Bioinformatics Analysis based on Multiple Databases Identifies Hub Genes Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Background:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and the mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis remain elusive. Objective:This study aims to mine hub genes associated with HCC using multiple databases. Methods:Data sets GSE45267, GSE60502, GSE74656 were downloaded from GEO database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and control in each set were identified by limma software. The GO term and KEGG pathway enrichment of the DEGs aggregated in the datasets (aggregated DEGs) were analyzed using DAVID and KOBAS 3.0 databases. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the aggregated DEGs was constructed using STRING database. GSEA software was used to verify the biological process. Association between hub genes and HCC prognosis was analyzed using patients' information from TCGA database by survminer R package. Results:From GSE45267, GSE60502 and GSE74656, 7583, 2349, and 553 DEGs were identified respectively. A total of 221 aggregated DEGs, which were mainly enriched in 109 GO terms and 29 KEGG pathways, were identified. Cell cycle phase, mitotic cell cycle, cell division, nuclear division and mitosis were the most significant GO terms. Metabolic pathways, cell cycle, chemical carcinogenesis, retinol metabolism and fatty acid degradation were the main KEGG pathways. Nine hub genes (TOP2A, NDC80, CDK1, CCNB1, KIF11, BUB1, CCNB2, CCNA2 and TTK) were selected by PPI network and all of them were associated with prognosis of HCC patients. Conclusion:TOP2A, NDC80, CDK1, CCNB1, KIF11, BUB1, CCNB2, CCNA2 and TTK were hub genes in HCC, which may be potential biomarkers of HCC and targets of HCC therapy.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that various functional genes with altered expression are involved in the tumor progression of human cancers. This study is aimed at identifying novel key genes that may be used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy. This study included 3 expression profiles (GSE45267, GSE74656, and GSE84402), which were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). GEO2R was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and normal samples. The functional and pathway enrichment analysis was performed by the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the identified DEGs was constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Gene, and hub genes were identified. ONCOMINE and CCLE databases were used to verify the expression of the hub genes in HCC tissues and cells. Kaplan-Meier plotter was used to assess the effects of the hub genes on the overall survival of HCC patients. A total of 99 DEGs were identified from the 3 expression profiles. These DEGs were enriched with functional processes and pathways related to HCC pathogenesis. From the PPI network, 5 hub genes were identified. The expression of the 5 hub genes was all upregulated in HCC tissues and cells compared with the control tissues and cells. Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that high expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1), cyclin B1 (CCNB1), cyclin B2 (CCNB2), MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD2L1), and topoisomerase II? (TOP2A) predicted poor overall survival in HCC patients (all log-rank P < 0.01). These results revealed that the DEGs may serve as candidate key genes during HCC pathogenesis. The 5 hub genes, including CDK1, CCNB1, CCNB2, MAD2L1, and TOP2A, may serve as promising prognostic biomarkers in HCC.
Project description:Background:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are both major health problems throughout the world. It has been reported that T2DM is an independent risk factor for HCC, although the pathophysiology is still unclear. Methods:In order to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in T2DM and HCC, gene expression datasets for T2DM (GSE15653), HCC (GSE60502) and metformin-treated cells (GSE69850) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database repository. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for the DEGs were constructed and gene clusters selected for functional enrichment analysis. Ten genes with the highest degree of connectivity were selected as hub genes and prognostic analysis together with analysis of gene expression and protein distribution were performed for these genes. Lastly, we investigated associations between the hub genes and genes associated with metformin treatment in hepatocarcinoma cells. Results:In total, 256 common DEGs, including 155 up-regulated genes and 101 down-regulated genes, were identified. Enrichment analyses showed that the genes of the major module were largely associated with the cell cycle. All of the 10 hub genes (CCNA2, CCNB1, MAD2L1, BU1B, RACGAP1, CHEK1, BUB1, ASPM, NCAPG and TTK) have a strong association with lower overall survival in liver cancer patients and four genes (CCNA2, CCNB1, CHEK1 and BUB1) have reduced expression in metformin-treated samples. Conclusions:This study identified a number of genes that may play important roles in the association of T2DM and HCC, including four genes which may be the target of metformin treatment for diabetes and HCC. The specific mechanisms involved remain to be identified.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers globally. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection might cause chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, leading to HCC. To screen prognostic genes and therapeutic targets for HCC by bioinformatics analysis and determine the mechanisms underlying HBV-related HCC, three high-throughput RNA-seq based raw datasets, namely GSE25599, GSE77509, and GSE94660, were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and one RNA-seq raw dataset was acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Overall, 103 genes were up-regulated and 127 were down-regulated. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established using Cytoscape software, and 12 pivotal genes were selected as hub genes. The 230 differentially expressed genes and 12 hub genes were subjected to functional and pathway enrichment analyses, and the results suggested that cell cycle, nuclear division, mitotic nuclear division, oocyte meiosis, retinol metabolism, and p53 signaling-related pathways play important roles in HBV-related HCC progression. Further, among the 12 hub genes, kinesin family member 11 (KIF11), TPX2 microtubule nucleation factor (TPX2), kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A), and cyclin B2 (CCNB2) were identified as independent prognostic genes by survival analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. These four genes showed higher expression levels in HCC than in normal tissue samples, as identified upon analyses with Oncomine. In addition, in comparison with normal tissues, the expression levels of KIF11, TPX2, KIF20A, and CCNB2 were higher in HBV-related HCC than in HCV-related HCC tissues. In conclusion, our results suggest that KIF11, TPX2, KIF20A, and CCNB2 might be involved in the carcinogenesis and development of HBV-related HCC. They can thus be used as independent prognostic genes and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of HBV-related HCC and development of pertinent therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common yet deadly form of malignant cancer. However, the specific mechanisms involved in HCC diagnosis have not yet fully elucidated. Herein, we screened four publically available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) expression profiles (GSE14520, GSE29721, GSE45267 and GSE60502), and used them to identify 409 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 142 and 267 up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. The DAVID database was used to look for functionally enriched pathways among DEGs, and the STRING database and Cytoscape platform were used to generate a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network for these DEGs. The cytoHubba plug-in was utilized to detect 185 hub genes, and three key clustering modules were constructed with the MCODE plug-in. Gene functional enrichment analyses of these three key clustering modules were further performed, and nine core genes including BIRC5, DLGAP5, DTL, FEN1, KIAA0101, KIF4A, MCM2, MKI67, and RFC4, were identified in the most critical cluster. Subsequently, the hierarchical clustering and expression of core genes in TCGA liver cancer tissues were analyzed using the UCSC Cancer Genomics Browser, and whether elevated core gene expression was linked to a poor prognosis in HCC patients was assessed using the GEPIA database. The PPI of the nine core genes revealed an interaction between FEN1, MCM2, RFC4, and BIRC5. Furthermore, the expression of FEN1 was positively correlated with that of three other core genes in TCGA liver cancer tissues. FEN1 expression in HCC and other tumor types was assessed with the FIREBROWSE and ONCOMINE databases, and results were verified in HCC samples and hepatoma cells. FEN1 levels were also positively correlated with tumor size, distant metastasis and vascular invasion. In conclusion, we identified nine core genes associated with HCC development, offering novel insight into HCC progression. In particular, the aberrantly elevated FEN1 may represent a potential biomarker for HCC diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Background:The molecular mechanism by which hepatitis B virus (HBV) induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. The genomic expression profile and bioinformatics methods were used to investigate the potential pathogenesis and therapeutic targets for HBV-associated HCC (HBV-HCC). Methods:The microarray dataset GSE55092 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The data was analyzed by the bioinformatics software to find differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis were then performed on DEGs. The hub genes were identified using Centiscape2.2 and Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) in the Cytoscape software (Cytoscape_v3.7.2). The survival data of these hub genes was downloaded from the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). Results:A total of 2264 mRNA transcripts were differentially expressed, including 764 upregulated and 1500 downregulated in tumor tissues. GO analysis revealed that these DEGs were related to the small-molecule metabolic process, xenobiotic metabolic process, and cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways, complement and coagulation cascades, and chemical carcinogenesis were involved. Diseases and biofunctions showed that DEGs were mainly associated with the following diseases or biological function abnormalities: cancer, organismal injury and abnormalities, gastrointestinal disease, and hepatic system disease. The top 10 upstream regulators were predicted to be activated or inhibited by Z-score and identified 25 networks. The 10 genes with the highest degree of connectivity were defined as the hub genes. Cox regression revealed that all the 10 genes (CDC20, BUB1B, KIF11, TTK, EZH2, ZWINT, NDC80, TPX2, MELK, and KIF20A) were related to the overall survival. Conclusion:Our study provided a registry of genes that play important roles in regulating the development of HBV-HCC, assisting us in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie the carcinogenesis and progression of HCC.
Project description:Retinoblastoma (RB) is the commonest malignant tumor of the infant retina. Besides genetic changes, epigenetic events are also considered to implicate the occurrence of RB. This study aimed to identify significantly altered protein-coding genes, DNA methylation, microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and their molecular functions and pathways associated with RB, and investigate the epigenetically regulatory mechanism of DNA methylation modification and non-coding RNAs on key genes of RB via bioinformatics method.We obtained multi-omics data on protein-coding genes, DNA methylation, miRNAs, and lncRNAs from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the Limma package in R, discerned their biological functions and pathways using enrichment analysis, and conducted the modular analysis based on protein-protein interaction network to identify hub genes of RB. Survival analyses based on The Cancer Genome Atlas clinical database were performed to analyze prognostic values of key genes of RB. Subsequently, we identified the differentially methylated genes, differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and lncRNAs (DELs), and intersected them with key genes to analyze possible targets of the underlying epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Finally, the ceRNA network of lncRNAs-miRNAs-mRNAs was constructed using Cytoscape.A total of 193 DEGs, 74 differentially methylated-DEGs (DM-DEGs), 45 DEMs, 5 DELs were identified. The molecular pathways of DEGs were enriched in cell cycle, p53 signaling pathway, and DNA replication. A total of 10 key genes were identified and found significantly associated with poor survival outcome based on survival analyses, including CDK1, BUB1, CCNB2, TOP2A, CCNB1, RRM2, KIF11, KIF20A, NDC80, and TTK. We further found that hub genes MCM6 and KIF14 were differentially methylated, key gene RRM2 was targeted by DEMs, and key genes TTK, RRM2, and CDK1 were indirectly regulated by DELs. Additionally, the ceRNA network with 222 regulatory associations was constructed to visualize the correlations between lncRNAs-miRNAs-mRNAs.This study presents an integrated bioinformatics analysis of genetic and epigenetic changes that may be associated with the development of RB. Findings may yield many new insights into the molecular biomarker candidates and epigenetically regulatory targets of RB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ovarian cancer (OC) ranks fifth as a cause of gynecological cancer-associated death globally. Until now, the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumorigenesis and prognosis of OC have not been fully understood. This study aims to identify hub genes and therapeutic drugs involved in OC. METHODS:Four gene expression profiles (GSE54388, GSE69428, GSE36668, and GSE40595) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in OC tissues and normal tissues with an adjusted P-value <?0.05 and a |log fold change (FC)|?>?1.0 were first identified by GEO2R and FunRich software. Next, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed for functional enrichment analysis of these DEGs. Then, the hub genes were identified by the cytoHubba plugin and the other bioinformatics approaches including protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, module analysis, survival analysis, and miRNA-hub gene network construction was also performed. Finally, the GEPIA2 and DGIdb databases were utilized to verify the expression levels of hub genes and to select the candidate drugs for OC, respectively. RESULTS:A total of 171 DEGs were identified, including 114 upregulated and 57 downregulated DEGs. The results of the GO analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs were mainly involved in cell division, nucleus, and protein binding, whereas the biological functions showing enrichment in the downregulated DEGs were mainly negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, protein complex and apicolateral plasma membrane, and glycosaminoglycan binding. As for the KEGG-pathway, the upregulated DEGs were mainly associated with metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of antibiotics, biosynthesis of amino acids, cell cycle, and HTLV-I infection. Additionally, 10 hub genes (KIF4A, CDC20, CCNB2, TOP2A, RRM2, TYMS, KIF11, BIRC5, BUB1B, and FOXM1) were identified and survival analysis of these hub genes showed that OC patients with the high-expression of CCNB2, TYMS, KIF11, KIF4A, BIRC5, BUB1B, FOXM1, and CDC20 were statistically more likely to have poorer progression free survival. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the hub genes based on GEPIA2 were in accordance with those based on GEO. Finally, DGIdb database was used to identify 62 small molecules as the potentially targeted drugs for OC treatment. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, the data may produce new insights regarding OC pathogenesis and treatment. Hub genes and candidate drugs may improve individualized diagnosis and therapy for OC in future.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a widespread, common type of cancer in Asian countries, and the need for biomarker-matched molecularly targeted therapy for HCC has been increasingly recognized. However, the effective treatment for HCC is unclear. Therefore, identifying additional hub genes and pathways as novel prognostic biomarkers for HCC is necessary. In this study, the expression profiles of GSE121248, GSE45267 and GSE84402 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), including 132 HCC and 90 noncancerous liver tissues. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and noncancerous samples were identified by GEO2 R and Venn diagrams. In total, 109 DEGs were identified in these datasets, including 24 upregulated genes and 85 downregulated genes. Subsequently, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) preliminary analyses of the DEGs were performed using DAVID. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was constructed with the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and visualized in Cytoscape. Module analysis of the PPI network was performed using MCODE to get hub genes. Moreover, the influence of the hub genes on overall survival was determined with Kaplan-Meier plotter. All hub genes were analyzed by Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) and KEGG. Overall, the hub genes DTL, CDK1, CCNB1, RACGAP1, ECT2, NEK2, BUB1B, PBK, TOP2A, ASPM, HMMR, RRM2, CDKN3, PRC1, and ANLN were upregulated in HCC, and the survival rate was lower for HCC with increased expression of these hub genes. CCNB1, CDK1, and RRM2 were enriched in the p53 signaling pathway, and CCNB1, CDK1, and BUB1B were enriched in the cell cycle. In brief, we screened 15 hub genes and pathways to identify potential prognostic markers for HCC treatment. However, the specific occurrence and development of HCC with expression of the hub genes should be verified in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with high mortality. The abnormal expression of genes is significantly related to the occurrence of HCC. The aim of this study was to explore the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of HCC and to provide bioinformatics basis for the occurrence, prevention and treatment of HCC. The DEGs of HCC and normal tissues in GSE102079, GSE121248, GSE84402 and GSE60502 were obtained using R language. The GO function analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs were carried out using the DAVID database. Then, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the STRING database. Hub genes were screened using Cytoscape software and verified using the GEPIA, UALCAN, and Oncomine database. We used HPA database to exhibit the differences in protein level of hub genes and used LinkedOmics to reveal the relationship between candidate genes and tumor clinical features. Finally, we obtained transcription factor (TF) of hub genes using NetworkAnalyst online tool. A total of 591 overlapping up-regulated genes were identified. These genes were related to cell cycle, DNA replication, pyrimidine metabolism, and p53 signaling pathway. Additionally, the GEPIA database showed that the CDK1, CCNB1, CDC20, BUB1, MAD2L1, MCM3, BUB1B, MCM2, and RFC4 were associated with the poor survival of HCC patients. UALCAN, Oncomine, and HPA databases and qRT-PCR confirmed that these genes were highly expressed in HCC tissues. LinkedOmics database indicated these genes were correlated with overall survival, pathologic stage, pathology T stage, race, and the age of onset. TF analysis showed that MYBL2, KDM5B, MYC, SOX2, and E2F4 were regulators to these nine hub genes. Overexpression of CDK1, CCNB1, CDC20, BUB1, MAD2L1, MCM3, BUB1B, MCM2, and RFC4 in tumor tissues predicted poor survival in HCC. They may be potential therapeutic targets for HCC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective was to identify potential hub genes associated with the pathogenesis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS:Gene expression profile datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and normal samples were identified via an integrated analysis. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed and analyzed using the STRING database and Cytoscape software, and enrichment analyses were carried out through DAVID. Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis and Kaplan-Meier plotter were used to determine expression and prognostic values of hub genes. RESULTS:We identified 11 hub genes (CDK1, CCNB2, CDC20, CCNB1, TOP2A, CCNA2, MELK, PBK, TPX2, KIF20A, and AURKA) that might be closely related to the pathogenesis and prognosis of HCC. Enrichment analyses indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolism-associated pathways, and hub genes and module 1 were highly associated with cell cycle pathway. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we identified key genes of HCC, which indicated directions for further research into diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers that could facilitate targeted molecular therapy for HCC.