Mutagenesis mechanism of the major oxidative adenine lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine.
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species generate the genotoxic 8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as major oxidative lesions. The mutagenicity of oxoG is attributed to the lesion's ability to evade the geometric discrimination of DNA polymerases by adopting Hoogsteen base pairing with adenine in a Watson-Crick-like geometry. Compared with oxoG, the mutagenesis mechanism of oxoA, which preferentially induces A-to-C mutations, is poorly understood. In the absence of protein contacts, oxoA:G forms a wobble conformation, the formation of which is suppressed in the catalytic site of most DNA polymerases. Interestingly, human DNA polymerase ? (pol?) proficiently incorporates dGTP opposite oxoA, suggesting the nascent oxoA:dGTP overcomes the geometric discrimination of pol?. To gain insights into oxoA-mediated mutagenesis, we determined crystal structures of pol? bypassing oxoA. When paired with dGTP, oxoA adopted a syn-conformation and formed Hoogsteen pairing while in a wobble geometry, which was stabilized by Gln38-mediated minor groove contacts to oxoA:dGTP. Gln38Ala mutation reduced misinsertion efficiency ?55-fold, indicating oxoA:dGTP misincorporation was promoted by minor groove interactions. Also, the efficiency of oxoA:dGTP insertion by the X-family pol? decreased ?380-fold when Asn279-mediated minor groove contact to dGTP was abolished. Overall, these results suggest that, unlike oxoG, oxoA-mediated mutagenesis is greatly induced by minor groove interactions.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation and metabolic pathways generate 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as two major forms of oxidative damage. The mutagenicity of oxoG, which promotes G to T transversions, is attributed to the lesion's conformational flexibility that enables Hoogsteen base pairing with dATP in the confines of DNA polymerases. The mutagenesis mechanism of oxoA, which preferentially causes A to C transversions, remains poorly characterized. While structures for oxoA bypass by human DNA polymerases are available, that of prokaryotic DNA polymerases have not been reported. Herein, we report kinetic and structural characterizations of Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 incorporating a nucleotide opposite oxoA. Our kinetic studies show oxoA at the templating position reduces the replication fidelity by ?560-fold. The catalytic efficiency of the oxoA:dGTP insertion is ?300-fold greater than that of the dA:dGTP insertion, highlighting the promutagenic nature of oxoA. The relative efficiency of the oxoA:dGTP misincorporation is ?5-fold greater than that of the oxoG:dATP misincorporation, suggesting the mutagenicity of oxoA is comparable to that of oxoG. In the Dpo4 replicating base pair site, oxoA in the anti-conformation forms a Watson-Crick base pair with an incoming dTTP, while oxoA in the syn-conformation assumes Hoogsteen base pairing with an incoming dGTP, displaying the dual coding potential of the lesion. Within the Dpo4 active site, the oxoA:dGTP base pair adopts a Watson-Crick-like geometry, indicating Dpo4 influences the oxoA:dGTP base pair conformation. Overall, the results reported here provide insights into the miscoding properties of the major oxidative adenine lesion during translesion synthesis.
Project description:Oxidation of genomic DNA forms the guanine lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). When in the template base position during DNA synthesis the 8-oxoG lesion has dual coding potential by virtue of its anti- and syn-conformations, base pairing with cytosine and adenine, respectively. This impacts mutagenesis, because insertion of adenine opposite template 8-oxoG can result in a G to T transversion. DNA polymerases vary by orders of magnitude in their preferences for mutagenic vs. error-free 8-oxoG lesion bypass. Yet, the structural basis for lesion bypass specificity is not well understood. The DNA base excision repair enzyme DNA polymerase (pol) β is presented with gap-filling synthesis opposite 8-oxoG during repair and has similar insertion efficiencies for dCTP and dATP. We report the structure of pol β in binary complex with template 8-oxoG in a base excision repair substrate. The structure reveals both the syn- and anti-conformations of template 8-oxoG in the confines of the polymerase active site, consistent with the dual coding observed kinetically for this enzyme. A ternary complex structure of pol β with the syn-8-oxoG:anti-A Hoogsteen base pair in the closed fully assembled preinsertion active site is also reported. The syn-conformation of 8-oxoG is stabilized by minor groove hydrogen bonding between the side chain of Arg283 and O8 of 8-oxoG. An adjustment in the position of the phosphodiester backbone 5'-phosphate enables 8-oxoG to adopt the syn-conformation.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species attack DNA to produce 7,8-dihyro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as major lesions. The structural basis for the mutagenicity of oxoG, which induces G to T mutations, is well understood. However, the structural basis for the mutagenic potential of oxoA, which induces A to C mutations, remains poorly understood. To gain insight into oxoA-induced mutagenesis, we conducted kinetic studies of human DNA polymerases ? and ? replicating across oxoA and structural studies of pol? incorporating dTTP/dGTP opposite oxoA. While pol? readily bypassed oxoA, it incorporated dGTP opposite oxoA with a catalytic specificity comparable to that of correct insertion, underscoring the promutagenic nature of the major oxidative adenine lesion. Pol? and pol? incorporated dGTP opposite oxoA ?170-fold and ?100-fold more efficiently than that opposite dA, respectively, indicating that the 8-oxo moiety greatly facilitated error-prone replication. Crystal structures of pol? showed that, when paired with an incoming dTTP, the templating oxoA adopted an anti conformation and formed Watson-Crick base pair. When paired with dGTP, oxoA adopted a syn conformation and formed a Hoogsteen base pair with Watson-Crick-like geometry, highlighting the dual-coding potential of oxoA. The templating oxoA was stabilized by Lys280-mediated stacking and hydrogen bonds. Overall, these results provide insight into the mutagenic potential and dual-coding nature of the major oxidative adenine lesion.
Project description:DNA polymerase (pol) iota, a member of the mammalian Y-family of DNA polymerases involved in translesion DNA synthesis, has been previously suggested to peculiarly utilize Hoogsteen base pairing for DNA synthesis opposite template purines, unlike pols eta and kappa, which utilize Watson-Crick (W-C) base pairing. To investigate the possible roles of Hoogsteen, W-C, and wobble base-pairing modes in the selection of nucleotides opposite template pyrimidines by human pol iota, we carried out kinetic analyses of incorporation of modified purine nucleoside triphosphates including 7-deazapurines, inosine, 2-aminopurine, 2,6-diaminopurine, and 6-chloropurine, which affect H-bonding in base-pair formation opposite template pyrimidines. Carbon substitution at the N7 atom of purine nucleoside triphosphates, which disrupts Hoogsteen base pairing, only slightly inhibited DNA synthesis opposite template pyrimidines by pol iota, which was not substantially different from human pols eta and kappa. Opposite template T, only the relative wobble stabilities (inferred from the potential numbers of H-bonding, steric, and electrostatic interactions but not measured) of base pairs were positively correlated to the relative efficiencies of nucleotide incorporation by pol iota but not the relative W-C or Hoogsteen stabilities, unlike pols eta and kappa. In contrast, opposite C, only the relative W-C stabilities of base pairs were positively correlated to the relative efficiencies of nucleotide incorporation by pol iota, as with pols eta and kappa. These results suggest that pol iota might not indispensably require Hoogsteen base pairing for DNA synthesis opposite pyrimidines but rather might prefer wobble base pairing in the selection of nucleotides opposite T and W-C base pairing opposite C.
Project description:Bypass across DNA lesions by specialized polymerases is essential for maintenance of genomic stability. Human DNA polymerase iota (poliota) is a bypass polymerase of the Y family. Crystal structures of poliota suggest that Hoogsteen base pairing is employed to bypass minor groove DNA lesions, placing them on the spacious major groove side of the enzyme. Primer extension studies have shown that poliota is also capable of error-free nucleotide incorporation opposite the bulky major groove adduct N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-AAF). We present molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations suggesting that Watson-Crick base pairing could be employed in poliota for bypass of dG-AAF. In poliota with Hoogsteen-paired dG-AAF the bulky AAF moiety would reside on the cramped minor groove side of the template. The Hoogsteen-capable conformation distorts the active site, disrupting interactions necessary for error-free incorporation of dC opposite the lesion. Watson-Crick pairing places the AAF rings on the spacious major groove side, similar to the position of minor groove adducts observed with Hoogsteen pairing. Watson-Crick-paired structures show a well-ordered active site, with a near reaction-ready ternary complex. Thus our results suggest that poliota would utilize the same spacious region for lesion bypass of both major and minor groove adducts. Therefore, purine adducts with bulk on the minor groove side would use Hoogsteen pairing, while adducts with the bulky lesion on the major groove side would utilize Watson-Crick base pairing as indicated by our MD simulations for dG-AAF. This suggests the possibility of an expanded role for poliota in lesion bypass.
Project description:8-Halogenated guanine (haloG), a major DNA adduct formed by reactive halogen species during inflammation, is a promutagenic lesion that promotes misincorporation of G opposite the lesion by various DNA polymerases. Currently, the structural basis for such misincorporation is unknown. To gain insights into the mechanism of misincorporation across haloG by polymerase, we determined seven x-ray structures of human DNA polymerase ? (pol?) bound to DNA bearing 8-bromoguanine (BrG). We determined two pre-catalytic ternary complex structures of pol? with an incoming nonhydrolyzable dGTP or dCTP analog paired with templating BrG. We also determined five binary complex structures of pol? in complex with DNA containing BrG·C/T at post-insertion and post-extension sites. In the BrG·dGTP ternary structure, BrG adopts syn conformation and forms Hoogsteen base pairing with the incoming dGTP analog. In the BrG·dCTP ternary structure, BrG adopts anti conformation and forms Watson-Crick base pairing with the incoming dCTP analog. In addition, our pol? binary post-extension structures show Hoogsteen BrG·G base pair and Watson-Crick BrG·C base pair. Taken together, the first structures of haloG-containing DNA bound to a protein indicate that both BrG·G and BrG·C base pairs are accommodated in the active site of pol?. Our structures suggest that Hoogsteen-type base pairing between G and C8-modified G could be accommodated in the active site of a DNA polymerase, promoting G to C mutation.
Project description:Chronic inflammation is closely associated with cancer development. One possible mechanism for inflammation-induced carcinogenesis is DNA damage caused by reactive halogen species, such as hypochlorous acid, which is released by myeloperoxidase to kill pathogens. Hypochlorous acid can attack genomic DNA to produce 8-chloro-2'-deoxyguanosine (ClG) as a major lesion. It has been postulated that ClG promotes mutagenic replication using its syn conformer; yet, the structural basis for ClG-induced mutagenesis is unknown. We obtained crystal structures and kinetics data for nucleotide incorporation past a templating ClG using human DNA polymerase ? (pol?) as a model enzyme for high-fidelity DNA polymerases. The structures showed that ClG formed base pairs with incoming dCTP and dGTP using its anti and syn conformers, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that pol? incorporated dGTP only 15-fold less efficiently than dCTP, suggesting that replication across ClG is promutagenic. Two hydrogen bonds between syn-ClG and anti-dGTP and a water-mediated hydrogen bond appeared to facilitate mutagenic replication opposite the major halogenated guanine lesion. These results suggest that ClG in DNA promotes G to C transversion mutations by forming Hoogsteen base pairing between syn-ClG and anti-G during DNA synthesis.
Project description:Continuous oxidative damage inflicted on DNA produces 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a commonly occurring lesion that can potentially cause cancer by producing G ? T transversions during DNA replication. Mild oxidation of 8-oxoG leads to the formation of hydantoins, specifically guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), which are 100% mutagenic because they encode almost exclusively the insertion of dAMP and dGMP (encoding G ? T and G ? C transversions, respectively). The wild-type (wt) pol ? family DNA polymerase from bacteriophage RB69 (RB69pol) inserts dAMP and dGMP with low efficiency when situated opposite Gh. In contrast, the RB69pol Y567A mutant inserts both of these dNMPs opposite Gh with >100-fold higher efficiency than wt. We now report the crystal structure of the "closed" preinsertion complex for the Y567A mutant with dATP opposite a templating Gh (R-configuration) in a 13/18mer primer-template (P/T) at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure data reveal that the Y to A substitution provides the nascent base pair binding pocket (NBP) with the flexibility to accommodate Gh by allowing G568 to move in the major-to-minor groove direction of the P/T. Thus, Gh is rejected as a templating base by wt RB69pol because G568 is inflexible, preventing Gh from pairing with the incoming dATP or dGTP base.
Project description:DNA polymerases accommodate various base-pair conformations in the event of incorrect insertions. In particular, Watson-Crick-like dG:dTTP base pair has been observed at the insertion site of human DNA polymerase ? (pol ?). A potential factor contributing to the diverse conformations of base-pair mismatches is minor groove interactions. To gain insights into the effect of minor groove interactions on base-pair conformations, we generated an Asn279Ala pol? mutant that cannot make minor groove contacts with an incoming nucleotide. We conducted structural and kinetic studies of Asn279Ala pol? in complex with incoming dTTP and templating dG or O6-methyl-dG. The crystal structure of the Asn279Ala pol?-G:T complex showed a wobble dG:dTTP base pair, indicating that the previously observed Watson-Crick-like dG:dTTP conformation was induced by the minor groove contact. In contrast, O6-methyl-dG, an analog of the enol tautomer of guanine, formed a Watson-Crick-like base pair with dTTP in the absence of the minor groove contact. These results suggest that the Watson-Crick-like G:T base pair at the insertion site is formed by the rare enol tautomers of G or T, whose population is increased by the minor groove hydrogen bond with Asn279. Kinetic studies showed that Asn279Ala mutation decreased dG:dTTP misincorporation rate six-fold in the presence of Mg2+ but increased the rate three-fold in the presence of Mn2+, highlighting the effect of minor groove interactions and metal ions on promutagenic replication by pol?.
Project description:A major base lesion resulting from oxidative stress is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG) that has ambiguous coding potential. Error-free DNA synthesis involves 8-oxoG adopting an anti-conformation to base pair with cytosine whereas mutagenic bypass involves 8-oxoG adopting a syn-conformation to base pair with adenine. Left unrepaired the syn-8-oxoG/dAMP base pair results in a G-C to T-A transversion. During base excision repair of this mispair, DNA polymerase (pol) ? is confronted with gap filling opposite 8-oxoG. To determine how pol ? discriminates between anti- and syn-8-oxoG, we introduced a point mutation (R283K) to alter insertion specificity. Kinetic studies demonstrate that this substitution results in an increased fidelity opposite 8-oxoG. Structural studies with R283K pol ? show that the binary DNA complex has 8-oxoG in equilibrium between anti- and syn-forms. Ternary complexes with incoming dCTP resemble the wild-type enzyme, with templating anti-8-oxoG base pairing with incoming cytosine. In contrast to wild-type pol ?, the ternary complex of the R283K mutant with an incoming dATP-analogue and templating 8-oxoG resembles a G-A mismatched structure with 8-oxoG adopting an anti-conformation. These results demonstrate that the incoming nucleotide is unable to induce a syn-8-oxoG conformation without minor groove DNA polymerase interactions that influence templating (anti-/syn-equilibrium) of 8-oxoG while modulating fidelity.