Toxicity of Carlina Oxide-A Natural Polyacetylene from the Carlina acaulis Roots-In Vitro and In Vivo Study.
ABSTRACT: There are several reports indicating that the roots of the Carlina acaulis L. used to be commonly applied as a treatment measure in skin diseases and as an antiparasitic agent, starting from antiquity to the 19th century; however, nowadays, it has lost its importance. Currently, numerous studies are being conducted assessing the possibility of reintroducing C. acaulis-derived extracts to phytotherapy. Determining the safety profile of the main constituents of the plant material is crucial for achieving this goal. Here, we aimed to determine the toxicity profile of carlina oxide, one of the most abundant components of the C. acaulis root extract. We obtained the carlina oxide by distillation of C. acaulis roots in the Deryng apparatus. The purity of the standard was evaluated using GC-MS, and the identity was confirmed by IR, Raman, and NMR spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using a panel of human cell lines of skin origin, including BJ normal fibroblasts and UACC-903, UACC-647, and C32 melanoma cells. This was accompanied by an in vivo zebrafish acute toxicity test (ZFET). In vitro studies showed a toxic effect of carlina oxide, as demonstrated by an induction of apoptosis and necrosis in both normal and melanoma cells. Decreased expression of AKT kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was noted in the UACC-647 melanoma cell line. It was also observed that carlina oxide modified the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tested cell lines. Carlina oxide exhibited high in vivo toxicity, with LC50 = 10.13 µg/mL upon the 96 h of exposure in the ZFET test. Here, we demonstrate that carlina oxide displays toxic effects to cells in culture and to living organisms. The data indicate that C. acaulis-based extracts considered for therapeutic use should be completely deprived of carlina oxide.
Project description:Various species of the Carlina genus have been used in traditional medicine in many countries to treat numerous skin disorders, including cancer. The objective of this work was to assess the anticancer properties of root and leaf extracts from Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens and C. acanthifolia subsp. utzka. Anti-tumor properties of the extracts were explored using a tetrazolium-based cell viability assay and flow cytometric apoptosis analysis, followed by immunodetection of phosphoactive ERK1/2 in UACC-903, C32, and UACC-647 human melanoma cell lines. Normal human fibroblasts were used as a control. Leaf extracts inhibited the viability of all tested melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion while the fibroblasts were less sensitive to such extract. The root extracts inhibited the proliferation of UACC-903 and UACC-647 cells only at the highest doses (300 ?g/mL). However, the C32 and fibroblast cells exhibited an increase in the cellular proliferation rate and no caspase activity was observed in response to the root extracts (100 ?g/mL). An increase in caspase activity was observed in melanoma cells treated with the leaf extracts of both Carlina species. Leaf extracts from C. acaulis subsp. caulescens (100 ?g/mL) inhibited proliferatory ERK1/2 in UACC-903 and C32 cells, as demonstrated by the decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. No reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 was observed in the tested cell lines treated with the root extracts, apart from UACC-647 after incubation with the C. acanthifolia subsp. utzka root extract (100 ?g/mL). There was no change in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the fibroblasts. The extracts from the leaves and roots were analyzed by HPLC and the analysis showed the presence of triterpenes and phenolic acids as the main extract components. The research demonstrated that the extracts from the leaves of the plants were cytotoxic against the human melanoma line and induced apoptosis of the cells. The triterpene fraction present in the tested extracts may be responsible for this activity.
Project description:<i>Carlina acaulis</i> L. has a long tradition of use in folk medicine. The chemical composition of the roots and green parts of the plant is quite well known. There is the lowest amount of data on the cypsela (fruit) of this plant. In this study, the microscopic structures and the chemical composition of the cypsela were investigated. Preliminary cytochemical studies of the structure of the <i>Carlina acaulis</i> L. cypsela showed the presence of substantial amounts of protein and lipophilic substances. The chemical composition of the cypsela was investigated using spectrophotometry, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and fluorescence detection. The cypsela has been shown to be a rich source of macro- and microelements, vegetable oil (25%), ?-tocopherol (approx. 2 g/kg of oil), protein (approx. 36% seed weight), and chlorogenic acids (approx. 22 g/kg seed weight). It also contains a complex set of volatile compounds. The <i>C. acaulis</i> cypsela is, therefore, a valuable source of nutrients and bioactive substances.
Project description:Roots and leaves of Carlina acaulis L. are still used in ethnomedicine in many European countries; however, the limited occurrence of the plants and protection of this species necessitate a search for alternative ways for obtaining this plant material. In this study, in vitro cultures, hydroponic cultures, and field cultivation were applied to obtain the C. acaulis plant material. Its quality was evaluated using antioxidant activity tests and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Our study showed that the antioxidant activity and the content of chlorogenic and 3,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid in roots of plants cultivated in hydroponics and field conditions were comparable. However, the amount of carlina oxide was significantly higher in plants from the field. The flavonoid content in leaves obtained from both cultivation systems was at the same level; however, the antioxidant activity and the content of the investigated metabolites were higher in the soil cultivation system. The callus line exhibited high differentiation in phytochemical compositions depending on the treatments and medium compositions.
Project description:The impact of long-term chronic cadmium stress (ChS, 0.1 µM Cd, 85 days) or short-term acute cadmium stress (AS, 10 µM Cd, 4 days) on Carlina acaulis (Asteraceae) metabolites was compared to identify specific traits. The content of Cd was higher under AS in all organs in comparison with ChS (130 vs. 16 µg·g-1 DW, 7.9 vs. 3.2 µg·g-1 DW, and 11.5 vs. 2.4 µg·g-1 DW in roots, leaves, and trichomes, respectively) while shoot bioaccumulation factor under ChS (ca. 280) indicates efficient Cd accumulation. High content of Cd in the trichomes from the AS treatment may be an anatomical adaptation mechanism. ChS evoked an increase in root biomass (hormesis), while the impact on shoot biomass was not significant in any treatment. The amounts of ascorbic acid and sum of phytochelatins were higher in the shoots but organic (malic and citric) acids dominated in the roots of plants from the ChS treatment. Chlorogenic acid, but not ursolic and oleanolic acids, was elevated by ChS. These data indicate that both chelation and enhancement of antioxidative power contribute to protection of plants exposed to long-term (chronic) Cd presence with subsequent hormetic effect.
Project description:Anther smuts on Silene acaulis and S. uniflora from the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, UK), are analysed using morphological and molecular techniques, and found to represent Microbotryum silenes-acaulis and M. silenes-inflatae, respectively. This is the first identification of caryophyllaceous anther smuts in the Outer Hebrides according to modern species concepts and the first report of Microbotryum silenes-acaulis confirmed by molecular analysis from the British Isles. Additionally, the genetic structure of Microbotryum silenes-acaulis, based on all currently available ITS sequences, is analysed and discussed. Seven ITS genotypes are determined for Microbotryum silenes-acaulis, including three genotypes in North America and four genotypes in Europe. Compared to European accessions, all North American accessions share specific nucleotides and are genetically divergent.
Project description:Numerous species of the Asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. Reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. The presented study aims to narrow this gap by performing anatomical analyses of roots and rhizomes of 16 species belonging to the tribe Cardueae, of formerly and currently used drugs as well as their near relatives as potential adulterations (Carlina acaulis L., Carlina vulgaris L., Arctium lappa L., Arctium tomentosum Mill., Carduus defloratus L., Carduus personata (L.) Jacq, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop., Onopordum acanthium L., Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Rhaponticum scariosum Lam., Centaurea jacea L., Centaurea scabiosa L., Centaurea cyanus L., Cnicus benedictus L.). A detailed verbal and graphical survey of the analysed anatomical features is provided. Several characters were finally extracted which allow for discrimination of the examined species and may be effectively used for drug quality controls.
Project description:Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.
Project description:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Fifty candidate microsatellite markers, generated using 454 shotgun sequencing, were tested for the widespread arctic/alpine herb Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae). METHODS AND RESULTS:Fourteen out of 50 markers resulted in polymorphic products with profiles that enabled interpretation. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to six, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.06 to 0.68. Analysis of F0 and F1 samples proved that one allele was always inherited maternally. Four multiplex mixes have been developed. CONCLUSIONS:Microsatellite markers for this species will be a valuable tool to study detailed small-scale genetic patterns in an arctic/alpine herb and to relate them to demographic parameters.
Project description:NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in signaling cascades that regulate cancer cell proliferation. To evaluate and validate NOX5 expression in human tumors, we screened a broad range of tissue microarrays (TMAs), and report substantial overexpression of NOX5 in malignant melanoma and cancers of the prostate, breast, and ovary. In human UACC-257 melanoma cells that possesses high levels of functional endogenous NOX5, overexpression of NOX5 resulted in enhanced cell growth, increased numbers of BrdU positive cells, and increased ?-H2AX levels. Additionally, NOX5-overexpressing (stable and inducible) UACC-257 cells demonstrated increased normoxic HIF-1? expression and decreased p27Kip1 expression. Similarly, increased normoxic HIF-1? expression and decreased p27Kip1 expression were observed in stable NOX5-overexpressing clones of KARPAS 299 human lymphoma cells and in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous NOX5 in UACC-257 cells resulted in decreased cell growth, decreased HIF-1? expression, and increased p27Kip1 expression. Likewise, in an additional human melanoma cell line, WM852, and in PC-3 cells, transient knockdown of endogenous NOX5 resulted in increased p27Kip1 and decreased HIF-1? expression. Knockdown of endogenous NOX5 in UACC-257 cells resulted in decreased Akt and GSK3? phosphorylation, signaling pathways known to modulate p27Kip1 levels. In summary, our findings suggest that NOX5 expression in human UACC-257 melanoma cells could contribute to cell proliferation due, in part, to the generation of high local concentrations of extracellular ROS that modulate multiple pathways that regulate HIF-1? and networks that signal through Akt/GSK3?/p27Kip1 .
Project description:The methanol extracts from three populations of Carlina vulgaris L. were examined for the chlorogenic acid content, mineral content, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity. Two populations originated from natural nonmetallicolous habitats (NN (populations from Nasi?ów) and NP (populations from Pi?czów)), and one metallicolous population (MB) was collected from Boles?aw waste heap localized at the place of former open-cast mining of Ag-Pb and Zn-Pb ores dating back to the 13th century and 18th century, respectively. The level of Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Mn was significantly higher in the root and leaves of MB plants as a result of soil contaminations compared to those of the NN and NP ones. The highest antioxidant potency has been showed by the plants growing in a nonmetallicolous habitat. The flower head extracts obtained from the nonmetallicolous populations also contained the largest amount of chlorogenic acid, whereas the lowest was determined in the roots (ca. 2-3.5?mg/g and 0.2-0.4?mg/g of air-dry weight, resp.). These studies provide important information on the influence of a habitat on the quality of herbal materials and the content of the biologically active primary and secondary metabolites.