two lncRNAs independently, or in combination, serves as important prognostic biomarkers in CRC.
Project description:Up-regulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), colon-cancer associated transcript (CCAT) 1 and 2, was associated with worse prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Nevertheless, their role in predicting metastasis in early-stage CRC is unclear. We measured the expression of CCAT1, CCAT2 and their oncotarget, c-Myc, in 150 matched mucosa-tumour samples of early-stage microsatellite-stable Chinese CRC patients with definitive metastasis status by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay. Expression of CCAT1, CCAT2 and c-Myc were significantly up-regulated in the tumours compared to matched mucosa (p?<?0.0001). The expression of c-Myc in the tumours was significantly correlated to time to metastasis [hazard ratio?=?1.47 (1.10-1.97)] and the risk genotype (GG) of rs6983267, located within CCAT2. Expression of c-Myc and CCAT2 in the tumour were also significantly up-regulated in metastasis-positive compared to metastasis-negative patients (p?=?0.009 and p?=?0.04 respectively). Nevertheless, integrating the expression of CCAT1 and CCAT2 by the Random Forest classifier did not improve the predictive values of ColoMet19, the mRNA-based predictor for metastasis previously developed on the same series of tumours. The role of these two lncRNAs is probably mitigated via their oncotarget, c-Myc, which was not ranked high enough previously to be included in ColoMet19.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Covalent RNA modifications, such as N-6-methyladenosine (m6A), have been associated with various biological processes, but their role in cancer remains largely unexplored. m6A dynamics depends on specific enzymes whose deregulation may also impact in tumorigenesis. Herein, we assessed the differential abundance of m6A, its writer VIRMA and its reader YTHDF3, in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), looking for clinicopathological correlates. METHODS:In silico analysis of TCGA data disclosed altered expression of VIRMA (52%) and YTHDF3 (48%), prompting subsequent validation. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 122 TGCTs (2005-2016) were selected. RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and real-time qPCR (Taqman assays) for VIRMA and YTHDF3 were performed, as well as immunohistochemistry for VIRMA, YTHDF3 and m6A, for staining intensity assessment. Associations between categorical variables were assessed using Chi square and Fisher's exact test. Distribution of continuous variables between groups was compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Biomarker performance was assessed through receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve construction and a cut-off was established by Youden's index method. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS:In our cohort, VIRMA and YTHDF3 mRNA expression levels differed among TGCT subtypes, with Seminomas (SEs) depicting higher levels than Non-Seminomatous tumors (NSTs) (p < 0.01 for both). A positive correlation was found between VIRMA and YTHDF3 expression levels. VIRMA discriminated SEs from NSTs with AUC = 0.85 (Sensitivity 77.3%, Specificity 81.1%, PPV 71.6%, NPV 85.3%, Accuracy 79.7%). Immunohistochemistry paralleled transcript findings, as patients with strong m6A immunostaining intensity depicted significantly higher VIRMA mRNA expression levels and stronger VIRMA immunoexpression intensity (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION:Abundance of m6A and expression of VIRMA/YTHDF3 were different among TGCT subtypes, with higher levels in SEs, suggesting a contribution to SE phenotype maintenance. VIRMA and YTHDF3 might cooperate in m6A establishment in TGCTs, and their transcript levels accurately discriminate between SEs and NSTs, constituting novel candidate biomarkers for patient management.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to alter immune responses, thus contributing to the pathobiology of autoimmune conditions. We investigated the expression levels of ANRIL, PICART1, MALAT1, CCAT1, CCAT2, and CCHE1 lncRNAs in acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP and CIDP). ANRIL, PICART1, MALAT1, CCAT1, CCAT2, and CCHE1 lncRNAs were significantly downregulated in individuals with both AIDP and CIDP compared with unaffected individuals. Gender-based comparisons also verified such downregulations in both male and female subjects compared with sex-matched unaffected controls for all lncRNAs. There was no significant difference in the expression of any of the lncRNAs between cases with AIDP and cases with CIDP. While the expression levels of ANRIL and PICART1 were significantly correlated in healthy subjects (r = 0.86, <i>p</i> = 8.5E-16), similar analysis in cases with AIDP and CIDP revealed no significant correlation. The most robust correlation among patients was detected between ANRIL and MALAT1 lncRNAs (r = 0.59, <i>p</i> = 3.52E-6). ANRIL, MALAT1, and PICART1 had the diagnostic power of 0.96, 0.94, and 0.92 in distinguishing between cases with CIDP and controls, respectively. A combination of all lncRNAs resulted in 0.95 diagnostic power with a sensitivity of 0.85 and specificity of 0.96 for this purpose. Diagnostic power values of these lncRNAs in differentiation between cases with AIDP and controls were 0.98, 0.95, and 0.93, respectively. The combinatorial diagnostic power reached 0.98 for differentiation between cases with AIDP and controls. The six-lncRNA panel could differentiate combined cases with AIDP and CIDP from controls with area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity values of 0.97, 0.90, and 0.96, respectively. Collectively, the lncRNA panel is suggested as a sensitive and specific diagnostic panel for acquired immune-mediated polyneuropathies.
Project description:N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is enriched in 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) and near stop codon of mature polyadenylated mRNAs in mammalian systems and has regulatory roles in eukaryotic mRNA transcriptome switch. Significantly, the mechanism for this modification preference remains unknown, however. Herein we report a characterization of the full m6A methyltransferase complex in HeLa cells identifying METTL3/METTL14/WTAP/VIRMA/HAKAI/ZC3H13 as the key components, and we show that VIRMA mediates preferential mRNA methylation in 3'UTR and near stop codon. Biochemical studies reveal that VIRMA recruits the catalytic core components METTL3/METTL14/WTAP to guide region-selective methylations. Around 60% of VIRMA mRNA immunoprecipitation targets manifest strong m6A enrichment in 3'UTR. Depletions of VIRMA and METTL3 induce 3'UTR lengthening of several hundred mRNAs with over 50% targets in common. VIRMA associates with polyadenylation cleavage factors CPSF5 and CPSF6 in an RNA-dependent manner. Depletion of CPSF5 leads to significant shortening of 3'UTR of over 2800 mRNAs, 84% of which are modified with m6A and have increased m6A peak density in 3'UTR and near stop codon after CPSF5 knockdown. Together, our studies provide insights into m6A deposition specificity in 3'UTR and its correlation with alternative polyadenylation.
Project description:N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation, involved in cancer initiation and progression, is dynamically regulated by the m6A RNA methylation regulators. However, the expression of m6A RNA methylation regulators in ovarian cancer and their correlation with prognosis remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that the 18 central m6A RNA methylation regulators were expressed differently between ovarian cancer (OC) and normal tissues. By applying consensus clustering, all ovarian cancer patient cases can be divided into three subgroups (cluster1/2/3) based on overall expression levels of all 18 m6A RNA methylation regulators. We systematically analyzed the prognostic value of transcription levels of 18 m6A RNA methylation regulators in ovarian cancer and found that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1), vir like m6A methyltransferase associated (VIRMA), and zinc finger CCCH-type containing 13 (ZC3H13) yield the highest scores for predicting the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Accordingly, we derived a risk signature consisting of transcription levels of these three selected m6A RNA methylation regulators as an independent prognostic marker for OC and validated our findings with data derived from a different ovarian cancer cohort. Moreover, by the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), we demonstrated that the three selected regulators were all correlated with pathways in cancer and WNT signaling pathways. In conclusion, m6A RNA methylation regulators are vital participants in ovarian cancer pathology; and IGF2BP1, VIRMA, and ZC3H13 mRNA levels are valuable factors for prognosis prediction and treatment strategy development.
Project description:The perception of long non-coding RNAs as chunk RNA and transcriptional noise has been steadily replaced by their role as validated targets for a diverse set of physiological processes in the past few years. However, for the vast majority of lncRNAs their precise mode of action and physiological function remain to be uncovered. A large body of evidence has revealed their essential role in all stages of cancirogenesis and metastasis. In this review we focus on the role of lncRNAs in metastasis. We grouped selected lncRNAs into three categories based on in vitro and in vivo mode of action-related studies and clinical relevance for metastasis. Grouped according to their mode of action, in category I we discuss lncRNAs such as CCAT2, DREH, LET, NKILA, treRNA, HOTAIR, H19, FENDRR, lincROR, MALAT, GClnc1, BCAR4, SCHLAP1 and lncRNA ATP, all lncRNAs with in vitro and in vivo metastasis-related data and clinical significance. In category II we discuss lncRNAs CCAT1, PCAT1, PTENgp1, GPLINC, MEG3, ZEB2-AS, LCT13, ANRIL, NBAT1 and lncTCF7 all characterized by their mode of action in vitro and clinical significance, but pending or preliminary in vivo data. Finally, under category III, we discuss lncRNAs BANCR, FRLnc1, SPRY4-IT1 and LIMT with partially or poorly-resolved mode of action and varying degree of validation in clinical metastasis. Finally we discuss metastasis-related translational aspects of lncRNAs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The feces of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients contain tumor colonocytes, which constantly shed into the lumen area. Therefore, stool evaluation can be considered as a rapid and low-risk way to directly determine the colon and rectum status. As long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) alterations are important in cancer cells fate regulation, we aimed to assess the level of a panel of cancer-related lncRNAs in fecal colonocytes.<h4>Methods</h4>The population study consisted of 150 subjects, including a training set, a validation set, and a group of 30 colon polyps. The expression levels of lncRNAs were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The NPInetr and EnrichR tools were used to identify the interactions and functions of lncRNAs.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 10 significantly dysregulated lncRNAs, including CCAT1, CCAT2, H19, HOTAIR, HULC, MALAT1, PCAT1, MEG3, PTENP1, and TUSC7, were chosen for designing a predictive panel. The diagnostic performance of the panel in distinguishing CRCs from the healthy group was AUC: 0.8554 in the training set and 0.8465 in the validation set. The AUC for early CRCs (I-II TNM stages) was 0.8554 in the training set and 0.8465 in the validation set, and for advanced CRCs (III-IV TNM stages) were 0.9281 in the training set and 0.9236 in the validation set. The corresponding AUC for CRCs vs polyps were 0.9228 (I-IV TNM stages), 0.9042 (I-II TNM stages), and 0.9362 (III-IV TNM stages).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data represented the application of analysis of fecal colonocytes lncRNAs in early detection of CRC.
Project description:Long non-coding RNA colon cancer associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) is dysregulated in a number of different types of human cancer, and affects cancer progression via the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. However, the roles of CCAT2 and the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in prostate cancer (PCa) are not completely understood. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanism of CCAT2 in PCa. In the present study, the reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results indicated that CCAT2 expression was significantly upregulated in PCa tissues, and DU145 and PC3 cell lines compared with normal prostate tissues and the epithelial RWPE-1 cell line, respectively. Functional assays indicated that CCAT2 downregulation inhibited DU145 and PC3 cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion. In addition, the luciferase reporter assay, RT-qPCR and western blotting results indicated that CCAT2 regulated transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) expression by binding to microRNA-217. Further western blotting and TOPFlash assays indicated that CCAT2-knockdown inhibited the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in DU145 and PC3 cell lines by inhibiting the expression of TCF7L2. However, CCAT2-knockdown-mediated effects were reversed by the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl). Further cell experiments suggested that LiCl treatment reversed CCAT2-knockdown-mediated inhibition of PCa cell proliferation, cell cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion. Overall, the results indicated that CCAT2 regulated PCa via the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway; therefore, CCAT2 may exhibit key role during the progression of PCa and may serve as a therapeutic target for the disease.
Project description:Drug resistance limits the efficacy of chemotherapy in human cancers. Previous studies reported that long noncoding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) regulated progression of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the potential role of CCAT1 in the sensitivity of paclitaxel (PTX) in PCa and its mechanism remain largely unknown. The PTX-resistant PCa cells were established in PC3 and DU145 cells by increasing concentrations of PTX. The expressions of CCAT1, microRNA-24-3p (miR-24-3p) and fascin1 (FSCN1) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The viability and apoptosis were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry and western blot, respectively. The interaction among CCAT1, miR-24-3p and FSCN1 was explored by luciferase activity, RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull-down and western blot, respectively. Results showed that the expressions of CCAT1 were up-regulated and miR-24-3p was down-regulated in PCa and PTX-resistant PCa cells (PC3-TXR and DU145-TXR). Knockdown of CCAT1 or overexpression of miR-24-3p inhibited survival rate, half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PTX but increased apoptosis in PC3-TXR and DU145-TXR cells after treatment of PTX. miR-24-3p was bound to CCAT1 and its abrogation reversed knockdown of CCAT1-mediated increase of PTX sensitivity in PC3-TXR and DU145-TXR cells. Moreover, FSCN1 restoration attenuated miR-24-3p-mediated inhibition of PTX resistance. Besides, FSCN1 level was enhanced in PCa and PTX-resistant PCa cells and regulated by CCAT1 and miR-24-3p. Our data suggested interference of CCAT1 contributed to PTX sensitivity in PCa by regulating miR-24-3p and FSCN1, indicating a novel avenue for treatment of PCa through regulating chemoresistance.