Within-patient plasmid dynamics in Klebsiella pneumoniae during an outbreak of a carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Knowledge of within-patient dynamics of resistance plasmids during outbreaks is important for understanding the persistence and transmission of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance. During an outbreak of a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing (KPC) K. pneumoniae, the plasmid and chromosomal dynamics of K. pneumoniae within-patients were investigated. METHODS:During the outbreak, all K. pneumoniae isolates of colonized or infected patients were collected, regardless of their susceptibility pattern. A selection of isolates was short-read and long-read sequenced. A hybrid assembly of the short-and long-read sequence data was performed. Plasmid contigs were extracted from the hybrid assembly, annotated, and within patient plasmid comparisons were performed. RESULTS:Fifteen K. pneumoniae isolates of six patients were short-read whole-genome sequenced. Whole-genome multi-locus sequence typing revealed a maximum of 4 allele differences between the sequenced isolates. Within patients 1 and 2 the resistance gene- and plasmid replicon-content did differ between the isolates sequenced. Long-read sequencing and hybrid assembly of 4 isolates revealed loss of the entire KPC-gene containing plasmid in the isolates of patient 2 and a recombination event between the plasmids in the isolates of patient 1. This resulted in two different KPC-gene containing plasmids being simultaneously present during the outbreak. CONCLUSION:During a hospital outbreak of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolate, plasmid loss of the KPC-gene carrying plasmid and plasmid recombination was detected within the isolates from two patients. When investigating outbreaks, one should be aware that plasmid transmission can occur and the possibility of within- and between-patient plasmid variation needs to be considered.
Project description:Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), including KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kpn), are an increasing threat to patient safety.To use WGS to investigate the extent and complexity of carbapenemase gene dissemination in a controlled KPC outbreak.Enterobacteriaceae with reduced ertapenem susceptibility recovered from rectal screening swabs/clinical samples, during a 3 month KPC outbreak (2013-14), were investigated for carbapenemase production, antimicrobial susceptibility, variable-number-tandem-repeat profile and WGS [short-read (Illumina), long-read (MinION)]. Short-read sequences were used for MLST and plasmid/Tn4401 fingerprinting, and long-read sequence assemblies for plasmid identification. Phylogenetic analysis used IQTree followed by ClonalFrameML, and outbreak transmission dynamics were inferred using SCOTTI.Twenty patients harboured KPC-positive isolates (6 infected, 14 colonized), and 23 distinct KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. Four distinct KPC plasmids were characterized but of 20 KPC-Kpn (from six STs), 17 isolates shared a single pKpQIL-D2 KPC plasmid. All isolates had an identical transposon (Tn4401a), except one KPC-Kpn (ST661) with a single nucleotide variant. A sporadic case of KPC-Kpn (ST491) with Tn4401a-carrying pKpQIL-D2 plasmid was identified 10 months before the outbreak. This plasmid was later seen in two other species and other KPC-Kpn (ST14,ST661) including clonal spread of KPC-Kpn (ST661) from a symptomatic case to nine ward contacts.WGS of outbreak KPC isolates demonstrated blaKPC dissemination via horizontal transposition (Tn4401a), plasmid spread (pKpQIL-D2) and clonal spread (K. pneumoniae ST661). Despite rapid outbreak control, considerable dissemination of blaKPC still occurred among K. pneumoniae and other Enterobacteriaceae, emphasizing its high transmission potential and the need for enhanced control efforts.
Project description:Increased incidence of infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) was noted among patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) at a single hospital. An epidemiologic investigation identified KPC-Kp and non-KPC-producing, extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Kp in cultures from 2 endoscopes. Genotyping was performed on patient and endoscope isolates to characterize the microbial genomics of the outbreak. Genetic similarity of 51 Kp isolates from 37 patients and 3 endoscopes was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Five patient and 2 endoscope isolates underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS). Two KPC-encoding plasmids were characterized by single molecule, real-time sequencing. Plasmid diversity was assessed by endonuclease digestion. Genomic and epidemiologic data were used in conjunction to investigate the outbreak source. Two clusters of Kp patient isolates were genetically related to endoscope isolates by PFGE. A subset of patient isolates were collected post-ERCP, suggesting ERCP endoscopes as a possible source. A phylogeny of 7 Kp genomes from patient and endoscope isolates supported ERCP as a potential source of transmission. Differences in gene content defined 5 ST258 subclades and identified 2 of the subclades as outbreak-associated. A novel KPC-encoding plasmid, pKp28 helped define and track one endoscope-associated ST258 subclade. WGS demonstrated high genetic relatedness of patient and ERCP endoscope isolates suggesting ERCP-associated transmission of ST258 KPC-Kp. Gene and plasmid content discriminated the outbreak from endemic ST258 populations and assisted with the molecular epidemiologic investigation of an extended KPC-Kp outbreak.
Project description:Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major threat to global public health. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is the most commonly identified carbapenemase in the United States and is frequently found on mobile genetic elements including plasmids, which can be horizontally transmitted between bacteria of the same or different species. Here we describe the results of an epidemiological investigation of KPC-producing bacteria at two healthcare facilities. Using a combination of short-read and long-read whole-genome sequencing, we identified an identical 44 kilobase plasmid carrying the bla KPC-2 gene in four bacterial isolates belonging to three different species (Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli). The isolates in this investigation were collected from patients who were epidemiologically linked in a region in which KPC was uncommon, suggesting that the antibiotic resistance plasmid was transmitted between these bacterial species. This investigation highlights the importance of long-read sequencing in investigating the relatedness of bacterial plasmids, and in elucidating potential plasmid-mediated outbreaks caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Project description:Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacterales is a public health threat. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (encoded by alleles of the bla KPC family) is one of the most common transmissible carbapenem resistance mechanisms worldwide. The dissemination of bla KPC historically has been associated with distinct K. pneumoniae lineages (clonal group 258 [CG258]), a particular plasmid family (pKpQIL), and a composite transposon (Tn4401). In the United Kingdom, bla KPC has represented a large-scale, persistent management challenge for some hospitals, particularly in North West England. The dissemination of bla KPC has evolved to be polyclonal and polyspecies, but the genetic mechanisms underpinning this evolution have not been elucidated in detail; this study used short-read whole-genome sequencing of 604 bla KPC-positive isolates (Illumina) and long-read assembly (PacBio)/polishing (Illumina) of 21 isolates for characterization. We observed the dissemination of bla KPC (predominantly bla KPC-2; 573/604 [95%] isolates) across eight species and more than 100 known sequence types. Although there was some variation at the transposon level (mostly Tn4401a, 584/604 [97%] isolates; predominantly with ATTGA-ATTGA target site duplications, 465/604 [77%] isolates), bla KPC spread appears to have been supported by highly fluid, modular exchange of larger genetic segments among plasmid populations dominated by IncFIB (580/604 isolates), IncFII (545/604 isolates), and IncR (252/604 isolates) replicons. The subset of reconstructed plasmid sequences (21 isolates, 77 plasmids) also highlighted modular exchange among non-bla KPC and bla KPC plasmids and the common presence of multiple replicons within bla KPC plasmid structures (>60%). The substantial genomic plasticity observed has important implications for our understanding of the epidemiology of transmissible carbapenem resistance in Enterobacterales for the implementation of adequate surveillance approaches and for control.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as major causes of health care-associated infections worldwide. This diverse collection of organisms with various resistance mechanisms is associated with increased lengths of hospitalization, costs of care, morbidity, and mortality. The global spread of CRE has largely been attributed to dissemination of a dominant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing a serine ?-lactamase, termed K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Here we report an outbreak of KPC-producing CRE infections in which the degree of horizontal transmission between strains and species of a promiscuous plasmid is unprecedented. Sixteen isolates, comprising 11 unique strains, 6 species, and 4 genera of bacteria, were obtained from 14 patients over the first 8 months of the outbreak. Of the 11 unique strains, 9 harbored the same highly promiscuous plasmid carrying the KPC gene bla(KPC). The remaining strains harbored distinct bla(KPC) plasmids, one of which was carried in a strain of Klebsiella oxytoca coisolated from the index patient and the other generated from transposition of the bla(KPC) element Tn4401. All isolates could be genetically traced to the index patient. Molecular epidemiological investigation of the outbreak was aided by the adaptation of nested arbitrary PCR (ARB-PCR) for rapid plasmid identification. This detailed molecular genetic analysis, combined with traditional epidemiological investigation, provides insights into the highly fluid dynamics of drug resistance transmission during the outbreak. IMPORTANCE The ease of horizontal transmission of carbapenemase resistance plasmids across strains, species, and genera of bacteria observed in this study has several important public health and epidemiological implications. First, it has the potential to promote dissemination of carbapenem resistance to new populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including organisms of low virulence, leading to the establishment of reservoirs of carbapenem resistance genes in patients and/or the environment and of high virulence, raising the specter of untreatable community-associated infections. Second, recognition of plasmid-mediated outbreaks, such as those described here, is problematic because analysis of resistance plasmids from clinical isolates is laborious and technically challenging. Adaptation of nested arbitrary PCR (ARB-PCR) to investigate the plasmid outbreak facilitated our investigation, and the method may be broadly applicable to other outbreaks due to other conserved mobile genetic elements. Whether infection control measures that focus on preventing transmission of drug-resistant clones are effective in controlling dissemination of these elements is unknown.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The first hospital outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Slovenia occurred in 2014-2016. Whole genome sequencing was used to analyse the population of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae collected in Slovenia in 2014-2017, including OXA-48 and/or NDM-1 producing strains from the outbreak. METHODS:A total of 32 K. pneumoniae isolates were analysed using short-read sequencing. Multi-locus sequence typing and core genome multi-locus sequence typing were used to infer genetic relatedness. Antimicrobial resistance markers, virulence factors, plasmid content and wzi types were determined. Long-read sequencing was used for six isolates for detailed analysis of plasmids and their possible transmission. RESULTS:Overall, we detected 10 different sequence types (STs), the most common being ST437 (40.6%). Isolates from the initial outbreak belonged to ST437 (12/16) and ST147 (4/16). A second outbreak of four ST15 isolates was discovered. A new ST (ST3390) and two new wzi types (wzi-556, wzi-559) were identified. blaOXA-48 was found in 17 (53.1%) isolates, blaNDM-1 in five (15.6%), and a combination of blaOXA-48/NDM-1 in seven (21.9%) isolates. Identical plasmids carrying blaOXA-48 were found in outbreak isolates sequenced with long-read sequencing technology. CONCLUSIONS:Whole genome sequencing of Slovenian carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates revealed multiple clusters of STs, two of which were involved in the first hospital outbreak of carbapenem producing K. pneumoniae in Slovenia. Transmission of the plasmid carrying blaOXA-48 between two STs was likely to have occurred. A previously unidentified second outbreak was also discovered, highlighting the importance of whole genome sequencing in detection and/or characterization of hospital outbreaks and surveillance of drug-resistant bacterial clones.
Project description:The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) multilocus sequence type ST258 is widely recognized. Less is known about the molecular and epidemiological details of non-ST258 K. pneumoniae in the setting of an outbreak mediated by an endemic plasmid. We describe the interplay of blaKPC plasmids and K. pneumoniae strains and their relationship to the location of acquisition in a U.S. health care institution. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis was applied to KPC-Kp clinical isolates collected from a single institution over 5 years following the introduction of blaKPC in August 2007, as well as two plasmid transformants. KPC-Kp from 37 patients yielded 16 distinct sequence types (STs). Two novel conjugative blaKPC plasmids (pKPC_UVA01 and pKPC_UVA02), carried by the hospital index case, accounted for the presence of blaKPC in 21/37 (57%) subsequent cases. Thirteen (35%) isolates represented an emergent lineage, ST941, which contained pKPC_UVA01 in 5/13 (38%) and pKPC_UVA02 in 6/13 (46%) cases. Seven (19%) isolates were the epidemic KPC-Kp strain, ST258, mostly imported from elsewhere and not carrying pKPC_UVA01 or pKPC_UVA02. Using WGS-based analysis of clinical isolates and plasmid transformants, we demonstrate the unexpected dispersal of blaKPC to many non-ST258 lineages in a hospital through spread of at least two novel blaKPC plasmids. In contrast, ST258 KPC-Kp was imported into the institution on numerous occasions, with other blaKPC plasmid vectors and without sustained transmission. Instead, a newly recognized KPC-Kp strain, ST941, became associated with both novel blaKPC plasmids and spread locally, making it a future candidate for clinical persistence and dissemination.
Project description:Background:We recently reported the complete sequence of a blaKPC-2- and rmtB-carrying IncFII-family plasmid p675920-1 with the pKPC-LK30/pHN7A8 hybrid structure. Comparative genomics of additional sequenced plasmids with similar hybrid structures and their prevalence in bla KPC-carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from China were investigated in this follow-up study. Methods:A total of 51 bla KPC-carrying K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from 2012 to 2016 from five Chinese hospitals and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. The bla KPC-carrying plasmids from four representative strains were sequenced and compared with p675920-1 and pCT-KPC. Plasmid transfer, carbapenemase activity determination, and bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed to characterize resistance phenotypes mediated by these plasmids. The prevalence of pCT-KPC-like plasmids in these bla KPC-carrying K. pneumoniae strains was screened by PCR. Result:The six KPC-encoding plasmids p1068-KPC, p20049-KPC, p12139-KPC and p64917-KPC (sequenced in this study) and p675920-1 and pCT-KPC slightly differed from one another due to deletion and acquisition of various backbone and accessory regions. Two major accessory resistance regions, which included the blaKPC-2 region harboring blaKPC-2 (carbapenem resistance) and blaSHV-12 (?-lactam resistance), and the MDR region carrying rmtB (aminoglycoside resistance), fosA3 (fosfomycin resistance), bla TEM-1B (?-lactam resistance) and bla CTX-M-65 (?-lactam resistance), were found in each of these six plasmids and exhibited several parallel evolution routes. The pCT-KPC-like plasmids were present in all the 51 K. pneumoniae isolates, all of which belonged to CG258. Conclusion:There was clonal dissemination of K. pneumoniae CG258 strains, harboring bla KPC-2- and rmtB-carrying IncFII-family pKPC-LK30/pHN7A8 hybrid plasmids, among multiple Chinese hospitals.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have spread globally and represent a serious and growing threat to public health. Rapid methods for tracking plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes could greatly benefit infection control efforts. Here, we demonstrate that real-time, direct tracking of a single plasmid in a bacterial strain responsible for an outbreak is possible using a commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. In this case, we retrospectively tracked the bla(KPC) carbapenemase gene-bearing pKpQIL plasmid responsible for a CRE outbreak that occurred at the NIH Clinical Center in 2011. An ? 11,109-Da MS peak corresponding to a gene product of the bla(KPC) pKpQIL plasmid was identified and characterized using a combination of proteomics and molecular techniques. This plasmid peak was present in spectra from retrospectively analyzed K. pneumoniae outbreak isolates, concordant with results from whole-genome sequencing, and absent from a diverse control set of bla(KPC)-negative clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Notably, the gene characterized here is located adjacent to the bla(KPC) Tn4401 transposon on the pKpQIL plasmid. Sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of this gene in other bla(KPC) Tn4401-containing plasmids and suggests that this signature MS peak may be useful in tracking other plasmids conferring carbapenem resistance. Plasmid identification using this MALDI-TOF MS method was accomplished in as little as 10 min from isolated colonies and 30 min from positive (spiked) blood cultures, demonstrating the potential clinical utility for real-time plasmid tracking in an outbreak.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacter cloacae has been recently recognized in the United States. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has become a useful tool for analysis of outbreaks and for determining transmission networks of multidrug-resistant organisms in health care settings, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We experienced a prolonged outbreak of CRE E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae over a 3-year period at a large academic burn center despite rigorous infection control measures. To understand the molecular mechanisms that sustained this outbreak, we investigated the CRE outbreak isolates by using WGS. Twenty-two clinical isolates of CRE, including E. cloacae (n = 15) and K. pneumoniae (n = 7), were sequenced and analyzed genetically. WGS revealed that this outbreak, which seemed epidemiologically unlinked, was in fact genetically linked over a prolonged period. Multiple mechanisms were found to account for the ongoing outbreak of KPC-3-producing E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae This outbreak was primarily maintained by a clonal expansion of E. cloacae sequence type 114 (ST114) with distribution of multiple resistance determinants. Plasmid and transposon analyses suggested that the majority of blaKPC-3 was transmitted via an identical Tn4401b element on part of a common plasmid. WGS analysis demonstrated complex transmission dynamics within the burn center at levels of the strain and/or plasmid in association with a transposon, highlighting the versatility of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to utilize multiple modes to resistance gene propagation.