The Involvement of the McsB Arginine Kinase in Clp-Dependent Degradation of the MgsR Regulator in Bacillus subtilis.
ABSTRACT: Regulated ATP-dependent proteolysis is a common feature of developmental processes and plays also a crucial role during environmental perturbations such as stress and starvation. The Bacillus subtilis MgsR regulator controls a subregulon within the stress- and stationary phase ?B regulon. After ethanol exposition and a short time-window of activity, MgsR is ClpXP-dependently degraded with a half-life of approximately 6 min. Surprisingly, a protein interaction analysis with MgsR revealed an association with the McsB arginine kinase and an in vivo degradation assay confirmed a strong impact of McsB on MgsR degradation. In vitro phosphorylation experiments with arginine (R) by lysine (K) substitutions in McsB and its activator McsA unraveled all R residues, which are essentially needed for the arginine kinase reaction. Subsequently, site directed mutagenesis of the MgsR substrate was used to substitute all arginine residues with glutamate (R-E) to mimic arginine phosphorylation and to test their influence on MgsR degradation in vivo. It turned out, that especially the R33E and R94/95E residues (RRPI motif), the latter are adjacently located to the two redox-sensitive cysteines in a 3D model, have the potential to accelerate MgsR degradation. These results imply that selective arginine phosphorylation may have favorable effects for Clp dependent degradation of short-living regulatory proteins. We speculate that in addition to its kinase activity and adaptor function for the ClpC ATPase, McsB might also serve as a proteolytic adaptor for the ClpX ATPase in the degradation mechanism of MgsR.
Project description:The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis possesses a fine-tuned and complex heat stress response system. The repressor CtsR, whose activity is regulated by its modulators McsA and McsB, controls the expression of the cellular protein quality control genes clpC, clpE and clpP. Here, we show that the interaction of McsA and McsB with CtsR results in the formation of a ternary complex that not only prevents the binding of CtsR to its target DNA, but also results in a subsequent phosphorylation of McsB, McsA and CtsR. We further demonstrate that McsB is a tyrosine kinase that needs McsA to become activated. ClpC inhibits the kinase activity of McsB, indicating a direct role in initiating CtsR-controlled heat shock response. Interestingly, the kinase domain of McsB is homologous to guanidino phosphotransferase domains originating from eukaryotic arginine and creatine kinases. Mutational analysis of key residues of the guanidino kinase domain demonstrated that McsB utilizes this domain to catalyze the tyrosine phosphorylation. McsB represents therefore a new kind of tyrosine kinase, driven by a guanidino phosphotransferase domain.
Project description:Controlled protein degradation is an important cellular reaction for the fast and efficient adaptation of bacteria to ever-changing environmental conditions. In the low-GC, Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis, the AAA+ protein ClpC requires specific adaptor proteins not only for substrate recognition but also for chaperone activity. The McsB adaptor is activated particularly during heat stress, allowing the controlled degradation of the CtsR repressor by the ClpCP protease. Here we report how the McsB adaptor becomes activated by autophosphorylation on specific arginine residues during heat stress. In nonstressed cells McsB activity is inhibited by ClpC as well as YwlE.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation regulates key processes in all organisms. In Gram-positive bacteria, protein arginine phosphorylation plays a central role in protein quality control by regulating transcription factors and marking aberrant proteins for degradation. Here, we report structural, biochemical, and in vivo data of the responsible kinase, McsB, the founding member of an arginine-specific class of protein kinases. McsB differs in structure and mechanism from protein kinases that act on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues and instead has a catalytic domain related to that of phosphagen kinases (PhKs), metabolic enzymes that phosphorylate small guanidino compounds. In McsB, the PhK-like phosphotransferase domain is structurally adapted to target protein substrates and is accompanied by a novel phosphoarginine (pArg)-binding domain that allosterically controls protein kinase activity. The identification of distinct pArg reader domains in this study points to a remarkably complex signaling system, thus challenging simplistic views of bacterial protein phosphorylation.
Project description:The heat shock proteins ClpC and ClpP are subunits of an ATP-dependent protease of Bacillus subtilis. Under non-stressed conditions, transcription of the clpC and clpP genes is negatively regulated by CtsR, the global repressor of clp gene expression. Here, CtsR was proven to be a specific substrate of the ClpCP protease under stress conditions. Two proteins of former unknown function, McsA and McsB, which are also encoded by the clpC operon, act as modulators of CtsR repression. McsA containing zinc finger motifs stabilizes CtsR under non-stressed conditions. McsB, a putative kinase, can inactivate CtsR by modification to remove the repressor from the DNA and to target CtsR for degradation by the ClpCP protease during stress. Thus, clp gene expression in Gram-positive bacteria is autoregulated by a novel mechanism of controlled proteolysis, a circuit of down-regulation by stabilization and protection of a transcription repressor, and induction by presenting the repressor to the protease. Thereby, the ClpC ATPase, a member of the Hsp100 family, was identified as a positive regulator of the heat shock response.
Project description:Cells of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis have to adapt to fast environmental changes in their natural habitat. Here, we characterized a novel system in which cells respond to heat shock by regulatory proteolysis of a transcriptional repressor CtsR. In B. subtilis, CtsR controls the synthesis of itself, the tyrosine kinase McsB, its activator McsA and the Hsp100/Clp proteins ClpC, ClpE and their cognate peptidase ClpP. The AAA+ protein family members ClpC and ClpE can form an ATP-dependent protease complex with ClpP and are part of the B. subtilis protein quality control system. The regulatory response is mediated by a proteolytic switch, which is formed by these proteins under heat-shock conditions, where the tyrosine kinase McsB acts as a regulated adaptor protein, which in its phosphorylated form activates the Hsp100/Clp protein ClpC and targets the repressor CtsR for degradation by the general protease ClpCP.
Project description:Protein turnover is a tightly controlled process that is crucial for the removal of aberrant polypeptides and for cellular signalling. Whereas ubiquitin marks eukaryotic proteins for proteasomal degradation, a general tagging system for the equivalent bacterial Clp proteases is not known. Here we describe the targeting mechanism of the ClpC-ClpP proteolytic complex from Bacillus subtilis. Quantitative affinity proteomics using a ClpP-trapping mutant show that proteins phosphorylated on arginine residues are selectively targeted to ClpC-ClpP. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrate that arginine phosphorylation by the McsB kinase is required and sufficient for the degradation of substrate proteins. The docking site for phosphoarginine is located in the amino-terminal domain of the ClpC ATPase, as resolved at high resolution in a co-crystal structure. Together, our data demonstrate that phosphoarginine functions as a bona fide degradation tag for the ClpC-ClpP protease. This system, which is widely distributed across Gram-positive bacteria, is functionally analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Project description:McsA is a key modulator of stress response in Staphylococcus aureus that contains four CXXC potential metal-binding motifs at the N-terminal. Staphylococcus aureus ctsR operon encodes ctsR, clpC, and putative mcsA and mcsB genes. The expression of the ctsR operon in S. aureus was shown to be induced in response to various types of heavy metals such as copper and cadmium. McsA was cloned and overexpressed, and purified product was tested for metal-binding activity. The protein bound to Cu(II), Zn(II), Co(II), and Cd(II). No binding with any heavy metal except copper was found when we performed site-directed mutagenesis of Cys residues of three CXXC motifs of McsA. These data suggest that two conserved cysteine ligands provided by one CXXC motif are required to bind copper ions. In addition, using a bacterial two-hybrid system, McsA was found to be able to bind to McsB and CtsR of S. aureus and the CXXC motif was needed for the binding. This indicates that the Cys residues in the CXXC motif are involved in metal binding and protein interaction.
Project description:In Bacillus subtilis, the Spx transcription factor controls a large regulon in response to disulfide, heat, and cell wall stresses. The regulatory mechanisms that activate the Spx regulon are remarkably complex and involve changes in transcription, proteolysis, and posttranslational modifications. To identify genes involved in Spx regulation, we performed a transposon screen for mutations affecting expression of trxB, an Spx-dependent gene. Inactivation of ctsR, encoding the regulator of the Clp proteases, reduced trxB expression and lowered Spx levels. This effect required ClpP, but involved ClpC rather than the ClpX unfoldase. Moreover, cells lacking McsB, a dual function arginine kinase and ClpCP adaptor, largely reverted the ctsR phenotype and increased trxB expression. The role of McsB appears to involve its kinase activity, since loss of the YwlE phosphoarginine phosphatase also led to reduced trxB expression. Finally, we show that Spx is itself a regulator of the ctsR operon. Altogether, this work provides evidence for a role of CtsR regulon members ClpC, ClpP, and McsB in Spx regulation and identifies a new feedback pathway associated with Spx activity in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE In Bacillus subtilis, the Spx transcription factor is proteolytically unstable, and protein stabilization figures prominently in the induction of the Spx regulon in response to oxidative and cell envelope stresses. ClpXP is largely, but not entirely, responsible for Spx instability. Here, we identify ClpCP as the protease that degrades Spx under conditions that antagonize the ClpXP pathway. Spx itself contributes to activation of the ctsR operon, which encodes ClpC as well as the McsB arginine kinase and protease adaptor, thereby providing a negative feedback mechanism. Genetic studies reveal that dysregulation of the CtsR regulon or inactivation of the YwlE phosphoarginine phosphatase decreases Spx activity through mechanisms involving both protein degradation and posttranslational modification.
Project description:Glucose is the most favorable carbon source for many bacteria, and these bacteria have several glucose-responsive networks. We proposed new glucose responsive system, which includes protein acetylation and probable translation control through TsaEBD, which is a tRNA modification enzyme required for the synthesis of threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t6A)-tRNA. The system also includes nucleoid-associated protein YlxR, regulating more than 400 genes including many metabolic genes and the ylxR-containing operon driven by the PylxS promoter is induced by glucose. Thus, transposon mutagenesis was performed for searching regulatory factors for PylxS expression. As a result, ywlE was identified. The McsB kinase phosphorylates arginine (Arg) residues of proteins and the YwlE phosphatase counteracts against McsB through Arg-dephosphorylation. Phosphorylated Arg has been known to function as a tag for ClpCP-dependent protein degradation. The previous analysis identified TsaD as an Arg-phosphorylated protein. Our results showed that the McsB/YwlE system regulates PylxS expression through ClpCP-mediated protein degradation of TsaD. In addition, we observed that glucose induced ywlE expression and repressed mcsB expression. It was concluded that these phenomena would cause glucose induction (GI) of PylxS, based on the Western blot analyses of TsaD-FLAG. These observations and the previous those that many glycolytic enzymes are Arg-phosphorylated suggested that the McsB/YwlE system might be involved in cell growth in glucose-containing medium. We observed that the disruption of mcsB and ywlE resulted in an increase of cell mass and delayed growth, respectively, in semi-synthetic medium. These results provide us broader insights to the physiological roles of the McsB/YwlE system and protein Arg-phosphorylation.
Project description:Protein quality networks are required for the maintenance of proper protein homeostasis and essential for viability and growth of all living organisms. Hence, regulation and coordination of these networks are critical for survival during stress as well as for virulence of pathogenic species. In low GC, Gram-positive bacteria central protein quality networks are under the control of the global repressor CtsR. Here, we provide evidence that CtsR activity during heat stress is mediated by intrinsic heat sensing through a glycine-rich loop, probably in all Gram-positive species. Moreover, a function for the recently identified arginine kinase McsB is confirmed, however, not for initial inactivation and dissociation of CtsR from the DNA, but for heat-dependent auto-activation of McsB as an adaptor for ClpCP-mediated degradation of CtsR.