Response of the Human Milk Microbiota to A Maternal Prebiotic Intervention is Individual and Influenced by Maternal Age.
ABSTRACT: Maternal bacteria are shared with infants via breastfeeding. Prebiotics modulate the gut microbiota, promoting health benefits. We investigated whether the maternal diet supplementation with a prebiotic (fructooligosaccharides, FOS) could influence the milk microbiota. Twenty-eight lactating women received 4.5 g of fructooligosaccharides + 2 g of maltodextrin (FOS group) and twenty-five received 2 g of maltodextrin (placebo group) for 20 days. Breast-milk samples were taken before and after the intervention. The DNA from samples was used for 16S rRNA sequencing. No statistical differences between the groups were found for the bacterial genera after the intervention. However, the distances of the trajectories covered by paired samples from the beginning to the end of the supplementation were higher for the FOS group (p = 0.0007) indicating greater changes in milk microbiota compared to the control group. Linear regression models suggested that the maternal age influenced the response for FOS supplementation (p = 0.02). Interestingly, the pattern of changes to genus abundance upon supplementation was not shared between mothers. We demonstrated that manipulating the human milk microbiota through prebiotics is possible, and the maternal age can affect this response. .
Project description:The proper development of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is critical for newborn ruminants. This microbiota is susceptible to modification by diverse external factors (such as diet) that can lead to long-lasting results when occurring in young ruminants. Dietary supplementation with prebiotics, ingredients nondigestible and nonabsorbable by the host that stimulate the growth of beneficial GIT bacteria, has been applied worldwide as a potential approach in order to improve ruminant health and production yields. However, how prebiotics affect the GIT microbiota during ruminants' early life is still poorly understood. We investigated the effect of milk supplementation with a combination of two well-known prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from sugar beet and garlic residues (all together named as "additive"), exerted on preweaned lamb growth and the composition of their fecal microbiota, by using 16S rRNA gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing. The results showed a significant increase in the mean daily weight gain of lambs fed with the additive. Lamb fecal microbiota was also influenced by the additive intake, as additive-diet lambs showed lower bacterial diversity and were significantly more abundant in Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Veillonella. These bacteria have been previously reported to confer beneficial properties to the ruminant, including promotion of growth and health status, and our results showed that they were strongly linked to the additive intake and the increased weight gain of lambs. This study points out the combination of FOS from sugar beet and garlic residues as a potential prebiotic to be used in young ruminants' nutrition in order to improve production yields.
Project description:The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16?g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed. Short-term intake of high-dose prebiotics had adverse effect on glucose metabolism, as in FOS intervention demonstrated by OGTT (P?<?0.001), and in GOS intervention demonstrated by fasting glucose (P?<?0.05). A significant increase in the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium was observed both in FOS and GOS group, while the butyrate-producing bacteria like Phascolarctobacterium in FOS group and Ruminococcus in GOS group were decreased. A random forest model using the initial microbiota was developed to predict OGTT levels after prebiotic intervention with relative success (R?=?0.726). Our study alerted even though FOS and GOS increased Bifidobacterium, they might have adverse effect on glucose metabolism by reducing butyrate-producing microbes. Individualized prebiotics intervention based on gut microbiome needs to be evaluated in future.
Project description:Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), a prebiotic supplement, is known for its Bifidogenic capabilities. However, aspects such as effect of variable quantities of FOS intake on gut microbiota, and temporal dynamics of gut microbiota (transitioning through basal, dosage, and follow-up phases) has not been studied in detail. This study investigated these aspects through a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response relationship study. The study involved 80 participants being administered FOS at three dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 g/day) or placebo (Maltodextrin 10 g/day) during dosage phase. Microbial DNA extracted from fecal samples collected at 9 intervening time-points was sequenced and analysed. Results indicate that FOS consumption increased the relative abundance of OTUs belonging to Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Interestingly, higher FOS dosage appears to promote, in contrast to Maltodextrin, the selective proliferation of OTUs belonging to Lactobacillus. While consumption of prebiotics increased bacterial diversity, withdrawal led to its reduction. Apart from probiotic bacteria, a significant change was also observed in certain butyrate-producing microbes like Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus and Oscillospira. The positive impact of FOS on butyrate-producing bacteria and FOS-mediated increased bacterial diversity reinforces the role of prebiotics in conferring beneficial functions to the host.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting 10%-15% of children in Europe. There is a need for new primary preventive therapeutic strategies in at-risk populations. Recent research has indicated that atopic diseases are associated with a disrupted gut microbial 'balance' in early life raising the possibility that interventions which yield optimal patterns of microflora could improve host's health. Prebiotics, sugars with immunomodulatory properties that stimulate the diversity of the digestive microbiota, are ideal candidates for such research. So far, most clinical trials have focused on improving infant gut colonisation postnatally. However, prenatal life is a crucial period during which different tolerance mechanisms are put in place. We aim to determine whether antenatal prebiotics supplementation prevents AD in high-risk children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, trial to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal prebiotic maternal supplementation (galacto-oligosaccharide/inulin) in pregnant women versus placebo on the occurrence of AD at 1?year of age in at-risk children (defined as having a maternal history of atopic disease). Participating women will be randomised to daily ingestion of a prebiotics or placebo (maltodextrin) from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery. The primary outcome is the prevalence of AD at 1?year of age, using the version of the UK Working Party Diagnostic Criteria optimised for preventive studies. Key secondary endpoints are AD severity, quality of life and prebiotics tolerance. The target sample size is 376 women (188 patients per group) which will provide 80% power to detect a 33% reduction of the risk of AD in the verum group (?=0.05). The primary analysis will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Results will be presented in peer-reviewed journals and at international conferences. Ethics approval for the study was obtained from the institutional ethical review board of 'Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Ouest-Outre-Mer III' of the University Hospital Centre of Bordeaux (2017/13). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03183440; Pre-results.
Project description:Composition of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet. Milk or formula oligosaccharides act as prebiotics, bioactives that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes. The influence of prebiotics on microbial interactions is not well understood. Here we investigated the transformation of prebiotics by a consortium of four representative species of the infant gut microbiome, and how their interactions changed with dietary substrates. First, we optimized a culture medium resembling certain infant gut parameters. A consortium containing Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus was grown on fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or 2'-fucosyllactose (2FL) in mono- or co-culture. While Bi. infantis and Ba. vulgatus dominated growth on 2FL, their combined growth was reduced. Besides, interaction coefficients indicated strong competition, especially on FOS. While FOS was rapidly consumed by the consortium, B. infantis was the only microbe displaying significant consumption of 2FL. Acid production by the consortium resembled the metabolism of microorganisms dominating growth in each substrate. Finally, the consortium was tested in a bioreactor, observing similar predominance but more pronounced acid production and substrate consumption. This study indicates that the chemical nature of prebiotics modulate microbial interactions in a consortium of infant gut species.
Project description:This study was conducted to investigate the effects of short administration with the combination (GMF) of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on microbiota, intestinal barriers, and growth performance of neonatal piglets. Sixteen newborn piglets were divided into two groups: GMF group and CON group; GMF solution (5 mL) and saline (5 mL) were, respectively, administered to piglets in the GMF group and CON group once a day during the first week after birth. The results showed that GMF administration improved the growth performance of neonatal piglets on day 8 and day 21, coupled with the enriched genus Lactobacillus on day 8 and the increased genera norank_f__Muribaculaceae, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, Enterococcus, and Romboutsia on day 21. Additionally, GMF administration increased luminal acetate and propionate levels, upregulated the gene expressions of intestinal tight junctions (Occludin, Claudins, and ZO-1), mucins (Mucin-1, Mucin-2, Mucin-4, and Mucin-20), and cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-22) while decreased the plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) level on day 21. The correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between the colonized beneficial microbiota and the modified intestinal barrier genes. In conclusion, the first week administration of GMF facilitated the colonization of beneficial bacteria, promoted intestinal development by enhancing microbiota-associated intestinal barrier functions, and improved the growth performance of the piglets during the whole neonatal period. Our findings provide guidelines for combined prebiotics application in modulating the microbial colonization and intestinal development of the neonates.
Project description:In pig nutrition, there are some periods when natural alternatives to antibiotics are more required, such as during suckling and weaning. Fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) are a group of prebiotics applied as feed ingredients in animal nutrition since their positive effects on growth performance, immunological parameters, intestinal microbiota, and gut morphology are reported. Accordingly, FOS may be candidate molecules to improve the mentioned properties in pigs. Previous studies defined FOS as inhibiting the activity of pathogens and increasing the colonization of beneficial bacteria in the gut, although metabolites of FOS decreased the intestinal pH value. Beneficial effects on digestive-enzyme activities and on protein digestion were determined in some studies. All of the three types of FOS (inulin, oligomeric fructans, and short-chain FOSs) promoted the microbial composition of the gut by increasing the colonizations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Prevotella genus. FOS also affected the immune response directly and indirectly and increased vaccine-specific IgA, serum IgG, and IgE levels. Moreover, FOS enhanced the activation of T cells and altered the secretions of some cytokines. Levels of vaccine-specific IgG could not be increased after FOS supplements. In most cases, FOS modified intestinal morphological parameters, such as longer villi, villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratio, and thicker mucosa, which could suggest better absorptive functions. Results are contradictory on growth performance, which might be influenced by the chemical structure, the duration, and the dose of FOS, so further studies are required. This review aims to gather information regarding immunological, antimicrobial, intestine morphological, and growth performance properties of fructooligosaccharides in pigs.
Project description:The impact of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) on mucosal immunity, gut microbiota and response to rotavirus (RV) infection was investigated in the piglet model. Newborn piglets were fed with formula alone (FF) or formula supplemented with 4?g?l(-1) HMO (HMO) or a prebiotic mixture of 9:1 short-chain galactooligosaccharides (3.6?g?l(-1)) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (0.4?g?l(-1)) (PRE) (n=19-21 per group) for 15 days. Piglets (n=7-8) in each dietary group were orally infected with porcine rotavirus (RV) OSU strain on d10, and stool consistency was assessed daily. Blood, small intestine and colonic contents were collected at day 15. Serum RV-specific antibody concentrations, intestinal histomorphology, RV non-structural protein-4 (NSP4) and cytokine mRNA expression were assessed. Colonic content pH, dry matter (DM) and short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured. Ascending colonic microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene v1-3 region pyrosequencing. HMO- and PRE-fed groups had shorter duration of diarrhea than FF piglets. Infection changed intestinal histomorphology, increased serum RV-specific antibody response and intestinal RV NSP4 expression, and modulated ileal cytokine expression. HMO enhanced T helper type 1 (interferon-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) cytokines in the ileum, while prebiotics promoted RV-specific immunoglobulin M response to the infection. RV infection and HMO supplementation altered intraluminal environment and gut microbiota. HMO increased pH and lowered DM of colonic contents and enhanced the abundance of unclassified Lachnospiraceae, which contains numerous butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, HMO and prebiotics did not prevent the onset of RV infection but reduced the duration of RV-induced diarrhea in piglets, in part, by modulating colonic microbiota and immune response to RV infection.
Project description:The maternal milk glycobiome is crucial for shaping the gut microbiota of infants. Although high core fucosylation catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 8 (Fut8) is a general feature of human milk glycoproteins, its role in the formation of a healthy microbiota has not been evaluated. In this study, we found that the core-fucosylated N-glycans in milk of Chinese mothers selectively promoted the colonization of specific gut microbial groups, such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in their breast-fed infants during lactation. Compared with Fut8+/+ (WT) mouse-fed neonates, the offspring fed by Fut8 +/- maternal mice had a distinct gut microbial profile, which was featured by a significant reduction of Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. and increased abundance of members of the Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group and Akkermansia spp. Moreover, these offspring mice showed a lower proportion of splenic CD19+ CD69+ B lymphocytes and attenuated humoral immune responses upon ovalbumin (OVA) immunization. In vitro studies demonstrated that the chemically synthesized core-fucosylated oligosaccharides possessed the ability to promote the growth of tested Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains in minimal medium. The resulting L-fucose metabolites, lactate and 1,2-propanediol, could promote the activation of B cells via the B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling pathway.IMPORTANCE This study provides novel evidence for the critical role of maternal milk protein glycosylation in shaping early-life gut microbiota and promoting B cell activation of neonates. The special core-fucosylated oligosaccharides might be promising prebiotics for the personalized nutrition of infants.
Project description:Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are considered prebiotics and have been proven to selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacterium in the gut. This study aimed to clarify the effects of FOS intake on the composition of luminal and mucosal microbiota in mice. Briefly, mice were fed a 0% or 25% FOS (w/w)-supplemented diet for four weeks, and the composition of luminal and mucosal microbiota, especially the Bifidobacterium, was analyzed by sequencing the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA and groEL gene, respectively. After FOS intervention, there were significant increases in the total and wall weights of the cecum and the amount of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecal contents of the mice. At the phylum level, the results showed a significant increase in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria in the contents and mucosa from the cecum to the distal colon in the FOS group. Besides Bifidobacterium, a significant increase was observed in the relative abundance of Coprococcus in all samples at the genus level, which may be partially related to the increase in butyric acid levels in the luminal contents. Furthermore, groEL sequencing revealed that Bifidobacterium pseudolongum was almost the sole bifidobacterial species in the luminal contents (>98%) and mucosa (>89%). These results indicated that FOS can selectively promote B. pseudolongum proliferation in the intestine, either in the lumen or the mucosa from the cecum to the distal colon. Further studies are required to reveal the competitive advantage of B. pseudolongum over other FOS-metabolizing bacteria and the response mechanisms of B. pseudolongum to FOS.