Aberrant CD3-Positive, CD8-Low, CD7-Negative Lymphocytes May Appear During Viral Infections and Mimic Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: Flow cytometry (FC) facilitates diagnosis of peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL), but overlapping features between reactive and neoplastic T-cell proliferations often hamper a rapid assessment. One hundred forty peripheral blood samples submitted to diagnostic FC for T-cell immunophenotyping were retrospectively analyzed. A T-cell population with a conspicuous aberrant surface epitope expression pattern was observed in 18 cases and diagnostic follow up was performed. The aberrant T-cell population exhibited a low scatter profile, a CD7-negative/low, CD8-low and CD3-positive immunophenotype, and monoclonal T-cell receptor expansion. T-NHL was ruled out by follow up in all cases. Epstein-Barr virus infection was diagnosed in 12 cases, cytomegalovirus infection in three cases; one patient had been vaccinated. The irregular subpopulation disappeared spontaneously within days or weeks. We describe a novel peripheral blood T-cell subpopulation with a low light scatter and CD8-low, CD7-negative/low and CD3-positive marker expression profile, which indicates reactive T-cell expansion in patients who present with peripheral lymphadenopathy and/or B symptoms.
Project description:PURPOSE: In a recent study to purify adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) cells from acute-type patients by flow cytometry, three subpopulations were observed in a CD3 versus CD7 plot (H: CD3(high)CD7(high); D: CD3(dim)CD7(dim); L: CD3(dim)CD7(low)). The majority of leukemia cells were enriched in the L subpopulation and the same clone was included in the D and L subpopulations, suggesting clonal evolution. In this study, we analyzed patients with indolent-type ATL and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) asymptomatic carriers (ACs) to see whether the CD3 versus CD7 profile reflected progression in the properties of HTLV-I-infected cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patient samples, we performed multi-color flow cytometry. Cells that underwent fluorescence-activated cell sorting were subjected to molecular analyses, including inverse long PCR. RESULTS: In the D(%) versus L(%) plot, patient data could largely be categorized into three groups (Group 1: AC; Group 2: smoldering- and chronic-type ATL; and Group 3: acute-type ATL). Some exceptions, however, were noted (e.g., ACs in Group 2). In the follow-up of some patients, clinical disease progression correlated well with the CD3 versus CD7 profile. In clonality analysis, we clearly detected a major clone in the D and L subpopulations in ATL cases and, intriguingly, in some ACs in Group 2. CONCLUSION: We propose that the CD3 versus CD7 plot reflects progression of disease stage in patients infected with HTLV-I. The CD3 versus CD7 profile will be a new indicator, along with high proviral load, for HTLV-I ACs in forecasting disease progression.
Project description:We previously reported that the cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) versus CD7 plot in flow cytometry reflects disease progression in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. In CD4(+) cells from peripheral blood, CADM1(-) CD7(+) (P), CADM1(+) CD7(dim) (D) and CADM1(+) CD7(-) (N) subpopulations are observed. The D and N subpopulations increase as asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (AC) progress to indolent adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and the N subpopulation then expands in aggressive ATL. In the present study we examined whether the analysis can estimate the risk of developing ATL in advanced AC. Peripheral blood samples from AC (N = 41) and indolent ATL patients (N = 19) were analyzed by flow cytometry using the CADM1 versus CD7 plot for CD4(+) cells and inverse long PCR (clonality analysis) of FACS-sorted subpopulations. Almost all AC with a high HTLV-1 proviral load (>4 copies/100 cells) had a CADM1(+) (D + N) frequency of >10%. AC with 25% < CADM1(+) ? 50% contained expanded clones similar to smoldering-type ATL. In many patients in the 25% < CADM1(+) ? 50% group, the proportion of abnormal lymphocytes was distributed around the 5% line, which divides AC and smoldering-type ATL in Shimoyama's classification. In conclusion, the CADM1 versus CD7 plot is useful for selection of putative high-risk AC. The characteristics of some AC and smoldering ATL are said to be similar; however, long-term follow up is required and the clinical outcome (e.g. rate of transformation) of these cases should be used to determine whether to include them in the same clinical category.
Project description:Effective therapies for treating patients with steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host-disease (SR-aGVHD), particularly strategies that reduce the duration of immunosuppression following remission, are urgently needed. The investigated immunotoxin combination consists of a mixture of anti-CD3 and anti-CD7 antibodies separately conjugated to recombinant ricin A (CD3/CD7-IT), which induces in vivo depletion of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and suppresses T cell receptor activation. We conducted a phase I/II trial to examine the safety and efficacy of CD3/CD7-IT in 20 patients with SR-aGVHD; 17 of these patients (85%) had severe SR-aGVHD, and all 20 patients had visceral organ involvement, including 18 (90%) with gastrointestinal (GI) involvement and 5 (25%) with liver involvement. A validated 2-biomarker algorithm classified the majority of patients (11 of 20) as high risk. On day 28 after the start of CD3/CD7-IT therapy, the overall response rate was 60% (12 of 20), with 10 patients (50%) achieving a complete response. The 6-month overall survival rate was 60% (12 of 20), including 64% (7 of 11) classified as high risk by biomarkers. The 1-week course of treatment with CD3/CD7-IT caused profound but transient depletion of T cells and NK cells, followed by rapid recovery of the immune system with a diverse TCR V? repertoire, and preservation of Epstein-Barr virus- and cytomegalovirus-specific T cell clones. Furthermore, our results indicate that CD3/CD7-IT appeared to be safe and well tolerated, with a relatively low prevalence of manageable and reversible adverse events, primarily worsening of hypoalbuminemia, microangiopathy, and thrombocytopenia. These encouraging results suggest that CD3/CD7-IT may improve patient outcomes in patients with SR-aGVHD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Fine-needle aspiration with flow cytometry (FNA-FC) is routinely used in the evaluation of lymph nodes suspicious for lymphoma, yet data comparing immunophenotype distributions and outliers in benign lymph nodes sampled by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) versus excision are lacking.<h4>Methods</h4>Flow cytometry data from 289 benign lymph node FNA cases were assessed for the overall antigen distribution, with a focus on outliers relevant to the diagnosis of lymphoma. Distributions and outlier proportions were compared with those of a separate cohort of 298 excisional biopsies.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with excisional biopsies, FNA specimens overrepresented CD3+ events (72% vs 63%), underrepresented CD19+ events (22% vs 29%), and had 25% fewer large cell-gated events. Normalized antigen distributions in FNA were equivalent to those in excisional biopsy. Twenty-three percent of FNA-FC cases exhibited an outlier, including a skewed kappa:lambda light-chain ratio, increased CD5+ or CD10+ B-cell events, a skewed CD4:CD8 ratio, and increased CD7 loss on T cells, with no significant differences in frequency or type in comparison with excisional specimens. Outliers for the light-chain ratio and T-cell antigens were enriched among older patients and included patients with a variety of autoimmune/rheumatologic conditions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Benign lymph node FNA yields flow immunophenotypes remarkably similar to those from excisional biopsies. Outlier flow immunophenotypes are identified in benign lymph nodes sampled by FNA at a frequency similar to that with excisional biopsies. Older patients, who have a higher baseline risk of lymphoma, are more likely to exhibit lymphoma-mimicking outliers such as a light-chain predominance on B cells and skewed CD4:CD8 ratios or increased CD7 loss on T cells, and they warrant additional diagnostic caution.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a critical global health problem, which killed millions of lives each year. Certain circulating cell subsets are thought to differentially modulate the host immune response towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, but the nature and function of these subsets is unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from healthy controls (HC), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (TB) and then subjected to single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) using 10?×?Genomics platform. Unsupervised clustering of the cells based on the gene expression profiles using the Seurat package and passed to tSNE for clustering visualization. Flow cytometry was used to validate the subsets identified by scRNA-Seq.<h4>Findings</h4>Cluster analysis based on differential gene expression revealed both known and novel markers for all main PBMC cell types and delineated 29 cell subsets. By comparing the scRNA-seq datasets from HC, LTBI and TB, we found that infection changes the frequency of immune-cell subsets in TB. Specifically, we observed gradual depletion of a natural killer (NK) cell subset (CD3-CD7+GZMB+) from HC, to LTBI and TB. We further verified that the depletion of CD3-CD7+GZMB+ subset in TB and found an increase in this subset frequency after anti-TB treatment. Finally, we confirmed that changes in this subset frequency can distinguish patients with TB from LTBI and HC.<h4>Interpretation</h4>We propose that the frequency of CD3-CD7+GZMB+ in peripheral blood could be used as a novel biomarker for distinguishing TB from LTBI and HC. FUND: The study was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (81770013, 81525016, 81772145, 81871255 and 91942315), National Science and Technology Major Project (2017ZX10201301), Science and Technology Project of Shenzhen (JCYJ20170412101048337) and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Immunity and Diseases (2019B030301009). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cell-mediated immunity is often suppressed in patients with hematological malignancies. Recently, we found that low T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 signaling was related to abnormal expression of the negative regulator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) A20 in acute myeloid leukemia. To investigate the characteristics of T cell immunodeficiency in lymphomas, we analyzed the expression features of A20 and its upstream regulating factor mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) and genes downstream of NF-?B in patients with different lymphoma subtypes, including T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL), B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and NK/T cell lymphoma (NK/T-CL). METHODS:Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of the MALT1, MALT-V1 (variant 1), A20 and NF-?B genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 24 cases with T-NHL, 19 cases with B-NHL and 16 cases with NK/T-CL, and 31 healthy individuals (HI) served as control. RESULTS:Significantly lower A20 and NF-?B expression was found in patients with all three lymphoma subtypes compared with the healthy controls. Moreover, the MALT1 expression level was downregulated in all three lymphoma subtypes. A significant positive correlation between the expression level of MALT1 and A20, MALT1-V1 and A20, MALT1-V1 and NF-?B, and A20 and NF-?B was found. CONCLUSIONS:An abnormal MALT1-A20-NF-?B expression pattern was found in patients with lymphoma, which may result a lack of A20 and dysfunctional MALT1 and may be related to lower T cell activation, which is a common feature in Chinese patients with lymphoma. This finding may at least partially explain the molecular mechanism of T cell immunodeficiency in lymphomas.
Project description:A subset of CD3(neg)CD56(neg)CD16? Natural Killer (NK) cells is highly expanded during chronic HIV-1 infection. The role of this subset in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains unclear. The lack of NK cell lineage-specific markers has complicated the study of minor NK cell subpopulations.Using CD7 as an additional NK cell marker, we found that CD3(neg)CD56(neg)CD16? cells are a heterogeneous population comprised of CD7? NK cells and CD7(neg) non-classical myeloid cells. CD7?CD56(neg)CD16? NK cells are significantly expanded in HIV-1 infection. CD7?CD56(neg)CD16? NK cells are mature and express KIRs, the C-type lectin-like receptors NKG2A and NKG2C, and natural cytotoxicity receptors similar to CD7?CD56?CD16? NK cells. CD7?CD56(neg) NK cells in healthy donors produced minimal IFN? following K562 target cell or IL-12 plus IL-18 stimulation; however, they degranulated in response to K562 stimulation similar to CD7?CD56? NK cells. HIV-1 infection resulted in reduced IFN? secretion following K562 or cytokine stimulation by both NK cell subsets compared to healthy donors. Decreased granzyme B and perforin expression and increased expression of CD107a in the absence of stimulation, particularly in HIV-1-infected subjects, suggest that CD7?CD56(neg)CD16? NK cells may have recently engaged target cells. Furthermore, CD7?CD56(neg)CD16? NK cells have significantly increased expression of CD95, a marker of NK cell activation.Taken together, CD7?CD56(neg)CD16? NK cells are activated, mature NK cells that may have recently engaged target cells.
Project description:Primary pulmonary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is very rare. It represents less than 1% of all NHL, and 0.5-1% of all primary pulmonary malignancies. Almost all cases of primary pulmonary NHL originate from B-cell lineage. We present a case of a 53-year-old man with primary extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of the bronchus and lung, presented progressive dyspnea caused by right lower lung consolidation, and pleural effusion. Initial chest computed tomography suggested advanced lung cancer. Bronchofiberscopy showed a polypoid tumor on which a biopsy was performed. Histologically, the diffusely infiltrative atypical cells were positive for cytoplasmic CD3, CD56, granzyme B, and negative for cytokeratin, CD20 immunostains, suggesting NK/T cell lineages. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus encoded ribonucleic acid (EBER) was positive. Herein, we discuss the clinicopathological features of this case and review the literature on primary extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of the lung. Compared with other patients, who died after the first cycle of chemotherapy and/or within three months, our patient had longer survival under aggressive chemotherapy and auto-peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Project description:Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) often shows systemic symptoms related to immune dysregulation and cytokine production. Biopsy usually harbors few malignant cells in an abundant reactive background, which can be diagnostically challenging in cases with small biopsies. This study was performed to assess the value of flow cytometry (FC) and to determine the immunophenotypic alterations in 155 samples from 38 patients with AITL. FC detected an aberrant T-cell population in 97 of 155 samples that represented 0.5-90% of lymphocytes. Blood was involved in 11 of 16 patients. The most frequent immunophenotypic aberrancies included loss of CD3; altered T-cell receptor expression and aberrant CD10 expression. Altered CD3 expression was more frequently seen in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM), whereas aberrant CD10 expression was more common in lymph node (LN). AITL cells often exhibit abnormal CD4+?immunophenotype with diminished or absent CD3 and variable CD10 expression. Multiparameter FC is an effective tool for supporting the diagnosis of AITL in any fluid and various tissue specimens types.
Project description:A pilot phase I clinical trial involving 15 infusions of anti-CD3 × anti-CD20 bispecific Ab (CD20Bi)-armed anti-CD3-activated T cells (aATC) and low-dose IL-2 was conducted in three non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients (two high-risk and one refractory) after autologous SCT. The feasibility of T-cell expansion, safety of aATC infusions, cytotoxic immune responses and trafficking of aATC were evaluated. Three NHL patients received 15 infusions of 5 × 10(9) aATC (three infusions/week for 3 weeks and one infusion/week for 6 weeks) between days 1 and 65 after SCT with IL-2. There were no dose-limiting toxicities. Chills, fever, hypotension and malaise were the common side effects. Engraftment was delayed in one patient with a low stem cell dose. CD20Bi aATC infusions induced specific cytotoxicity directed at lymphoma targets. Endogenous peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two patients mediated anti-lymphoma cytotoxicity above preSCT background (P<0.001). (111)In labeled aATC trafficked to the lungs at 1?h and accumulated in the liver and bone marrow after 24?h. aATC infusions given over 69 days in combination with IL-2 were safe, did not inhibit engraftment, and induced endogenous cytotoxic responses directed at lymphoma targets.