The Impact of Dietary Fucosylated Oligosaccharides and Glycoproteins of Human Milk on Infant Well-Being.
ABSTRACT: Apart from optimal nutritional value, human milk is the feeding strategy to support the immature immunological system of developing newborns and infants. The most beneficial dietary carbohydrate components of breast milk are human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and glycoproteins (HMGs), involved in both specific and nonspecific immunity. Fucosylated oligosaccharides represent the largest fraction of human milk oligosaccharides, with the simplest and the most abundant being 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL). Fucosylated oligosaccharides, as well as glycans of glycoproteins, as beneficial dietary sugars, elicit anti-adhesive properties against fucose-dependent pathogens, and on the other hand are crucial for growth and metabolism of beneficial bacteria, and in this aspect participate in shaping a healthy microbiome. Well-documented secretor status related differences in the fucosylation profile of HMOs and HMGs may play a key but underestimated role in assessment of susceptibility to fucose-dependent pathogen infections, with a potential impact on applied clinical procedures. Nevertheless, due to genetic factors, about 20% of mothers do not provide their infants with beneficial dietary carbohydrates such as 2'-FL and other ?1,2-fucosylated oligosaccharides and glycans of glycoproteins, despite breastfeeding them. The lack of such structures may have important implications for a wide range of aspects of infant well-being and healthcare. In light of the above, some artificial mixtures used in infant nutrition are supplemented with 2'-FL to more closely approximate the unique composition of maternal milk, including dietary-derived fucosylated oligosaccharides and glycoproteins.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) enrich beneficial bifidobacteria in the infant gut microbiome which produce molecules that impact development and physiology. 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) is a highly abundant fucosylated HMO which is utilized by <i>Bifidobacterium longum</i> subsp. <i>infantis</i>, despite limited scientific understanding of the underlying mechanism. Moreover, there is not a current consensus on whether free fucose could be metabolized when not incorporated in a larger oligosaccharide structure. Based on metabolic and genomic analyses, we hypothesize that <i>B. infantis</i> catabolizes both free fucose and fucosyl oligosaccharide residues to produce 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). Accordingly, systems-level approaches including transcriptomics and proteomics support this metabolic path. Co-fermentation of fucose and limiting lactose or glucose was found to promote significantly higher biomass and 1,2-PD concentrations than individual substrates, suggesting a synergistic effect. In addition, and during growth on 2'FL, <i>B. infantis</i> achieves significantly higher biomass corresponding to increased 1,2-PD. These findings support a singular fucose catabolic pathway in <i>B. infantis</i> that is active on both free and HMO-derived fucose and intimately linked with central metabolism. The impact of fucose and 2'FL metabolism on <i>B. infantis</i> physiology provides insight into the role of fucosylated HMOs in influencing host- and microbe-microbe interactions within the infant gut microbiome.
Project description:Fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important biological functions. Enzymatic synthesis of such compounds requires robust fucosyltransferases. A C-terminal 66-amino acid truncated version of Helicobacter pylori ?1-3-fucosyltransferase (Hp3FT) is a good candidate. Hp3FT was biochemically characterized to identify optimal conditions for enzymatic synthesis of fucosides. While N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) and lactose were both suitable acceptors, the former is preferred. At a low guanosine 5'-diphospho-?-L-fucose (GDP-Fuc) to acceptor ratio, Hp3FT selectively fucosylated LacNAc. Based on these enzymatic characteristics, diverse fucosylated HMOs, including 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) III, lacto-N-neofucopentaose (LNnFP) V, lacto-N-neodifucohexaose (LNnDFH) II, difuco- and trifuco-para-lacto-N-neohexaose (DF-paraLNnH and TF-para-LNnH), were synthesized enzymatically by varying the ratio of the donor and acceptor as well as controlling the order of multiple glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) are not digested in the proximal intestine. In distal intestine, HMOS collectively modify the microbiota, but the response of individual bacteria to individual components of the HMOS is not well defined. Here, each of 25 major isolates of the human intestinal microbiota was fed individual major fucosylated and sialylated HMOS in anaerobic culture. This allowed for an assessment of the influence of specific HMOS on the growth and metabolic products of individual microbiota bacteria. Most Bifidobacteria spp. and Bacteroides spp. grew, induced ?-L-fucosidase activity, and produced abundant lactate or short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) when fed 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), 3-FL, and lactodifucotetraose (LDFT). Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC7830, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC19433, and Streptococcus thermophilus ATCC19258 exhibited slight growth, pH reduction, and lactate production when supplemented with 2'-FL or 3-FL, but not LDFT. Supplementation with 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) and 6'-SL promoted moderate growth of Bifidobacterium longum JCM7007, 7009, 7010, 7011, 1272, 11347, ATCC15708, Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC8482, and B. thetaiotaomicron ATCC29148; accordingly, these bacteria exhibited greater neuraminidase activity and produced copious lactate, SCFA, or both. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC7830 also consumed 6'-SL. In contrast, Clostridium spp., L. rhamnosus ATCC53103, E. faecalis ATCC29200, Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., and Escherichia coli K12 did not consume milk oligosaccharides nor produce appreciable acidic fermentation products. Specific Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides differentially digest specific individual HMOS, with the major fucosylated milk oligosaccharides most strongly stimulating key species of mutualist symbionts. This suggests strategies for treating dysbiosis of the microbiota and associated inflammatory disorders.
Project description:Human milk glycans (HMGs) are prebiotics, pathogen receptor decoys and regulators of host physiology and immune responses. Mechanistically, human lectins (glycan-binding proteins, hGBP) expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) are of major interest, as these cells directly contact HMGs. To explore such interactions, we screened many C-type lectins and sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) expressed by DCs for glycan binding on microarrays presenting over 200 HMGs. Unexpectedly, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) showed robust binding to many HMGs, whereas other C-type lectins failed to bind, and Siglec-5 and Siglec-9 showed weak binding to a few glycans. By contrast, most hGBP bound to multiple glycans on other microarrays lacking HMGs. An ?-linked fucose residue was characteristic of HMGs bound by DC-SIGN. Binding of DC-SIGN to the simple HMGs 2'-fucosyl-lactose (2'-FL) and 3-fucosyl-lactose (3-FL) was confirmed by flow cytometry to beads conjugated with 2'-FL or 3-FL, as well as the ability of the free glycans to inhibit DC-SIGN binding. 2'-FL had an IC50 of ?1 mM for DC-SIGN, which is within the physiological concentration of 2'-FL in human milk. These results demonstrate that DC-SIGN among the many hGBP expressed by DCs binds to ?-fucosylated HMGs, and suggest that such interactions may be important in influencing immune responses in the developing infant.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are being studied by different groups exploring a broad range of potential beneficial effects to the breastfed infant. Many of these effects have been attributed to a growth promotion effect on certain gut organisms such as bifidobacteria. Additionally, evidence indicates that HMO are able to directly promote positive changes in gut epithelium and immune responses under certain conditions. This study utilizes a standardized ex vivo murine colon preparation to examine the effects of sialylated, fucosylated and other HMO on gut motor contractions. Only the fucosylated molecules, 2'FL and 3'FL, decreased contractility in a concentration dependent fashion. On the basis of IC50 determinations 3'FL was greater than 2 times more effective than 2'FL. The HMO 3'SL and 6'SL, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) elicited no effects. Lactose was used as a negative control. Fucosylation seems to underlie this functional regulation of gut contractility by oligosaccharides, and L-fucose, while it was also capable of reducing contractility, was substantially less effective than 3'FL and 2'FL. These results suggest that specific HMO are unlikely to be having these effects via bifidogenesis, but though direct action on neuronally dependent gut migrating motor complexes is likely and fucosylation is important in providing this function, we cannot conclusively shown that this is not indirectly mediated. Furthermore they support the possibility that fucosylated sugars and fucose might be useful as therapeutic or preventative adjuncts in disorders of gut motility, and possibly also have beneficial central nervous system effects.
Project description:The human gut microbiota established during infancy has persistent effects on health. In vitro studies have suggested that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in breast milk promote the formation of a bifidobacteria-rich microbiota in infant guts; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we characterized two functionally distinct but overlapping fucosyllactose transporters (FL transporter-1 and -2) from Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis. Fecal DNA and HMO consumption analyses, combined with deposited metagenome data mining, revealed that FL transporter-2 is primarily associated with the bifidobacteria-rich microbiota formation in breast-fed infant guts. Structural analyses of the solute-binding protein (SBP) of FL transporter-2 complexed with 2'-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose, together with phylogenetic analysis of SBP homologs of both FL transporters, highlight a unique adaptation strategy of Bifidobacterium to HMOs, in which the gain-of-function mutations enable FL transporter-2 to efficiently capture major fucosylated HMOs. Our results provide a molecular insight into HMO-mediated symbiosis and coevolution between bifidobacteria and humans.
Project description:Background:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in breast milk contribute to the development of the neonatal microbiota and immune system. However, longitudinal studies examining HMO profiles of Chinese mothers remain scarce. Objectives:We aimed to analyze HMO profiles, including their composition, concentrations, and changes during lactation, in milk of Chinese mothers. Methods:A total of 822 milk samples from 222 mothers were collected, of which 163 mothers provided single samples. Samples from the remaining 59 mothers were collected on day 3, day 7, and thereafter every 7 or 14 d until day 168. 24 HMOs were studied using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Secretor and nonsecretor status were determined based on Lewis blood types and a defined 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) threshold. Results:Of the 222 mothers, 77% were secretors and 23% were nonsecretors. The longitudinal study involving 59 mothers showed that the total HMOs in secretors were significantly greater than those in nonsecretors during the first 2 wk. Acidic HMOs decreased significantly during lactation and were similar between secretors and nonsecretors. Among neutral HMOs, distinctive differences were observed. Nonfucosylated and ?-1-3/4-fucosylated HMOs in nonsecretors were significantly higher than those in secretors during the first month. In contrast, ?-1-2-fucosylated HMOs in secretors were significantly higher than those in nonsecretors throughout 168 d. In secretors, 2'-FL concentrations peaked at (mean ± SEM) 3.02 ± 0.14 g/L (day 3) followed by significant decreases. In nonsecretors, 2'-FL concentrations were fairly low throughout 168 d. Of the 24 studied HMOs, only 3-fucosyllactose concentrations increased during lactation in both secretor and nonsecretor mothers. Conclusions:Our study showed dynamic changes of 24 HMOs in secretors and nonsecretors during lactation and revealed unique features of these HMO profiles in the milk of Chinese mothers. Interestingly, 2'-FL concentrations in secretors were found to be lower than those of Western populations but higher than those of African populations.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) function as prebiotics for beneficial bacteria in the developing gut, often dominated by Bifidobacterium spp. To understand the relationship between bifidobacteria utilizing HMOs and how the metabolites that are produced could affect the host, we analyzed the metabolism of HMO 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Bi-26. RNA-seq and metabolite analysis (NMR/GCMS) was performed on samples at early (A600 = 0.25), mid-log (0.5-0.7) and late-log phases (1.0-2.0) of growth. Transcriptomic analysis revealed many gene clusters including three novel ABC-type sugar transport clusters to be upregulated in Bi-26 involved in processing of 2'-FL along with metabolism of its monomers glucose, fucose and galactose. Metabolite data confirmed the production of formate, acetate, 1,2-propanediol, lactate and cleaving of fucose from 2'-FL. The formation of acetate, formate, and lactate showed how the cell uses metabolites during fermentation to produce higher levels of ATP (mid-log compared to other stages) or generate cofactors to balance redox. We concluded that 2'-FL metabolism is a complex process involving multiple gene clusters, that produce a more diverse metabolite profile compared to lactose. These results provide valuable insight on the mode-of-action of 2'-FL utilization by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Bi-26.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are highly diverse complex carbohydrates secreted in human milk. HMOs are indigestible by the infant and instead are metabolized by bifidobacteria in the infant gut microbiome to produce molecules that promote infant health and development. 2´fucosyllactose (2´FL) is an abundant HMO and is utilized by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, a predominant member of the infant gut microbiome. Currently, there is not a scientific consensus on how or if bifidobacteria metabolize the fucose portion of 2´FL or free fucose. This proteomic analysis was conducted in order to characterize the metabolic pathway by which B. infantis utilizes fucose.
Project description:2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL), a major component of fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides, is beneficial to human health in various ways like prebiotic effect, protection from pathogens, anti-inflammatory activity and reduction of the risk of neurodegeneration. Here, a whole-cell fluorescence biosensor for 2'-FL was developed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was engineered to catalyse the cleavage of 2'-FL into L-fucose and lactose by constitutively expressing ?-L-fucosidase. Escherichia coli ?L YA, in which lacZ is deleted and lacY is retained, was employed to disable lactose consumption. E. coli ?L YA constitutively co-expressing ?-L-fucosidase and a red fluorescence protein (RFP) exhibited increased fluorescence intensity in media containing 2'-FL. However, the presence of 50 g/L lactose reduced the RFP intensity due to lactose-induced cytotoxicity. Preadaptation of bacterial strains to fucose alleviated growth hindrance by lactose and partially recovered the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity of the cell was linearly proportional to 1-5 g/L 2'-FL. The whole-cell sensor will be versatile in developing a 2'-FL detection system.