ABSTRACT: The most common cardiomyopathies often present to primary care physicians with similar symptoms, despite the fact that they involve a variety of phenotypes and etiologies (1). Many have signs and symptoms common in heart failure, such as reduced ejection fraction, peripheral edema, fatigue, orthopnea, exertion dyspnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, presyncope, syncope and cardiac ischemia (1). In all cardiomyopathies, the cardiac muscle (myocardium) may be structurally and/or functionally impaired. They can be classified as hypertrophic, dilated, left-ventricular non compaction, restrictive and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies.
Project description:AIMS:Non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (CMPs) comprise heart muscle disorders of different causes with high variability in disease phenotypes and clinical progression. The lack of national structures for the efficient recruitment, clinical and molecular classification, and follow-up of patients with non-ischemic CMPs limit the thorough analysis of disease mechanisms and the evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. This paper describes a national, prospective, multicenter registry for patients with non-ischemic CMPs. The main objective of this registry is to create a central hub for clinical outcome studies, a joint resource for diagnostic and therapeutic trials, a common biomaterial bank, and a resource for detailed molecular analyses utilizing patients' biomaterials. METHODS AND RESULTS:A comprehensive characterization of the register population and patients' subgroups is planned. First analyses will include descriptive methods evaluating the distribution of outcome variables and possible risk factors followed by test statistics in a cross-sectional design. The aim of the current study is to recruit 2300 patients all over Germany. Eligible participants are patients with primary non-ischemic cardiomyopathies, including hereditary and inflammatory dilated CMP (DCM), left-ventricular noncompaction CMP (LVNC), hypertrophic CMP (HCM), arrhythmogenic right-ventricular CMP (ARVC), myocarditis, and amyloidosis. Of already recruited patients 70% are male and 30% female. With 56% of patients included, DCM is most common. CONCLUSION/OUTCOME:The primary outcome is all-cause death. Key secondary endpoints are cardiovascular death, adequate ICD shock, survived sudden cardiac death, syncope, documented potentially life-threatening arrhythmia, cardiac transplantation, hospitalization due to worsening of heart failure (HF), and any non-elective cardiovascular hospitalization.
Project description:Purpose of review:To provide an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias associated with inflammatory cardiomyopathies. Recent findings:Inflammatory cardiomyopathies are increasingly recognized as the etiology of both ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. There have been recent studies providing novel insights into the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in inflammatory cardiomyopathies and exploring the role of various diagnostic tools and treatment strategies. Summary:Patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathies often present with one or more arrhythmias, including atrioventricular block, atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and occasionally sudden cardiac death. Given dynamic pathophysiology and heterogeneous presentation, the management of arrhythmias in these patients presents unique challenges. We review the current approach to the diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias in this challenging cohort of patients with an emphasis on cardiac sarcoidosis. Supplementary Information:The online version of this article (10.1007/s11936-020-00871-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:Presyncope and syncope are common medical findings, with a > 40% estimated lifetime prevalence. These conditions are often elicited by postural stress and can be recurrent and accompanied by debilitating symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, it is critical for physicians to become familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of common underlying causes of presyncope and syncope. In some patients, altered postural hemodynamic responses result from a failure of compensatory autonomic nervous system reflex mechanisms. The most common presentations of presyncope and syncope secondary to this autonomic dysfunction include vasovagal syncope, neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, and postural tachycardia syndrome. The most sensitive method for diagnosis is a detailed initial evaluation with medical history, physical examination, and resting electrocardiogram to rule out cardiac syncope. Physical examination should include measurement of supine and standing blood pressure and heart rate to identify the pattern of hemodynamic regulation during orthostatic stress. Additional testing may be required in patients without a clear diagnosis after the initial evaluation. Management of patients should focus on improving symptoms and functional status and not targeting arbitrary hemodynamic values. An individualized structured and stepwise approach should be taken for treatment, starting with patient education, lifestyle modifications, and use of physical counter-pressure manoeuvres and devices to improve venous return. Pharmacologic interventions should be added only when conservative approaches are insufficient to improve symptoms. There are no gold standard approaches for pharmacologic treatment in these conditions, with medications often used off label and with limited long-term data for effectiveness.
Project description:The incidence of syncope exhibits a daily pattern with more occurrences in the morning, possibly as a result of influences from the endogenous circadian system and/or the daily pattern of behavioral/emotional stimuli. This study tested the hypothesis that the circadian system modulates cardiovascular responses to postural stress, leading to increased susceptibility to syncope at specific times of day.Twelve subjects underwent a 13-day in-laboratory protocol in which subjects' sleep-wake cycles were adjusted to 20 hours for 12 cycles. A 15-minute tilt-table test (60° head-up) was performed ?4.5 hours after scheduled awakening in each cycle so that 12 tests in each subject were distributed evenly across the circadian cycle. Of 144 tests, signs/symptoms of presyncope were observed in 21 tests in 6 subjects. These presyncope events displayed a clear circadian rhythm (P=0.028) with almost all cases (17/21) occurring in the half of the circadian cycle corresponding to the biological night (10:30 pm to 10:30 am). Significant circadian rhythms were also observed in hemodynamic and autonomic function markers (blood pressure, heart rate, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and indices of cardiac vagal tone) that may underlie the circadian rhythm of presyncope susceptibility.The circadian system affects cardiovascular responses to postural stress, resulting in greater susceptibility to presyncope during the night. This finding suggests that night-shift workers and people with disrupted sleep at night may have greater risk of syncope as a result of their exposure to postural stress during the biological night.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Syncope is common among emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and indicates a higher acuity and worse prognosis than in patients without syncope. Whether presyncope carries the same prognostic implications has not been established. We compared incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) admission in three groups of ED PE patients: those with presyncope; syncope; and neither. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included all adults with acute, objectively confirmed PE in 21 community EDs from January 2013-April 2015. We combined electronic health record extraction with manual chart abstraction. We used chi-square test for univariate comparisons and performed multivariate analysis to evaluate associations between presyncope or syncope and ICU admission from the ED, reported as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:Among 2996 PE patients, 82 (2.7%) had presyncope and 109 (3.6%) had syncope. ICU admission was similar between groups (presyncope 18.3% vs syncope 25.7%) and different than their non-syncope counterparts (either 22.5% vs neither 4.7%; p<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, both presyncope and syncope were independently associated with ICU admission, controlling for demographics, higher-risk PE Severity Index (PESI) class, ventilatory support, proximal clot location, and submassive and massive PE classification: presyncope, aOR 2.79 (95% CI, 1.40, 5.56); syncope, aOR 4.44 (95% CI 2.52, 7.80). These associations were only minimally affected when excluding massive PE from the model. There was no significant interaction between either syncope or presyncope and PESI, submassive or massive classification in predicting ICU admission. CONCLUSION:Presyncope appears to carry similar strength of association with ICU admission as syncope in ED patients with acute PE. If this is confirmed, clinicians evaluating patients with acute PE may benefit from including presyncope in their calculus of risk assessment and site-of-care decision-making.
Project description:A 14-month-old male presented with paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and grade III/VI systolic ejection murmur at the upper left sternal border with an S4 gallop and was subsequently found to have a right ventricular cardiac myxoma. Prior presentations of these tumors have been with exertional syncope and murmur, asymptomatic murmur, or exertional dyspnea; the presentation of such a tumor with paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is novel.
Project description:A 26-year-old man presented to our syncope service with debilitating daily palpitations, shortness of breath, presyncope and syncope following a severe viral respiratory illness 4 years previously. Mobitz type II block had previously been identified, leading to a permanent pacemaker and no further episodes of frank syncope. Transthoracic echocardiography, electophysiological study and repeated urine metanepherines were normal. His palpitations and presyncope were reproducible on deep inspiration, coughing, isometric hand exercise and passive leg raises. We demonstrated rapid increases in heart rate with no change in morphology on his 12 lead ECG. His symptoms were resistant to fludrocortisone, flecainide, β blockers and ivabradine. Initiation of clonidine in combination with ivabradine led to rapid resolution of his symptoms. We suggest that an excessive respiratory sinus arrhythmia was responsible for his symptoms and achieved an excellent response with the centrally acting sympatholytic clonidine, where previous peripherally acting treatments had failed.
Project description:Dyspnea on exertion is a common and debilitating symptom, yet evidence for the relative value of cardiac and pulmonary tests for the evaluation of chronic dyspnea among adults without known cardiac or pulmonary disease is limited.The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) enrolled participants aged 45 to 84 years who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease from 6 communities; participants with clinical pulmonary disease were excluded from this report. Dyspnea on exertion was assessed via structured interview. Tests included electrocardiograms, cardiac computed tomography (CT) for coronary artery calcium, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, spirometry, percent emphysema (percent of lung regions <-950 HU) on CT, inflammatory biomarkers, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates of dyspnea after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, anxiety, and leg pain.Among 1969 participants without known cardiopulmonary disease, 9% had dyspnea. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (P < .001), NT-proBNP (P = .004), and percent emphysema on CT (P = .004) provided independent information on the probability of self-reported dyspnea. Associations with the FEV1 were stronger among smokers and participants with other recent respiratory symptoms or seasonal allergies; associations with NT-proBNP were present only among participants with coexisting symptoms of lower-extremity edema. Only the FEV1 provided a significant improvement in the receiver operating curve.Among adults without known cardiac or pulmonary disease reporting dyspnea on exertion, spirometry, NT-proBNP, and CT imaging for pulmonary parenchymal disease were the most informative tests.
Project description:Pediatric cardiomyopathies are rare diseases with an annual incidence of 1.1 to 1.5 per 100?000. Dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are the most common; restrictive, noncompaction, and mixed cardiomyopathies occur infrequently; and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is rare. Pediatric cardiomyopathies can result from coronary artery abnormalities, tachyarrhythmias, exposure to infection or toxins, or secondary to other underlying disorders. Increasingly, the importance of genetic mutations in the pathogenesis of isolated or syndromic pediatric cardiomyopathies is becoming apparent. Pediatric cardiomyopathies often occur in the absence of comorbidities, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, renal dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus; as a result, they offer insights into the primary pathogenesis of myocardial dysfunction. Large international registries have characterized the epidemiology, cause, and outcomes of pediatric cardiomyopathies. Although adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies have similar morphological and clinical manifestations, their outcomes differ significantly. Within 2 years of presentation, normalization of function occurs in 20% of children with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 40% die or undergo transplantation. Infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a 2-year mortality of 30%, whereas death is rare in older children. Sudden death is rare. Molecular evidence indicates that gene expression differs between adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies, suggesting that treatment response may differ as well. Clinical trials to support evidence-based treatments and the development of disease-specific therapies for pediatric cardiomyopathies are in their infancy. This compendium summarizes current knowledge of the genetic and molecular origins, clinical course, and outcomes of the most common phenotypic presentations of pediatric cardiomyopathies and highlights key areas where additional research is required.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT02549664 and NCT01912534.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of pedal edema (PE) and its associations with abnormal cardiac structure/function, natriuretic peptides, and incident heart failure (HF) is unknown, especially in community-dwelling adults without a history of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS:Out of 5004 MESA (Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) participants who had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, 4196 had complete data and were included in this analysis (3501 for the right ventricle analysis). Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to assess the associations among self-reported PE, 2-pillow orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, left and right ventricular structure and function, natriuretic peptide levels, and incident HF. PE was present in 28% of the participants. PE was not associated with overt left or right ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%). PE was associated with 2-pillow orthopnea (odds ratio 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-2.12), paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (odds ratio 1.95; 95% CI, 1.55-2.44), and abnormal N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (defined as >400 pg/mL; odds ratio 1.80; 95% CI, 1.21-2.68) in adjusted models. After a mean of 10.2 years of follow-up, 184/4196 (4.4%) participants had an adjudicated incident HF hospitalization. PE was associated with incident HF hospitalization in models adjusted for age, sex, and race (hazard ratio 1.44; 95% CI, 1.05-1.97). This association persisted after adding additional covariates, including comorbidities, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, and antecedent myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-1.99). The association of PE with incident HF was attenuated by further adjustment for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSIONS:PE is prevalent in community-dwelling adults without clinically recognized cardiovascular disease and associated with future hospitalized HF.