Construction and Analysis of a ceRNA Network Reveals Potential Prognostic Markers in Colorectal Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide and is derived from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. This study explored potential prognostic markers in CRC via the construction and in-depth analysis of a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network, which was generated through a three-step process. First, we screened candidate hub genes in CRC as the primary gene markers to survey their related regulatory non-coding RNAs, miRNAs. Second, the interacting miRNAs were used to search for associated lncRNAs. Thus, candidate RNAs were first constructed into ceRNA networks based on close associations with miRNAs. Further analysis at the isomiR level was also performed for each miRNA locus to understand the detailed expression patterns of the multiple variants. Finally, RNAs were performed an in-depth analysis of expression correlations, which contributed to further screening and validation of potential RNAs with close correlations to each other. Using this approach, nine hub genes, 13 related miRNAs, and 29 candidate lncRNAs were collected and used to construct the ceRNA network. Further in-depth analysis identified the MFAP5-miR-200b-3p-AC005154.6 axis as a potential prognostic marker in CRC. MFAP5 and miR-200b-3p have previously been reported to play important roles in tumorigenesis. These RNAs showed potential prognostic values, and the combination of them may have more sensitivity than using them alone. In conclusion, MFAP5, miR-200b-3p, and AC005154.6 may have potential prognostic value in CRC and may provide a prognostic reference for this patient population.
Project description:Metastasis is a major threat to colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We have reported that peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2) is associated with CRC invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanisms regulating PRDX2 expression remain unclear. We investigate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate PRDX2 expression in CRC progression.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to measure microRNA-200b-3p (miR-200b-3p) expression. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect c-Myc and PRDX2 protein levels in CRC tissue samples (n = 97). Western blot was used to quantify PRDX2, c-Myc, AKT2/GSK3? pathway-associated proteins and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins in CRC cells. Luciferase reporter assays were used to analyze the interaction between miR-200b-3p and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of PRDX2 mRNA and AKT2 mRNA as well as c-Myc and the miR-200b-3p promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to evaluate binding of c-Myc to the miR-200b-3p promoter. Invasive assay and metastatic model were used to assess invasive and metastatic capacities of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, drug-induced apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry.We found that miR-200b-3p was significantly downregulated, whereas c-Myc and PRDX2 were upregulated in metastatic CRC cells and CRC tissues compared to their counterparts. An inverse correlation existed between c-Myc and miR-200b-3p, and between miR-200b-3p and PRDX2. We also found that PRDX2 was a target of miR-200b-3p. Importantly, overexpression of nontargetable PRDX2 eliminated the suppressive effects of miR-200b-3p on proliferation, invasion, EMT, chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of CRC cells. Moreover, c-Myc bound to the promoter of miR-200b-3p and repressed its transcription. In turn, miR-200b-3p disrupted the stability of c-Myc protein by inducing c-Myc protein threonine 58 (T58) phosphorylation and serine 62 (S62) dephosphorylation via AKT2/GSK3? pathway.Our findings reveal that the c-Myc/miR-200b/PRDX2 loop regulates CRC progression and its disruption enhances tumor metastasis and chemotherapeutic resistance in CRC.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions among messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC), in order to examine its underlying mechanisms. The raw gene expression data was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. An online tool, GEO2R, which is based on the limma package, was used to identify differentially expressed genes. The co-expression between lncRNAs and mRNAs was identified utilizing the weighted gene co-expression analysis package of R to construct a coding non-coding (CNC) network. The function of the genes in the CNC network was determined by performing Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways enrichment analysis. The interactions among miRNAs, mRNAs and lncRNAs were predicted using Lncbase and mirWalk to construct the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. The expression of the genes involved in the ceRNA network was further validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. A total of 3,183 dysregulated mRNAs, 78 dysregulated miRNAs and 2,248 dysregulated lncRNAs were screened in two GEO datasets. Combined with the results of the dysregulated genes, 169 genes were selected to construct the CNC network. 'p53 signaling pathway' and the 'cell cycle' were the most significant enriched pathways in the genes involved in the CNC network. Finally, a validated ceRNA network composed of 2 lncRNAs (MIR22HG and RP11-61I13.3), 5 miRNAs (hsa-miR-765, hsa-miR-198, hsa-miR-125a-3p, hsa-miR-149-3p and hsa-miR-650) and 5 mRNAs (ANK2, BTK, GBP2, PCSK5 and PDK4) was obtained. In conclusion, MIR22HG may regulate PCSK5, BTK and PDK4, and RP11-61I13.3 may regulate the ANK2, GBP2, PCSK5 through sponging miRNAs to act on the progression of CRC, and the potential function of these genes have been revealed. However, the diagnostic and prognostic value of these genes requires further validation.
Project description:Tumor progression and metastasis is the main cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical regulators in various diseases including human cancer. In this study, we found that lncRNA XIST was overexpressed in CRC cell lines and tissues. High expression of lncRNA XIST was associated with adverse overall survival in CRC patients. Knockdown of lncRNA XIST remarkably inhibited CRC cell proliferation, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CRC stem cell formation in vitro as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Further study indicated that knockdown of lncRNA XIST markedly increased the expression of microRNA-200b-3p (miR-200b-3p) that has been found to be downregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines, and luciferase activity assay indicated that lncRNA XIST could bind directly with miR-200b-3p. Moreover, knockdown of lncRNA XIST significantly reduced the expression of ZEB1, which was the direct target of miR-200b-3p, and the tumor suppressive effects caused by knockdown of lncRNA XIST could be rescued by re-expression of ZEB1 in CRC cells. Overall, our study demonstrated how lncRNA XIST regulates CRC progression and metastasis by competing for miR-200b-3p to modulate the expression of ZEB1. lncRNA XIST may be used as a biomarker to predict prognosis in CRC patients.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and associated with prognostic indicators such as disease stage and survival. Prognostic associations are often based on few individuals and imprecise. In this study, we utilize population-based data from 1,141 CRC cases to replicate previously reported associations between 121 miRNAs and disease stage and survival. The Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 was used to generate miRNA data following a stringent quality control protocol. Assessment of survival was done using Cox Proportional Hazard models adjusting for age, disease stage and tumor molecular phenotype. Five miRNAs were associated with more advanced disease stage; hsa-miR-145-5p and hsa-miR-31-5p showed increased expression with more advanced tumor stage, while hsa-miR-200b-3p, hsa-miR-215 and hsa-miR-451a had decreased expression with more advanced tumors. Thirteen miRNAs were associated with CRC mortality among individuals diagnosed with colon cancer while 14 were associated with CRC mortality after a diagnosis with rectal cancer. Strongest associations were observed for those miRNAs that were expressed in a small subset of tumors. Most notable associations were for hsa-miR-145-3p [hazard ratio (HR) 2.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54, 5.61], and hsa-miR-9-3p (HR 10.28, 95% CI 1.31, 80.84) with colon cancer and hsa-miR-335-5p (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.05, 0.54) for rectal cancer. hsa-miR-374a-5p, hsa-miR-570-3p and hsa-miR-18a-5p significantly reduced the hazard of dying for all cases, regardless of tumor site. Our findings illustrate the need for a large sample to evaluate the association of miRNAs with survival and disease stage in order to determine associations by tumor site.
Project description:Background:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in various kinds of human diseases, especially in cancer. However, regulatory role, clinical significance and underlying mechanisms of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis still remain largely unknown. This study aimed to report a novel lncRNA, lnc-HSD17B-11:1, and its functional role in CRC progression. Materials and methods:Differentially expressed lnc-HSD17B11-1:1 was screened and identified from a lncRNA profile microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the expression levels and prognostic values of lncRNA in CRC cohorts. In vitro and in vivo functional experiments were performed to investigate the effects of lnc-HSD17B11-1:1 on tumor growth and metastasis in CRC. Mechanistically, Base Scope, bioinformatics analyses, dual luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to confirm the association of lnc-HSD17B11-1:1 and miR-338-3p. Dual luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to assess the relationships among lnc-HSD17B11-1:1, miR-338-3p, and MACC1. Results:Evidently up-regulation of lnc-HSD17B11-1:1 in CRC primary tissues was correlated with the depth of invasion (p = 0.043), clinical stage (p = 0.027), distant metastasis (p = 0.003) and poor prognosis of patients with CRC. lnc-HSD17B11-1:1 promoted CRC cell proliferation, mobility and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic analysis revealed that lnc-HSD17B11-1:1 may act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by acting as a sponge for miR-338-3p to upregulate the expression of MACC1. Conclusion:These findings suggest that lnc-HSD17B11-1:1 promotes CRC progression through lnc-HSD17B11-1:1/miR-338-3p/MACC1 axis and this might serve as a new diagnostic marker or target for treatment of CRC.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the worst prognosis of all subtypes of breast cancer (BC), with limited options for conventional therapy and no targeted therapies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. In this study, we aimed to determine whether two members of the miR-200 family, miR-200b-3p and miR-429-5p, are involved in BC cell proliferation and motility and to elucidate their target genes and pathways. We performed a meta-analysis that reveals down-regulated expression of miR-200b-3p and miR-429-5p in BC tissues and cell lines, consistent with a lower expression of miR-200b-3p and miR-429-5p in MDA-MB-231 and HCC1937 cells than in MCF-7 and MCF-10 cells. Overexpression of miR-200b-3p and miR-429-5p significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of TNBC cells; suppressed the expression of markers for proliferation and metastasis in TNBC cells. We next demonstrated that LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) is a direct target gene of miR-200b-3p and miR-429-5p. Inhibition of LIMK1 reduced the expression and phosphorylation of cofilin 1 (CFL1), which polymerizes and depolymerizes F-actin and G-actin to reorganize cellular actin cytoskeleton. In addition, transfection with mimics for miR-200b-3p and miR-429-5p arrested G2/M and G0/G1 cell cycles respectively, suppressed the expression of the cell cycle-related complexes, cyclin D1/CDK4/CDK6 and cyclin E1/CDK2, in TNBC cells. In conclusion, miR-200b-3p and miR-429-5p suppress proliferation, migration, and invasion in TNBC cells, via the LIMK1/CFL1 pathway. These results provide insight into how specific miRNAs regulate TNBC progression and suggest that the LIMK1/CFL1 pathway is a therapeutic target for treating TNBC.
Project description:Increasing evidence has shown competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) play key roles in numerous cancers. Nevertheless, the ceRNA network that can predict the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to identify the prognostic value of key ceRNAs in lung tumorigenesis. Differentially expressed (DE) RNAs were identified between LUAD and adjacent normal samples by limma package in R using The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway function enrichment analysis was performed using the clusterProfiler package in R. Subsequently, the LUAD ceRNA network was established in three steps based on ceRNA hypothesis. Hub RNAs were identified using degree analysis methods based on Cytoscape plugin cytoHubba. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was implemented to calculate the risk score using the candidate ceRNAs and overall survival information. The survival differences between the high-risk and low-risk ceRNA groups were determined by the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test using survival and survminer package in R. A total of 2,989 mRNAs, 185 lncRNAs, and 153 miRNAs were identified. GO and KEGG pathway function enrichment analysis showed that DE mRNAs were mainly associated with "sister chromatid segregation," "regulation of angiogenesis," "cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)," "cell cycle," and "ECM-receptor interaction." LUAD-related ceRNA network was constructed, which comprised of 54 nodes and 78 edges. Top ten hub RNAs (hsa-miR-374a-5p, hsa-miR-374b-5p, hsa-miR-340-5p, hsa-miR-377-3p, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-326, SNHG1, RALGPS2, and PITX2) were identified according to their degree. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated that hsa-miR-21-5p and RALGPS2 had a significant prognostic value. Finally, we found that a high risk of three novel ceRNA interactions (SNHG1-hsa-miR-21-5p-RALGPS2, SNHG1-hsa-miR-326-RALGPS2, and SNHG1-hsa-miR-377-3p-RALGPS2) was positively associated with worse prognosis. Three novel ceRNAs (SNHG1-hsa-miR-21-5p-RALGPS2, SNHG1-hsa-miR-326-RALGPS2, and SNHG1-hsa-miR-377-3p-RALGPS2) might be potential biomarkers for the prognosis and treatment of LUAD.
Project description:Chemo-resistance is a huge obstacle encountered in the osteosarcoma (OS) treatment. Protein-coding mRNAs, as well as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including long ncRNA (lncRNA), circular RNA (circRNA), and microRNA (miRNA), have been demonstrated to play an essential role in the regulation of cancer biology. However, the comprehensive expression profile and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network between mRNAs and ncRNAs in the OS chemo-resistance still remain unclear. In the current study, we developed whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) in the three paired multi-drug chemo-resistant and chemo-sensitive OS cell lines to comprehensively identify differentially expressed lncRNAs, circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed for mRNAs with significantly different expression. Then the ceRNA networks combining lncRNAs, circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs were predicted and constructed on the basis of the authoritative miRanda and TargetScan databases combined with the widely accepted vital drug resistance-related genes and signal transduction pathways. In addition, two constructed ceRNA regulatory pathways, lncRNAMEG3/hsa-miR-200b-3p/AKT2 and hsa_circ_0001258/hsa-miR-744-3p/GSTM2, were randomly selected and validated by real-time qPCR, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pull-down assay, and dual luciferase reporter gene system. Taken together, our findings may provide new evidence for the underlying mechanism of OS chemo-resistance and uncover some novel targets for reversing it.
Project description:Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising biomarkers; however, few miRNAs have been reproducible and can be used in clinical practice. In this study, we screened the levels of 754 miRNAs using TaqMan array in 50 individual plasma samples from 10 demographically matched healthy controls and 40 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (10 each of stage I-IV) and identified 22 miRNAs associated with the presence of and stages of CRC. Then we performed the validation for 11 miRNAs in an independent cohort including 187 CRC cases and 47 healthy controls. Comprehensive analyses showed that plasma miR-96 distinguished stage I-IV CRC from healthy controls with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.740; miR-203 separated stage III-IV CRC patients from stage I-II with an AUC of 0.757; and miR-141 differentiated stage IV CRC from stage I-III patients with an AUC of 0.851. Survival analyses showed that plasma miR-96 and miR-200b were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Thus, we propose four miRNAs (miR-96, miR-203, miR-141 and miR-200b) as clinically validated circulating biomarkers for CRC prognosis that warrant further evaluation for clinical utility.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death globally. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as micro RNA (miRNA) sponges in a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network and are involved in the regulation of mRNA expression. This study aims to construct a lncRNA-associated ceRNA network and investigate the prognostic biomarkers in CRC. A total of 38 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs, 23 DEmiRNAs and 27 DEmRNAs were identified by analysing the expression profiles of CRC obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). These RNAs were chosen to develop a ceRNA regulatory network of CRC, which comprised 125 edges. Survival analysis showed that four lncRNAs, six miRNAs and five mRNAs were significantly associated with overall survival. A potential regulatory axis of ADAMTS9-AS2/miR-32/PHLPP2 was identified from the network. Experimental validation was performed using clinical samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), which showed that expression of the genes in the axis was associated with clinicopathological features and the correlation among them perfectly conformed to the 'ceRNA theory'. Overexpression of ADAMTS9-AS2 in colon cancer cell lines significantly inhibited the miR-32 expression and promoted PHLPP2 expression, while ADAMTS9-AS2 knockdown had the opposite effects. The constructed novel ceRNA network may provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of CRC carcinogenesis. The ADAMTS9-AS2/miR-32/PHLPP2 regulatory axis may serve as a potential therapeutic target for CRC.