Analyzing the epidemiological outbreak of COVID-19: A visual exploratory data analysis approach.
ABSTRACT: There is an obvious concern globally regarding the fact about the emerging coronavirus 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) as a worldwide public health threat. As the outbreak of COVID-19 causes by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) progresses within China and beyond, rapidly available epidemiological data are needed to guide strategies for situational awareness and intervention. The recent outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 emphasizes the importance of analyzing the epidemiological data of this novel virus and predicting their risks of infecting people all around the globe. In this study, we present an effort to compile and analyze epidemiological outbreak information on COVID-19 based on the several open datasets on 2019-nCoV provided by the Johns Hopkins University, World Health Organization, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Commission, and DXY. An exploratory data analysis with visualizations has been made to understand the number of different cases reported (confirmed, death, and recovered) in different provinces of China and outside of China. Overall, at the outset of an outbreak like this, it is highly important to readily provide information to begin the evaluation necessary to understand the risks and begin containment activities.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, Central China, and has spread quickly to 72 countries to date. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [previously provisionally known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)]. At present, the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 has caused a large number of deaths with tens of thousands of confirmed cases worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health. However, there are no clinically approved vaccines or specific therapeutic drugs available for COVID-19. Intensive research on the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiological characteristics and to identify potential drug targets, which will contribute to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Hence, this review will focus on recent progress regarding the structure of SARS-CoV-2 and the characteristics of COVID-19, such as the aetiology, pathogenesis and epidemiological characteristics.
Project description:Coronavirus (CoV) has been one of the major pandemic threats to human health in the last two decades. The human coronavirus was first identified in 1960s. CoVs 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV have caused numerous disasters or human deaths worldwide. Recently, an outbreak of the previously unknown deadly CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2, early named 2019-nCoV) occurred in Wuhan, China, and it had caused 81238 cases of confirmed infection, including 3250 deaths until March 19, 2020. Its risks and pandemic potential have brought global consideration. We summarized epidemiology, virological characteristics, clinical symptoms, diagnostic methods, clinical treatments, and prevention methods for COVID-19 to present a reference for the future wave of probable CoV outbreaks.
Project description:Background:In December 2019, an ongoing outbreak of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/ 2019-nCoV) infection was initially reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Early in 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a new name for the 2019-nCoV-caused disease: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and declared COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Cellular co-infection is a critical determinant of viral fitness and infection outcomes and plays a crucial role in shaping the host immune response to infections. Methods:In this study, 68 public next-generation sequencing data from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were retrieved from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive database using SRA-Toolkit. Data screening was performed using an alignment-free method based on k-mer mapping and extension, fastv. Taxonomic classification was performed using Kraken 2 on all reads containing one or more virus sequences other than SARS-CoV-2. Results:SARS-CoV-2 was identified in all except three patients. Influenza type A (H7N9) virus, human immunodeficiency virus, rhabdovirus, human metapneumovirus, Human adenovirus, Human herpesvirus 1, coronavirus NL63, parvovirus, simian virus 40, and hepatitis virus genomes sequences were detected in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Besides, a very diverse group of bacterial populations were observed in the samples.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging human infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, also previously known as 2019-nCoV). Within 8 months of the outbreak, more than 10,000,000 cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed worldwide. Since human-to-human transmission occurs easily and the rate of human infection is rapidly increasing, sensitive and early diagnosis is essential to prevent a global outbreak. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced various primer-probe sets for SARS-CoV-2 developed at different institutions: China Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC, China), Charité (Germany), The University of Hong Kong (HKU, Hong Kong), National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan (Japan NIID, Japan), National Institute of Health in Thailand (Thailand NIH, Thailand), and US CDC (USA). In this study, we compared the ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA among seven primer-probe sets for the N gene and three primer-probe sets for the Orf1 gene. The results revealed that "NIID_2019-nCOV_N" from the Japan NIID and "ORF1ab" from China CDC represent a recommendable performance of RT-qPCR analysis for SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostics without nonspecific amplification and cross-reactivity for hCoV-229E, hCoV-OC43, and MERS-CoV RNA. Therefore, the appropriate combination of NIID_2019-nCOV_N (Japan NIID) and ORF1ab (China CDC) sets should be selected for sensitive and reliable SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostics.
Project description:Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has emerged from Wuhan, China, causing symptoms in humans similar to those caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Since the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002, extensive structural analyses have revealed key atomic-level interactions between the SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. Here, we analyzed the potential receptor usage by 2019-nCoV, based on the rich knowledge about SARS-CoV and the newly released sequence of 2019-nCoV. First, the sequence of 2019-nCoV RBD, including its receptor-binding motif (RBM) that directly contacts ACE2, is similar to that of SARS-CoV, strongly suggesting that 2019-nCoV uses ACE2 as its receptor. Second, several critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Gln493) provide favorable interactions with human ACE2, consistent with 2019-nCoV's capacity for human cell infection. Third, several other critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Asn501) are compatible with, but not ideal for, binding human ACE2, suggesting that 2019-nCoV has acquired some capacity for human-to-human transmission. Last, while phylogenetic analysis indicates a bat origin of 2019-nCoV, 2019-nCoV also potentially recognizes ACE2 from a diversity of animal species (except mice and rats), implicating these animal species as possible intermediate hosts or animal models for 2019-nCoV infections. These analyses provide insights into the receptor usage, cell entry, host cell infectivity and animal origin of 2019-nCoV and may help epidemic surveillance and preventive measures against 2019-nCoV.IMPORTANCE The recent emergence of Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) puts the world on alert. 2019-nCoV is reminiscent of the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002 to 2003. Our decade-long structural studies on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV have identified key interactions between SARS-CoV spike protein and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. One of the goals of SARS-CoV research was to build an atomic-level iterative framework of virus-receptor interactions to facilitate epidemic surveillance, predict species-specific receptor usage, and identify potential animal hosts and animal models of viruses. Based on the sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, we apply this predictive framework to provide novel insights into the receptor usage and likely host range of 2019-nCoV. This study provides a robust test of this reiterative framework, providing the basic, translational, and public health research communities with predictive insights that may help study and battle this novel 2019-nCoV.
Project description:Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (formerly known as the 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 75,000 cases have been reported in 32 countries/regions, resulting in more than 2000 deaths worldwide. Despite the fact that most COVID-19 cases and mortalities were reported in China, the WHO has declared this outbreak as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The COVID-19 can present as an asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia. Adults represent the population with the highest infection rate; however, neonates, children, and elderly patients can also be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, nosocomial infection of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers, and viral transmission from asymptomatic carriers are possible. The most common finding on chest imaging among patients with pneumonia was ground-glass opacity with bilateral involvement. Severe cases are more likely to be older patients with underlying comorbidities compared to mild cases. Indeed, age and disease severity may be correlated with the outcomes of COVID-19. To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China. Currently, effective infection control intervention is the only way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:In late December 2019, an unprecedented outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (previously named 2019-nCoV) in Wuhan became the most challenging health emergency. Since its rapid spread in China and many other countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) on 30th January 2020 and a pandemic on 11th March 2020. Thousands of people have died, and there are currently no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs for COVID-19. Therefore, it is critical to have a comprehensive understanding of the virus. In this review, we highlight the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, clinical management, prognosis, infection control and prevention of COVID-19 based on recent studies.
Project description:The recent outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan turned into a public health emergency of international concern. With no antiviral drugs nor vaccines, and the presence of carriers without obvious symptoms, traditional public health intervention measures are significantly less effective. Here, we report the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak. Originated in bats, 2019-nCoV/ severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 likely experienced adaptive evolution in intermediate hosts before transfer to humans at a concentrated source of transmission. Similarities of receptor sequence binding to 2019-nCoV between humans and animals suggest a low species barrier for transmission of the virus to farm animals. We propose, based on the One Health model, that veterinarians and animal specialists should be involved in a cross-disciplinary collaboration in the fight against this epidemic.
Project description:In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or (2019-nCoV) with unknown origin spread in Hubei province of China. The epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 called coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The presence of COVID-19 was manifested by several symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic/mild symptoms to severe illness and death. The viral infection expanded internationally and WHO announced a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. To quickly diagnose and control such a highly infectious disease, suspicious individuals were isolated and diagnostic/treatment procedures were developed through patients' epidemiological and clinical data. Early in the COVID-19 outbreak, WHO invited hundreds of researchers from around the world to develop a rapid quality diagnosis, treatment and vaccines, but so far no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine has been approved by the FDA. At present, COVID-19 is managed by available antiviral drugs to improve the symptoms, and in severe cases, supportive care including oxygen and mechanical ventilation is used for infected patients. However, due to the worldwide spread of the virus, COVID-19 has become a serious concern in the medical community. According to the current data of WHO, the number of infected and dead cases has increased to 8,708,008 and 461,715, respectively (Dec 2019 -June 2020). Given the high mortality rate and economic damage to various communities to date, great efforts must be made to produce successful drugs and vaccines against 2019-nCoV infection. For this reason, first of all, the characteristics of the virus, its pathogenicity, and its infectious pathways must be well known. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this epidemic disease based on the current evidence.
Project description:The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; previously provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) in China at the end of 2019 has caused a large global outbreak and is a major public health issue. As of 11 February 2020, data from the World Health Organization (WHO) have shown that more than 43 000 confirmed cases have been identified in 28 countries/regions, with >99% of cases being detected in China. On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. It is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact, and infection has been estimated to have mean incubation period of 6.4 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24-3.58. Among patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus pneumonia or Wuhan pneumonia), fever was the most common symptom, followed by cough. Bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity was the most common finding from computed tomography images of the chest. The one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the USA is responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China. Currently, controlling infection to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention being used. However, public health authorities should keep monitoring the situation closely, as the more we can learn about this novel virus and its associated outbreak, the better we can respond.