The Effect of Biochars and Endophytic Bacteria on Growth and Root Rot Disease Incidence of Fusarium Infested Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).
ABSTRACT: The effects of biochar on plant growth vary depending on the applied biochar type, study site environmental conditions, microbial species, and plant-microbial interactions. The objectives of the present study were therefore to assess 1) the response of growth parameters of lupin and root disease incidence to the application of three biochar types in a loamy sandy soil, and 2) the role of endophytic bacteria in biological control of root rot disease incidence in lupin after the amendment of soil with different biochar types. As biochar types we tested (i) hydrochar (HTC) from maize silage, (ii) pyrolysis char from maize (MBC), and (iii) pyrolysis char from wood (WBC) at three different concentrations (1%, 2%, and 3% of char as soil amendments). There were no significant effects in lupin shoot and root growth in soils amended with WBC at any of the concentrations. MBC did not affect plant growth except for root dry weight at 2% MBC. HTC char at 2% concentration, significantly increased the root dry weight of lupin by 54-75%, and shoot dry weight by 21-25%. Lupin plants grown in soil amended with 2% and 3% WBC and MBC chars showed 40-50% and 10-20% disease symptoms, respectively. Plants grown in soil without biochar and with HTC char were healthy, and no disease incidence occurred. Pseudomonas putida L2 and Stenotrophomonas pavanii L8 isolates demonstrated a disease reduction compared to un-inoculated plants under MBC and WBC amended soil that was infested with Fusarium solani.
Project description:The application of biochar to soil is considered to have the potential for long-term soil carbon sequestration, as well as for improving plant growth and suppressing soil pathogens. In our study we evaluated the effect of biochar on the plant growth of soybeans, as well as on the community composition of root-associated bacteria with plant growth promoting traits. Two types of biochar, namely, maize biochar (MBC), wood biochar (WBC), and hydrochar (HTC) were used for pot experiments to monitor plant growth. Soybean plants grown in soil amended with HTC char (2%) showed the best performance and were collected for isolation and further characterization of root-associated bacteria for multiple plant growth promoting traits. Only HTC char amendment resulted in a statistically significant increase in the root and shoot dry weight of soybeans. Interestingly, rhizosphere isolates from HTC char amended soil showed higher diversity than the rhizosphere isolates from the control soil. In addition, a higher proportion of isolates from HTC char amended soil compared with control soil was found to express plant growth promoting properties and showed antagonistic activity against one or more phytopathogenic fungi. Our study provided evidence that improved plant growth by biochar incorporation into soil results from the combination of a direct effect that is dependent on the type of char and a microbiome shift in root-associated beneficial bacteria.
Project description:In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.
Project description:Adding biochar to soil has environmental and agricultural potential due to its long-term carbon sequestration capacity and its ability to improve crop productivity. Recent studies have demonstrated that soil-applied biochar promotes the systemic resistance of plants to several prominent foliar pathogens. One potential mechanism for this phenomenon is root-associated microbial elicitors whose presence is somehow augmented in the biochar-amended soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of biochar amendment on the root-associated bacterial community composition of mature sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Molecular fingerprinting (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed a clear differentiation between the root-associated bacterial community structures of biochar-amended and control plants. The pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons from the rhizoplane of both treatments generated a total of 20,142 sequences, 92 to 95% of which were affiliated with the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The relative abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phylum increased from 12 to 30% as a result of biochar amendment, while that of the Proteobacteria decreased from 71 to 47%. The Bacteroidetes-affiliated Flavobacterium was the strongest biochar-induced genus. The relative abundance of this group increased from 4.2% of total root-associated operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in control samples to 19.6% in biochar-amended samples. Additional biochar-induced genera included chitin and cellulose degraders (Chitinophaga and Cellvibrio, respectively) and aromatic compound degraders (Hydrogenophaga and Dechloromonas). We hypothesize that these biochar-augmented genera may be at least partially responsible for the beneficial effect of biochar amendment on plant growth and viability.
Project description:This study aimed to determine effects of rice straw biochar on Pb sequestration in a soil-rice system. Pot experiments were conducted with rice plants in Pb-contaminated paddy soils that had been amended with 0, 2.5, and 5% (w/w) biochar. Compared to the control treatment, amendment with 5% biochar resulted in 54 and 94% decreases in the acid soluble and CaCl2-extractable Pb, respectively, in soils containing rice plants at the maturity stage. The amount of Fe-plaque on root surfaces and the Pb concentrations of the Fe-plaque were also reduced in biochar amended soils. Furthermore, lead species in rice roots were determined using Pb L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and although Pb-ferrihydrite complexes dominated Pb inventories, increasing amounts of organic complexes like Pb-pectins and Pb-cysteine were found in roots from the 5% biochar treatments. Such organic complexes might impede Pb translocation from root to shoot and subsequently reduce Pb accumulation in rice with biochar amendment.
Project description:Abstract Large?scale soil application of biochar is one of the terrestrial carbon sequestration strategies for future climate change mitigation pathways, which can also help remove and sequester pollutants from contaminated soil and water. However, black carbon emissions from biochar?amended soils can deteriorate air quality and affect human health, as the biochar particles often contain a higher amount of sorbed toxic pollutants than the soil. Yet, the extent and mechanism of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) emission from biochar?amended soils at different wind regimes have not been evaluated. Using wind tunnel experiments to simulate different wind regimes, we quantified particulate emission from sand amended with 1–4% (by weight) biochar at two size fractions: with and without <2?mm biochar. At wind speeds below the threshold speed for soil erosion, biochar application significantly increased PM10 emission by up to 400% due to the direct resuspension of inhalable biochar particles. At wind speeds above the threshold speed, emission increased by up to 300% even from biochar without inhalable fractions due to collisions of fast?moving sand particles with large biochar particles. Using a theoretical framework, we show that particulate matter emissions from biochar?amended soils could be higher than that previously expected at wind speeds below the erosion threshold wind speed for background soil. Our results indicate that current models for fugitive dust emissions may underestimate the particulate matter emission potential of biochar?amended soils and will help improve the assessment of biochar emission from amended soils. Key Points The applied biochar can be transported out of the soil system even at low wind velocities, potentially along with adsorbed contaminants Current models for fugitive dust emissions may underestimate particulate matter emission potential of biochar?amended soils
Project description:The use of biochar can contribute to carbon (C) storage in soil. Upon addition of biochar, there is a spatial reorganization of C within soil particles, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used Fourier transformed infrared-microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine this reorganization. A silty-loam soil was amended with three different organic residues and with the biochar produced from these residues and incubated for 237 d. Soil respiration was lower in biochar-amended soils than in residue-amended soils. Fluorescence analysis of the dissolved organic matter revealed that biochar application increased a humic-like fluorescent component, likely associated with biochar-C in solution. The combined spectroscopy-microscopy approach revealed the accumulation of aromatic-C in discrete spots in the solid-phase of microaggregates and its co-localization with clay minerals for soil amended with raw residue or biochar.The co-localization of aromatic-C:polysaccharides-C was consistently reduced upon biochar application. We conclude that reduced C metabolism is an important mechanism for C stabilization in biochar-amended soils.
Project description:Slow release of nitrate by charred organic matter used as a soil amendment (i.e. biochar) was recently suggested as potential mechanism of nutrient delivery to plants which may explain some agronomic benefits of biochar. So far, isolated soil-aged and composted biochar particles were shown to release considerable amounts of nitrate only in extended (>1 h) extractions ("slow release"). In this study, we quantified nitrate and ammonium release by biochar-amended soil and compost during up to 167 h of repeated extractions in up to six consecutive steps to determine the effect of biochar on the overall mineral nitrogen retention. We used composts produced from mixed manures amended with three contrasting biochars prior to aerobic composting and a loamy soil that was amended with biochar three years prior to analysis and compared both to non-biochar amended controls. Composts were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C and 65°C, after sterilization, after treatment with H2O2, after removing biochar particles or without any modification. Soils were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C. Ammonium was continuously released during the extractions, independent of biochar amendment and is probably the result of abiotic ammonification. For the pure compost, nitrate extraction was complete after 1 h, while from biochar-amended composts, up to 30% of total nitrate extracted was only released during subsequent extraction steps. The loamy soil released 70% of its total nitrate amount in subsequent extractions, the biochar-amended soil 58%. However, biochar amendment doubled the amount of total extractable nitrate. Thus, biochar nitrate capture can be a relevant contribution to the overall nitrate retention in agroecosystems. Our results also indicate that the total nitrate amount in biochar amended soils and composts may frequently be underestimated. Furthermore, biochars could prevent nitrate loss from agroecosystems and may be developed into slow-release fertilizers to reduce global N fertilizer demands.
Project description:Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp) alone at application rate of 20% (v/v), and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips) or green waste biochar (GWB; made from garden waste residues) at application rate of 3% (v/v), and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing a soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though a bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from a substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi.
Project description:Biochar shapes the soil environment and plant growth. Nevertheless, the mechanisms associated with an improved plant biomass and soil microbiome in low metal-contaminated soils are still unclear. In this study, the influence of biochar on soil physico-chemical properties, plant performance, and rhizosphere microbiota in durum wheat was investigated at the above- and belowground levels. Two kinds of biochar from different feedstocks (wood chips and wheat straw pellets) and two Italian durum wheat varieties, Duilio and Marco Aurelio, were analyzed in a greenhouse using a low-nutrient gleyic fluvisol containing a very small amount of Pb and Zn. Four different treatments were performed: soil-only control (C), soil amended with woody biochar equilibrated with nutrient solution (B1+) and non-activated (B1-), and soil amended with non-activated (B2-) wheat straw biochar. Seven weeks after seed germination, (1) the physico-chemical properties of soil, biochars, and mixtures were assessed; (2) the fresh and dry weight of aboveground plant tissues and roots and other morphometric traits were measured; and (3) metabarcoding of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene was performed on rhizosphere soil samples. The results showed that the biochar from wheat straw had stronger impact on both durum varieties, with higher electrical conductivity, higher levels of available K and Na, and a substantial increase of dissolved Na+, K+, and Cl- ions in pore water. Generally, biochar amendment decreased Zn availability for the plants. In addition, biochar improved plant growth in the early growth stage, and the more positive effect was achieved by combining wheat straw biochar with Marco Aurelio. Rhizosphere bacterial microbiota showed variation in alpha diversity only due to treatment; on the other hand, the differential analysis showed consistent variation among samples with significant effects on amplicon sequence variant (ASV) abundance due to the specific biochar treatment as well as the genotype. The pure B1-, due to its scarce nutrient content with respect to the richer types (B1+ and B2-), had a negative impact on microbiota richness. Our study highlights that an appropriate combination of biochar feedstock and crop species may lead to superior yield.
Project description:Food demand and soil sustainability have become urgent issues recently because of the global climate changes. This study aims to evaluate the application of a biochar produced by rice hull, on changes of physiochemical characteristics and erosion potential of a degraded slopeland soil. Rice hull biochar pyrolized at 400°C was incorporated into the soil at rates of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (w/w) and was incubated for 168 d in this study. The results indicated that biochar application reduced the Bd by 12% to 25% and the PR by 57% to 92% after incubation, compared with the control. Besides, porosity and aggregate size increased by 16% to 22% and by 0.59 to 0.94 mm, respectively. The results presented that available water contents significantly increased in the amended soils by 18% to 89% because of the obvious increase of micropores. The water conductivity of the biochar-amended soils was only found in 10% biochar treatment, which might result from significant increase of macropores and reduction of soil strength (Bd and PR). During a simulated rainfall event, soil loss contents significantly decreased by 35% to 90% in the biochar-amended soils. In conclusion, biochar application could availably raise soil quality and physical properties for tilth increasing in the degraded mudstone soil.