Increased financial burdens and lengths of stay in patients with healthcare-associated infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria in intensive care units: A propensity-matched case-control study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Incidence rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) depend upon infection control policy and practices, and the effectiveness of the implementation of antibiotic stewardship. Amongst intensive care unit (ICU) patients with HAIs, a substantial number of pathogens were reported to be multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB). However, impacts of ICU HAIs due to MDRB (MDRB-HAIs) remain understudied. Our study aimed to evaluate the negative impacts of MRDB-HAIs versus HAIs due to non-MDRB (non-MRDB-HAIs). METHODS:Among 60,317 adult patients admitted at ICUs of a 2680-bed medical centre in Taiwan between January 2010 and December 2017, 279 pairs of propensity-score matched MRDB-HAI and non-MRDB-HAI were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Between the MDRB-HAI group and the non-MDRB-HAI group, significant differences were found in overall hospital costs, costs of medical and nursing services, medication, and rooms/beds, and in ICU length-of-stay (LOS). As compared with the non-MDRB-HAI group, the mean of the overall hospital costs of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 26%; for categorized expenditures, the mean of costs of medical and nursing services of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 8%, of medication by 26.9%, of rooms/beds by 10.3%. The mean ICU LOS in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 13%. Mortality rates in both groups did not significantly differ. CONCLUSIONS:These data clearly demonstrate more negative impacts of MDRB-HAIs in ICUs. The quantified financial burdens will be helpful for hospital/government policymakers in allocating resources to mitigate MDRB-HAIs in ICUs; in case of need for clarification/verification of the medico-economic burdens of MDRB-HAIs in different healthcare systems, this study provides a model to facilitate the evaluations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vietnam is a lower middle-income country with no national surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). We assessed the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections and antimicrobial use in adult intensive care units (ICUs) across Vietnam. METHODS:Monthly repeated point prevalence surveys were systematically conducted to assess HAI prevalence and antimicrobial use in 15 adult ICUs across Vietnam. Adults admitted to participating ICUs before 08:00 a.m. on the survey day were included. RESULTS:Among 3287 patients enrolled, the HAI prevalence was 29.5% (965/3266 patients, 21 missing). Pneumonia accounted for 79.4% (804/1012) of HAIs Most HAIs (84.5% [855/1012]) were acquired in the survey hospital with 42.5% (363/855) acquired prior to ICU admission and 57.5% (492/855) developed during ICU admission. In multivariate analysis, the strongest risk factors for HAI acquired in ICU were: intubation (OR 2.76), urinary catheter (OR 2.12), no involvement of a family member in patient care (OR 1.94), and surgery after admission (OR 1.66). 726 bacterial isolates were cultured from 622/1012 HAIs, most frequently Acinetobacter baumannii (177/726 [24.4%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100/726 [13.8%]), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (84/726 [11.6%]), with carbapenem resistance rates of 89.2%, 55.7%, and 14.9% respectively. Antimicrobials were prescribed for 84.8% (2787/3287) patients, with 73.7% of patients receiving two or more. The most common antimicrobial groups were third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems (20.1%, 19.4%, and 14.1% of total antimicrobials, respectively). CONCLUSION:A high prevalence of HAIs was observed, mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria with high carbapenem resistance rates. This in combination with a high rate of antimicrobial use illustrates the urgent need to improve rational antimicrobial use and infection control efforts.
Project description:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are adverse complications of hospitalisation resulting in delayed recovery and increased costs. The aim of this study was an analysis of epidemiological factors obtained in the framework of constant, comprehensive (hospital-wide) infection registration, and identification of priorities and needs in infection control, both with regard to targeted surveillance, as well as preventative actions. The study was carried out according to the methodology recommended by the HAI-Net (Surveillance Network) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, in the multiprofile hospital in Southern Poland, between 2012 and 2016. A total of 159,028 patients were under observation and 2184 HAIs were detected. The incidence was 1.4/100 admissions (2.7/1000 patient-das of hospitalisation) and significantly differed depending on the type of the patient care: in intensive care units (ICU) 16.9%; in surgical units, 1.3%; non-surgical units, 1.0%; and paediatric units, 1.8%. The most common HAI was gastrointestinal infections (GIs, 28.9%), followed by surgical site infections (SSIs, 23.0%) and bloodstream infections (BSIs, 16.1%). The vast majority of GIs, BSIs, urinary tract infections, and incidents of pneumonia (PN) were detected in non-ICUs. As many as 33.2% of cases of HAI were not confirmed microbiologically. The most frequently detected etiologic agent of infections was Clostridium difficile-globally and in GI (49%). Comprehensive analysis of the results allowed to identify important elements of surveillance of infections, i.e., surveillance of GI, PN, and BSI not only in ICU, but also in non-ICU wards, indicating a need for implementing rapid actions to improve compliance with HAI prevention procedures.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>During the intensive care units' (ICUs) reorganization that was forced by the COVID-19 emergency, attention to traditional infection control measures may have been reduced. Nevertheless, evidence on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is still limited and mixed. In this study, we estimated the pandemic impact on HAI incidence and investigated the HAI type occurring in COVID-19 patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients admitted to the main ICU of the Umberto I teaching hospital of Rome from March 1st and April 4th 2020 were compared with patients hospitalized in 2019. We assessed the association of risk factors and time-to-first event through multivariable Fine and Grey's regression models, that consider the competitive risk of death on the development of HAI (Model 1) or device related-HAI (dr-HAI, Model 2) and provide estimates of the sub-distribution hazard ratio (SHR) and its associated confidence interval (CI). A subgroup analysis was performed on the 2020 cohort.<h4>Results</h4>Data from 104 patients were retrieved. Overall, 59 HAIs were recorded, 32 of which occurred in the COVID-19 group. Patients admitted in 2020 were found to be positively associated with both HAI and dr-HAI onset (SHR: 2.66, 95% CI 1.31-5.38, and SHR: 10.0, 95% CI 1.84-54.41, respectively). Despite being not confirmed at the multivariable analysis, a greater proportion of dr-HAIs seemed to occur in COVID-19 patients, especially ventilator-associated pneumonia, and catheter-related urinary tract infections.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We observed an increase in the incidence of patients with HAIs, especially dr-HAIs, mainly sustained by COVID-19 patients. A greater susceptibility of these patients to device-related infections was hypothesized, but further studies are needed.
Project description:Hospital-associated infections (HAIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Organisms causing these infections are often present on surfaces around the patient. Given that microbiota may vary across different ICUs, the HAI-related microbial signatures within these units remain underexplored. In this study, we use deep-sequencing analyses to explore and compare the structure of bacterial communities at inanimate surfaces of the ICU and NICU wards of The Medical School Clinics Hospital (Brazil). The data revealed that NICU presents higher biodiversity than ICU and surfaces closest to the patient showed a peculiar microbiota, distinguishing one unit from the other. Several facultative anaerobes or obligate anaerobes HAI-related genera were classified as biomarkers for the NICU, whereas Pseudomonas was the main biomarker for ICU. Correlation analyses revealed a distinct pattern of microbe-microbe interactions for each unit, including bacteria able to form multi-genera biofilms. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of concurrent cleaning over the ICU bacterial community. The results showed that, although some bacterial populations decreased after cleaning, various HAI-related genera were quite stable following sanitization, suggesting being well-adapted to the ICU environment. Overall, these results enabled identification of discrete ICU and NICU reservoirs of potentially pathogenic bacteria and provided evidence for the presence of a set of biomarkers genera that distinguish these units. Moreover, the study exposed the inconsistencies of the routine cleaning to minimize HAI-related genera contamination.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the effect of mandated state health care-associated infection (HAI) reporting laws on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in adult intensive care units (ICUs).<h4>Data sources</h4>We analyzed 2006-2012 adult ICU CLABSI and hospital annual survey data from the National Healthcare Safety Network. The final analytic sample included 244 hospitals, 947 hospital years, 475 ICUs, 1,902 ICU years, and 16,996 ICU months.<h4>Study design</h4>We used a quasi-experimental study design to identify the effect of state mandatory reporting laws. Several secondary models were conducted to explore potential explanations for the plausible effects of HAI laws.<h4>Principal findings</h4>Controlling for the overall time trend, ICUs in states with laws had lower CLABSI rates beginning approximately 6 months prior to the law's effective date (incidence rate ratio = 0.66; p < .001); this effect persisted for more than 6 1/2 years after the law's effective date. These findings were robust in secondary models and are likely to be attributed to changes in central line usage and/or resources dedicated to infection control.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results provide valuable evidence that state reporting requirements for HAIs improved care. Additional studies are needed to further explore why and how mandatory HAI reporting laws decreased CLABSI rates.
Project description:Whether the risk of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) acquisition in the intensive care unit (ICU) is modified by the COVID-19 crisis is unknown. In this single center case control study, we measured the rate of MDRB acquisition in patients admitted in COVID-19 ICU and compared it with patients admitted in the same ICU for subarachnoid hemorrhage (controls) matched 1:1 on length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation. All patients were systematically and repeatedly screened for MDRB carriage. We compared the rate of MDRB acquisition in COVID-19 patients and in control using a competing risk analysis. Of note, although we tried to match COVID-19 patients with septic shock patients, we were unable due to the longer stay of COVID-19 patients. Among 72 patients admitted to the COVID-19 ICUs, 33% acquired 31 MDRB during ICU stay. The incidence density of MDRB acquisition was 30/1000 patient days. Antimicrobial therapy and exposure time were associated with higher rate of MDRB acquisition. Among the 72 SAH patients, 21% acquired MDRB, with an incidence density was 18/1000 patient days. The septic patients had more comorbidities and a greater number of previous hospitalizations than the COVID-19 patients. The incidence density of MDRB acquisition was 30/1000 patient days. The association between COVID-19 and MDRB acquisition (compared to control) risk did not reach statistical significance in the multivariable competing risk analysis (sHR 1.71 (CI 95% 0.93-3.21)). Thus, we conclude that, despite strong physical isolation, acquisition rate of MDRB in ICU patients was at least similar during the COVID-19 first wave compared to previous period.
Project description:Objectives:To compare the predicted vs observed mortality rate, criticality, and length of stay of the patients with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary health center through acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) IV scoring. To analyze the drug sensitivity pattern of the isolated pathogen. Design:This is a prospective observational study involving the patients admitted to various ICUs of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Among 1,229 patients who were admitted in the ICUs for a period of 2.5 months (74 days), 767 patients stayed beyond 48 hours. They were monitored and 87 of them who developed HAIs were included in the study. The organisms isolated from the infection site were identified, and the drug resistance pattern was reported as per standard guidelines. The patients were followed up till their discharge, and adequate details pertaining to the study were collected including demographic details and physiological and biochemical parameters to calculate APACHE IV score, length of stay, and prognosis. Setting:Intensive care units of JSS Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. Subjects/patients:All patients who developed HAI in ICUs. Interventions:Nil. Measurements and main results:The HAI rate observed in this study was 15.7%. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was the most common type of infection. Klebsiella and Acinetobacter were the frequently isolated organisms. There was a high prevalence of drug resistance among these pathogens. The ICU mortality in infected patients was 21.83%, roughly twice as that of uninfected patients. The observed length of stay was 11.66 (±8.53) days. Conclusion:Healthcare-associated infection was associated with long duration of ICU stay. There was a high prevalence of drug resistance to various antibiotics. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation IV score was not found to be good scoring system to predict the mortality and length of stay in the patients who had HAI. How to cite this article:Gunasekaran S, Mahadevaiah S. Healthcare-associated Infection in Intensive Care Units: Overall Analysis of Patient Criticality by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Scoring and Pathogenic Characteristics. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(4):252-257.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs) are among the avoidable morbidity and mortality causes. This study aimed at investigating the rate of ICU-acquired infections (ICU-AIs) in Iran.<h4>Methods</h4>For the purpose of this multi-center study, the rate of ICU-AIs calculated based on the data collected through Iranian nosocomial infections surveillance system and hospital information system. The data expanded based on 12 months of the year (13,632 records in terms of "hospital-ward-month"), and then, the last observation carried forward method was used to replace the missing data.<h4>Results</h4>The mean (standard deviation) age of 52,276 patients with HAIs in the ICUs was 47.37 (30.78) years. The overall rate of ICU-AIs was 96.61 per 1000 patients and 16.82 per 1000 patient-days in Iran's hospitals. The three main HAIs in the general ICUs were ventilator-associated events (VAE), urinary tract infection (UTI), and pneumonia events & lower respiratory tract infection (PNEU & LRI) infections. The three main HAIs in the internal and surgical ICUs were VAE, UTI, and bloodstream infections/surgical site infections (BSI/SSI). The most prevalent HAIs were BSI, PNEU & LRI and eye, ear, nose, throat, or mouth (EENT) infections in the neonatal ICU and PNEU & LRI, VAE, and BSI in the PICU. Device, catheter, and ventilator-associated infections accounted for 60.96, 18.56, and 39.83% of ICU-AIs, respectively. The ventilator-associated infection rate was 26.29 per 1000 ventilator-days. Based on the Pabon Lasso model, the lowest rates of ICU-AIs (66.95 per 1000 patients and 15.19 patient-days) observed in zone III, the efficient area.<h4>Conclusions</h4>HAIs are common in the internal ICU wards. In fact, VAE and ventilator-related infections are more prevalent in Iran. HAIs in the ICUs leads to an increased risk of ICU-related mortality. Therefore, to reduce ICU-AIs, the specific and trained personnel must be responsible for the use of the devices (catheter use and ventilators), avoid over use of catheterization when possible, and remove catheters earlier.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major health concern and have substantial effects on morbidity and mortality and increase healthcare costs. We investigated the effect of a hospital-wide program for the prevention of HAIs on additional length of stay (LOS). METHODS:We analyzed data from a prospective, single-center, quasi-experimental study with two surveillance periods before and after implementation of an infection prevention intervention program. HAI diagnosis was made according to surveillance definition criteria established by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A multistate model was used to estimate additional LOS for patients with HAI in both surveillance periods. RESULTS:During the first and second periods, 1,568 and 2,336 HAIs were identified among 26,943 and 35,211 patients, respectively. For HAI patients exclusively treated in a general ward, additional LOS was 8.4 (95% confidence interval, CI: 6.8-10.0) days in the first period and 9.6 (95% CI: 8.3-11.0) days in the second period (p = 0.26). For HAI patients treated in both an intensive care unit (ICU) and a general ward, additional LOS was 8.1 (95% CI: 6.3-9.9) days in the first period to 7.3 (95% CI: 6.1-8.5) days in the second period (p = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS:Healthcare-associated infections prolong LOS. A hospital-wide infection control program did not alter the prolongation of LOS.
Project description:Objective:To describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in Egyptian hospitals reporting to the national HAI surveillance system. Methods:Design: Descriptive analysis of CRE HAIs and retrospective observational cohort study using national HAI surveillance data. Setting: Egyptian hospitals participating in the HAI surveillance system. The patient population included patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in participating hospitals. Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases were Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter isolates from blood, urine, wound or respiratory specimen collected on or after day 3 of ICU admission. CRE HAI cases were those resistant to at least one carbapenem. For CRE HAI cases reported during 2011-2017, a hospital-level and patient-level analysis were conducted using only the first CRE isolate by pathogen and specimen type for each patient. For facility, microbiology, and clinical characteristics, frequencies and means were calculated among CRE HAI cases and compared with carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases through univariate and multivariate logistic regression using STATA 13. Results:There were 1598 Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases, of which 871 (54.1%) were carbapenem resistant. The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that carbapenem resistance was associated with specimen type, pathogen, location prior to admission, and length of ICU stay. Between 2011 and 2017, there was an increase in the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases due to CRE (p-value?=?0.003) and the incidence of CRE HAIs (p-value?=?0.09). Conclusions:This analysis demonstrated a high and increasing burden of CRE in Egyptian hospitals, highlighting the importance of enhancing infection prevention and control (IPC) programs and antimicrobial stewardship activities and guiding the implementation of targeted IPC measures to contain CRE in Egyptian ICU's .