Demographics and Outcomes of Pulmonary Hypertension Patients in United States Emergency Departments.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common, yet under-diagnosed, contributor to morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to characterize the prevalence of PH among adult patients presenting to United States (US) emergency departments (ED) and to identify demographic patterns and outcomes of PH patients in the ED. METHODS:We analyzed the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database, with a focus on ED patients aged 18 years and older, with any International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD)-9-CM or ICD-10-CM diagnosis code for PH from 2011 to 2015. The primary outcome was inpatient, all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were hospital admission rates and hospital length of stay (LOS). RESULTS:From 2011 to 2015, in a sample of 121,503,743 ED visits, representing a weighted estimate of 545,500,486 US ED visits, patients with a diagnosis of PH accounted for 0.78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.80%) of all US ED visits. Of the PH visits, 86.9% were admitted to the hospital, compared to 16.3% for all other ED visits (P <0.001). Likewise, hospital LOS and hospital-based mortality were higher in the PH group than for other ED patients (e.g., inpatient mortality 4.5% vs 2.6%, P < 0.001) with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.31-1.37). Age had the strongest association with mortality, with an aOR of 10.6 for PH patients over 80 years (95% CI, 10.06-11.22), compared to a reference of ages 18 to 30 years. CONCLUSION:In this nationally representative sample, presentations by patients with PH were relatively common, accounting for nearly 0.8% of US ED visits. Patients with PH were significantly more likely to be admitted to the hospital than all other patients, had longer hospital LOS, and increased risk of inpatient mortality.
Project description:To identify predictors of hospital inpatient admission of older Medicare beneficiaries after discharge from the emergency department (ED).Retrospective cohort study.Nonfederal California hospitals (n = 284).Visits of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older discharged from California EDs in 2007 (n = 505,315).Using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development files, predictors of hospital inpatient admission within 7 days of ED discharge in older adults (?65) with Medicare were evaluated.Hospital inpatient admissions within 7 days of ED discharge occurred in 23,340 (4.6%) visits and were associated with older age (70-74: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.17; 75-79: AOR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.13-1.23; ?80: AOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.35-1.46), skilled nursing facility use (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.72-1.94), leaving the ED against medical advice (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.67-1.98), and the following diagnoses with the highest odds of admission: end-stage renal disease (AOR = 3.83, 95% CI = 2.42-6.08), chronic renal disease (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI = 2.26-4.49), and congestive heart failure (AOR = 3.01, 95% CI = 2.59-3.50).Five percent of older Medicare beneficiaries have a hospital inpatient admission after discharge from the ED. Chronic conditions such as renal disease and heart failure were associated with the greatest odds of admission.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Dedicated regional psychiatric emergency services (PES) were proposed as a better care model for psychiatric emergencies and a possible solution to boarding of psychiatric patients in the emergency department. However, there are limited data on factors associated with prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the PES. The objective of this study was finding factors associated with prolonged LOS in the PES and moving towards a solution to this problem. METHODS:The study sample comprised 200 PES visits randomly chosen from January 2011 to December 2015 in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. Relevant data were collected comprehensively through the health information system and by reviewing medical records. The primary outcome was LOS longer than 24 hours while LOS longer than 48 hours was used as the secondary outcome. RESULTS:Mean LOS was 17.6±23.2 hours, with 53 (26.5%) visits lasting more than 24 hours and 15 (7.5%) visits lasting more than 48 hours. After adjusting for related confounders, LOS longer than 24 hours was associated with use of restraints in the PES (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.59-6.15) and history of illicit substance use (aOR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.44). LOS longer than 48 hours was associated with use of restraints in the PES (aOR = 4.11, 95% CI = 1.2-14.14), history of illicit substance use (aOR = 6.16, 95% CI = 1.37-27.62) and first time visit to the hospital (aOR = 8.54, 95% CI = 2.03-35.96). Neither outcome was associated with transfer to an inpatient unit. CONCLUSION:Prolonged LOS was common in the study sample. Discharged patients had an equally high rate of prolonged LOS as admitted patients. Therefore measures should be taken to facilitate timely discharge. Use of restraints and history of illicit substance use were common among patients with prolonged LOS.
Project description:Many countries worldwide are aging rapidly, and the complex care needs of older adults generate an unprecedented demand for health services. Common reasons for elderly emergency department (ED) visits frequently involve conditions triggered by preventable infections also known as ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). This study aims to describe the trend and the associated disease burden attributable to ACSC-related ED visits made by elderly patients and to characterize their ED use by nursing home residence. We designed a population-based ecological study using administrative data on Taiwan EDs between 2002 and 2013. A total of 563,647 ED visits from individuals aged 65 or over were examined. All elderly ED visits due to ACSCs (tuberculosis, upper respiratory infection, pneumonia, sepsis, cellulitis and urinary tract infection (UTI)) were further identified. Subsequent hospital admissions, related deaths after discharge, total health care costs and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were compared among different ACSCs. Prevalence of ACSCs was then assessed between nursing home (NH) residents and non-NH residents. Within the 12-year observation period, we find that there was a steady increase in both the rate of ACSC ED visits and the proportion of elderly with a visit. Overall, pneumonia is the most prevalent among six ACSCs for elderly ED visits (2.10%; 2.06 to 2.14), subsequent hospital admissions (5.77%; 5.59 to 5.94) and associated mortality following admission (17.37%; 16.74 to 18.01). UTI is the second prevalent ACSC consistently across ED visits (2.02%; 1.98 to 2.05), subsequent hospital admissions (2.36%, 2.25 to 2.48) and mortality following admission (10.80%; 10.28 to 11.32). Sepsis ranks third highest in the proportion of hospitalization following ED visit (2.29%; 2.18 to 2.41) and related deaths after hospital discharge (7.39%; 6.95 to 7.83), but it accounts for the highest average total health care expenditure (NT$94,595 ± 120,239; ≈US$3185.02) per case. When examining the likelihood of ACSC-attributable ED use, significantly higher odds were observed in NH residents as compared with non-NH residents for: pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 5.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.50-5.58); UTI (aOR: 4.44, 95% CI 3.97-4.98); sepsis (aOR: 3.54, 95% CI 3.06-4.10); and tuberculosis (aOR: 2.44, 95% CI 1.63-3.65). Here we examined the ACSC-related ED care and found that, among the six ACSCs studied, pneumonia, UTI and sepsis were the leading causes of ED visits, subsequent hospital admissions, related mortality, health care costs and DALYs in Taiwanese NH elderly adults. Our findings suggest that efficient monitoring and reinforcing of quality of care in the residential and community setting might substantially reduce the number of preventable elderly ED visits and alleviate strain on the health care system.
Project description:The objective was to measure the variation in missed diagnosis and costs of care for older acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) and to identify the hospital and ED characteristics associated with this variation.Using 2004-2005 Medicare inpatient and outpatient records, the authors identified a cohort of AMI patients age 65 years and older who presented to the ED for initial care. The primary outcome was missed diagnosis of AMI, i.e., AMI hospital admission within 7 days of an ED discharge for a condition suggestive of cardiac ischemia. Costs were defined as Medicare hospital payments for all services associated with and immediately resulting from the ED evaluation. The effect of ED and hospital characteristics on quality and costs were estimated using multilevel models with hospital random effects.There were 371,638 AMI patients age 65 and older included in the study, of whom 4,707 were discharged home from their initial ED visits and subsequently admitted to the hospital. The median unadjusted hospital-level missed diagnosis percentage was 0.52% (interquartile range [IQR] = 0 to 3.45%). ED characteristics protective of adverse outcomes include higher ED chest pain acuity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.23, 99% confidence interval [CI] = 0.19 to 0.27) and American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) certification (aOR = 0.60, 99% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Protective hospital characteristics include larger hospital size (aOR = 0.46, 99% CI = 0.37 to 0.57) and academic status (aOR = 0.74, 99% CI = 0.58 to 0.94). All of these characteristics were associated with higher costs as well.The proportion of missed AMI diagnoses and cost of care for patients age 65 years and older presenting to EDs with AMI varies across hospitals. Hospitals with more board-certified emergency physicians (EPs) and higher average acuity are associated with significantly higher quality. All hospital characteristics associated with better ED outcomes are associated with higher costs.
Project description:Emergency department (ED) crowding is a prevalent health delivery problem and may adversely affect the outcomes of patients requiring admission. We assess the association of ED crowding with subsequent outcomes in a general population of hospitalized patients.We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients admitted in 2007 through the EDs of nonfederal, acute care hospitals in California. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay and costs. ED crowding was established by the proxy measure of ambulance diversion hours on the day of admission. To control for hospital-level confounders of ambulance diversion, we defined periods of high ED crowding as those days within the top quartile of diversion hours for a specific facility. Hierarchic regression models controlled for demographics, time variables, patient comorbidities, primary diagnosis, and hospital fixed effects. We used bootstrap sampling to estimate excess outcomes attributable to ED crowding.We studied 995,379 ED visits resulting in admission to 187 hospitals. Patients who were admitted on days with high ED crowding experienced 5% greater odds of inpatient death (95% confidence interval [CI] 2% to 8%), 0.8% longer hospital length of stay (95% CI 0.5% to 1%), and 1% increased costs per admission (95% CI 0.7% to 2%). Excess outcomes attributable to periods of high ED crowding included 300 inpatient deaths (95% CI 200 to 500 inpatient deaths), 6,200 hospital days (95% CI 2,800 to 8,900 hospital days), and $17 million (95% CI $11 to $23 million) in costs.Periods of high ED crowding were associated with increased inpatient mortality and modest increases in length of stay and costs for admitted patients.
Project description:There are many published clinical guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP). Implementation of these recommendations is variable. We hypothesized that a clinical decision support (CDS) tool would change clinician behavior and shorten hospital length of stay (LOS).Observational study, entitled, The AP Early Response (TAPER) Project. Tertiary center emergency department (ED) and hospital.Two consecutive samplings of patients having ICD-9 code (577.0) for AP were generated from the emergency department (ED) or hospital admissions. Diagnosis of AP was based on conventional Atlanta criteria. The Pre-TAPER-CDS-Tool group (5/30/06-6/22/07) had 110 patients presenting to the ED with AP per 976 ICD-9 (577.0) codes and the Post-TAPER-CDS-Tool group (5/30/06-6/22/07) had 113 per 907 ICD-9 codes (7/14/10-5/5/11).The TAPER-CDS-Tool, developed 12/2008-7/14/2010, is a combined early, automated paging-alert system, which text pages ED clinicians about a patient with AP and an intuitive web-based point-of-care instrument, consisting of seven early management recommendations.The pre- vs. post-TAPER-CDS-Tool groups had similar baseline characteristics. The post-TAPER-CDS-Tool group met two management goals more frequently than the pre-TAPER-CDS-Tool group: risk stratification (P<0.0001) and intravenous fluids >6L/1st 0-24?h (P=0.0003). Mean (s.d.) hospital LOS was significantly shorter in the post-TAPER-CDS-Tool group (4.6 (3.1) vs. 6.7 (7.0) days, P=0.0126). Multivariate analysis identified four independent variables for hospital LOS: the TAPER-CDS-Tool associated with shorter LOS (P=0.0049) and three variables associated with longer LOS: Japanese severity score (P=0.0361), persistent organ failure (P=0.0088), and local pancreatic complications (<0.0001).The TAPER-CDS-Tool is associated with changed clinician behavior and shortened hospital LOS, which has significant financial implications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Various medications are cleared by the kidneys, therefore patients with impaired renal function, especially dialysis patients are at risk for adverse drug events (ADEs). There are limited studies on ADEs in maintenance dialysis patients. METHODS:We utilized a nationally representative database, the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, from 2008 to 2013, to compare emergency department (ED) visits for dialysis and propensity matched non-dialysis patients. Log binomial regression was used to calculate relative risk of hospital admission and logistic regression to calculate ORs for in-hospital mortality while adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. RESULTS:While ED visits for ADEs decreased in both groups, they were over 10-fold higher in dialysis patients than non-dialysis patients (65.8-88.5 per 1,000 patients vs. 4.6-5.4 per 1,000 patients respectively, p < 0.001). The top medication category associated with ED visits for ADEs in dialysis patients is agents primarily affecting blood constituents, which has increased. After propensity matching, patient admission was higher in dialysis patients than non-dialysis patients, (88 vs. 76%, p < 0.001). Dialysis was associated with a 3% increase in risk of admission and 3 times the odds of in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 3, 95% CI 2.7-2.3.3). CONCLUSIONS:ED visits for ADEs are substantially higher in dialysis patients than non-dialysis patients. In dialysis patients, ADEs associated with agents primarily affecting blood constituents are on the rise. ED visits for ADEs in dialysis patients have higher inpatient admissions and in-hospital mortality. Further studies are needed to identify and implement measures aimed at reducing ADEs in dialysis patients.
Project description:In the setting of recent healthcare advances and emphasis on reduced spending, we aimed to characterize US trends in inpatient healthcare use and mortality for pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).We performed a retrospective, serial, cross-sectional analysis of the national Kids' Inpatient Database (for 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009). We identified patients with SLE aged 2 to 21 years using an International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) code of 710.0 listed as a discharge diagnosis. Using sampling weights, we estimated trends in hospitalization, inpatient mortality, procedure rates, and length of stay (LOS). We analyzed patient and hospital-specific risk factors for mortality and LOS, and compared those outcomes to those without SLE.We identified 26,903 estimated pediatric SLE hospitalizations. The hospitalization rate of 8.6 (95% CI 7.6-9.6) per 100,000 population and mean LOS of 5.9 days (95% CI 5.6-6.2) were stable over time. We found a significant downward trend in mortality, decreasing from 1% to 0.6% (p = 0.04), which paralleled a less pronounced trend for those without SLE. The rate of dialysis, blood transfusions, and vascular catheterization procedures increased. Patients with SLE nephritis and non-white race were at risk for increased healthcare use and death.Pediatric SLE hospitalization rate and LOS remained stable, but inpatient mortality decreased as the rate of common therapeutic procedures increased. More research is needed to understand the drivers of these relationships.
Project description:Perioperative blood loss leading to blood transfusion continues to be an issue for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. The US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to determine annual trends in allogenic blood transfusion rates, and effects of transfusion on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), costs, discharge disposition, and complications of primary TKA patients. TKA patients between 2000 and 2009 were included (n = 4,544,999) and categorized as: (1) those who received a transfusion of allogenic blood, and (2) those who did not. Transfusion rates increased from 7.7% to 12.2%. For both transfused and not transfused groups, mortality rates and mean LOS declined, while total costs increased. Transfused patients were associated with adjusted odds ratios of in-hospital mortality (AOR 1.16; P = 0.184), 0.71 ± 0.01 days longer LOS (P < 0.0001), and incurred ($1777 ± 36; P < 0.0001) higher total costs per admission.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To compare all-cause and endometriosis-related healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and healthcare costs by service categories (outpatient, inpatient, emergency room [ER], pharmacy) among patients with newly diagnosed endometriosis using opioids compared to patients with endometriosis not using opioids. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of IBM® MarketScan® Commercial Claims data from 2009 to 2018 was performed for women aged 18-49 with newly diagnosed endometriosis (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 code 617.xx; ICD-10 code N80.xx) over 24 months follow-up. Patients were stratified on the basis of opioid use within 12 months post first endometriosis diagnosis date. Patients with opioid use were 1:1 matched to patients without opioid use using propensity score matching. RESULTS:A total of 85,329 female patients with a new endometriosis diagnosis were identified and 48,470 patients (24,235 opioid and 24,235 non-opioid users) remained after inclusion-exclusion criteria and matching. Opioid patients had an estimated mean 30.33 outpatient visits, 29.59 pharmacy fills, 0.28 inpatient visits, 0.65 ER visits, and total length of stay (LOS) was 1.01 days. Non-opioid patients had an estimated mean 27.94 outpatient visits, 22.06 pharmacy fills, 0.23 inpatient visits, 0.42 ER visits, and total LOS was 0.82 days. On average, opioid patients had significantly greater all-cause HCRU compared to non-opioid patients (all p?<?0.0001). Among endometriosis-related healthcare utilization, there were similar ER visits, but lower outpatient visits, inpatient visits, and total LOS and higher pharmacy fills among opioid and non-opioid patients. Estimated mean all-cause costs were higher among opioid ($26,755) vs. non-opioid ($19,302) users (p?<?0.0001). A similar trend was observed for estimated mean endometriosis-related costs. CONCLUSION:This analysis observed significantly higher all-cause HCRU and costs for opioid users compared to non-opioid users among patients with newly diagnosed endometriosis. While observed endometriosis-related costs were significantly higher in opioid users compared to non-opioid users during a 24-month follow-up period, endometriosis-related HCRU varied by service categories for these two populations over this time period.