Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Traits in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) and Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase/AmpC-producing (ESBL/AmpC) Enterobacteriaceae from Humans and Pets.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:We investigated the virulence factors, genes, antibiotic resistance patterns, and genotypes (VRE and ESBL/AmpC) production in Enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from fecal samples of humans, dogs, and cats. METHODS:A total of 100 fecal samples from 50 humans, 25 dogs, and 25 cats were used in the study. MICs of nine antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance (VRE and ESBL/AmpC) and virulence genes both in Enterococcus species, such as cytolysin (cylA, cylB, cylM), aggregation substance (agg), gelatinase (gelE), enterococcal surface protein (esp), cell wall adhesins (efaAfs and efaAfm), and in Enterobacteriaceae, such as cytolysin (hemolysin) and gelatinase production (afa, cdt, cnf1, hlyA, iutA, papC, sfa). RESULTS:Enterococcus faecium was the most prevalent species in humans and cats, whereas Enterococcus faecalis was the species isolated in the remaining samples. A total of 200 Enterobacteriaceae strains were also detected, mainly from humans, and Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated species in all types of samples. In the Enterococcus spp, the highest percentages of resistance for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were detected in cat isolates (41.6%, 52.8%, 38.9%, 23.6%, 62.5%, 20.8%, and 23.6% respectively), and in E. coli, a higher rate of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime emerged in cat and dog samples, if compared with humans (75.4% and 66.0%, 80.0% and 71.4%, and 32.0% and 27.2%, respectively). Regarding the total number of enterococci, 5% and 3.4% of the strains were vancomycin and teicoplanin resistant, and the vancomycin resistance (van A) gene has been detected in all samples by PCR amplification. All the Enterobacteriaceae strains were confirmed as ESBL producers by PCR and sequencing, and the most frequent ESBL genes in E. coli strains from humans and pet samples were blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide evidence that one or more virulence factors were present in both genera, underlining again the ability of pet strains to act as pathogens.
Project description:Extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45 and 55% were positive for Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility for cefotaxime. From the healthy and diarrheic cats, the estimated prevalence was respectively 0 and 25%. One diarrheic cat was positive for both reduced susceptible E. coli and Proteus mirabilis. The ESBL/AmpC genes found in this study were mainly bla CTX-M-1, but also bla CTX-M-14, bla CTX-M-15, bla TEM-52-StPaul, bla SHV-12, and bla CMY-2 were detected. This pilot study showed that the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy and diarrheic dogs, and diarrheic cats was relatively high. Furthermore, the genes found were similar to those found in isolates of both human and food-producing animal origin. However, since the size of this study was relatively small, extrapolation of the data to the general population of cats and dogs should be done with great care.
Project description:Irrigation water is a major source of fresh produce contamination with undesired microorganisms including antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and contaminated fresh produce can transfer ARB to the consumer especially when consumed raw. Nevertheless, no legal guidelines exist so far regulating quality of irrigation water with respect to ARB. We therefore examined irrigation water from major vegetable growing areas for occurrence of antibiotic-resistant indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., including extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. Occurrence of ARB strains was compared to total numbers of the respective species. We categorized water samples according to total numbers and found that categories with higher total E. coli or Enterococcus spp. numbers generally had an increased proportion of respective ARB-positive samples. We further detected high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli with eight positive samples of thirty-six (22%), while two presumptive vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. were vancomycin-susceptible in confirmatory tests. In disk diffusion assays all ESBL-producing E. coli were multidrug-resistant (n = 21) and whole-genome sequencing of selected strains revealed a multitude of transmissible resistance genes (ARG), with blaCTX-M-1 (4 of 11) and blaCTX-M-15 (3 of 11) as the most frequent ESBL genes. Overall, the increased occurrence of indicator ARB with increased total indicator bacteria suggests that the latter might be a suitable estimate for presence of respective ARB strains. Finally, the high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli with transmissible ARG emphasizes the need to establish legal critical values and monitoring guidelines for ARB in irrigation water.
Project description:This study aimed to calculate the proportion of antibiotic resistance profiles of <i>Enterococcus faecium</i>, <i>E. faecalis,</i> and <i>E. durans</i> isolated from traditional sheep and goat cheeses obtained from a selected border area of Slovakia with Hungary (region Slanské vrchy). A total of 110 <i>Enterococcus</i> sp. were isolated from cheese samples, of which 52 strains (<i>E. faecium</i> (12), <i>E. faecalis</i> (28), <i>E. durans</i> (12)) were represented. After isolation and identification by polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the enterococci (<i>E. faecium, E. faecalis</i>, and <i>E. durans</i>) were submitted to susceptibility tests against nine antimicrobial agents. In general, strains of <i>E. faecalis</i> were more resistant than <i>E. durans</i> and <i>E. faecium</i>. A high percentage of resistance was noted in <i>E. faecalis</i> to rifampicin (100%), vancomycin (85.7%), teicoplanin (71.4%), erythromycin (71.4%), minocycline (57.1%), nitrofurantoin (57.1%), ciprofloxacin (14.3%), and levofloxacin (14.3%). <i>E. durans</i> showed resistance to rifampicin (100%), teicoplanin (100%), vancomycin (66.7%), erythromycin (66.7%), nitrofurantoin (66.7%), and minocycline (33.3%), and <i>E. faecium</i> showed resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and erythromycin (100%). Multidrug-resistant strains were confirmed in 80% of the 52 strains in this study. Continuous identification of <i>Enterococcus</i> sp. and monitoring of their incidence and emerging antibiotic resistance is important in order to prevent a potential risk to public health caused by the contamination of milk and other dairy products, such as cheeses, made on farm level.
Project description:Close contact between pets and owners provides the opportunity for transmission of antimicrobial resistant organisms like extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, posing a risk to public health.To investigate whether raw feed is a risk factor for household cats to shed ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a cohort study was designed. Additionally, raw and non-raw commercial pet food products were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.Weekly fecal samples of 17 cats in the control group and 19 cats in the exposed group were collected for three weeks and analyzed for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Questionnaires were obtained to determine additional risk factors. Fecal samples were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. PCR and sequence analysis was used for screening for ESBL genes in suspected isolates. Pet food samples were cultured in LB broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and processed as described above.In the cohort study, ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 of 51 (5.9%) samples in the control group compared to 37 of 57 (89.5%) samples in the exposed group. A significant association was found between ESBL shedding and feeding raw pet food products (OR = 31.5). No other risk factors were identified in this study. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 14 of 18 (77.8%) raw pet food products and 0 of 35 non-raw pet food products.This study shows a strong association between shedding of ESBL-producing bacteria in household cats and feeding raw pet food. Raw pet food was often contaminated with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
Project description:Extended spectrum beta-lactamases and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL/AmpC-E) have become a great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. One setting in which this risk could be particularly prominent is petting zoos, in which humans, especially children, directly and indirectly interact with the animals. Yet, while the zoonotic transmission of various Enterobacteriaceae has been reported previously in petting zoos, reports on ESBL/AmpC-E shedding in this setting is currently lacking, despite the high potential risk. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a prospective cross-sectional study to explore the prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and risk for shedding of ESBL/AmpC-E in petting zoos. We performed a prospective cross-sectional study in eight petting zoos. Altogether, we collected 381 fecal and body-surface samples from 228 animals, broth-enriched them, and then plated them onto CHROMagar ESBL-plates for ESBL/AmpC-E isolation. Next, we identified the isolated species and tested their susceptibility to various antibiotics using the Vitek-2 system, determined bacterial relatedness by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and identified ESBL/AmpC genes by using PCR and sequencing. Finally, we asked petting zoo owners and veterinarians to complete questionnaires, which we then analyzed to evaluate risk factors for ESBL/AmpC-E shedding. We found that ESBL/AmpC-E shedding is an important, currently oversighted risk in petting zoos, as the overall shedding rate was 12% (35 isolates, including 29% ESBL-producers, 34% AmpC-producers, and 37% ESBL and AmpC-producers). The isolated bacteria included <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i> (55%), <i>Escherichia coli</i> (31%), and <i>Citrobacter freundii</i> (14%), with diverse ESBL genes. MLST revealed diverse sequence types (STs), including the highly virulent Enterotoxigenic ST656 and the Uropathogenic ST127 <i>E. coli</i> strains, indicating complex epidemiology with inter-animal bacterial transmission. Shedding was associated with petting permission and antibiotic treatment in the petting zoo (OR = 7.34), which were identified as risk factors for ESBL/AmpC shedding. Our findings highlight petting zoos as a source for antibiotic-resistant ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria, including highly virulent, disease-associated MDR <i>E. coli</i> strains. As this risk has not been previously described in detail, it calls for the implementation of infection control and active surveillance programs in petting zoos and raises the need for a comprehensive guideline to restrain this emerging concern.
Project description:The increasing occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) extended-spectrum ?-lactamase- (ESBL) and/or AmpC ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in health care systems, the environment and fresh produce is a serious concern globally. Production practices, processing and subsequent consumption of contaminated raw fruit and vegetables represent a possible human transmission route. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in complete spinach supply chains and to characterize the isolated strains phenotypically (antimicrobial resistance profiles) and genotypically (ESBL/AmpC genetic determinants, detection of class 1, 2, and 3 integrons). Water, soil, fresh produce, and contact surface samples (n = 288) from two commercial spinach production systems were screened for ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. In total, 14.58% (42/288) of the samples were found to be contaminated after selective enrichment, plating onto chromogenic media and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identity confirmation of presumptive ESBL/AmpC isolates. This included 15.28% (11/72) water and 12.12% (16/132) harvested- and processed spinach, while 25% (15/60) retail spinach samples were found to be contaminated with an increase in isolate abundance and diversity in both scenarios. Dominant species identified included Serratia fonticola (45.86%), Escherichia coli (20.83%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.75%). In total, 48 (81.36%) isolates were phenotypically confirmed as ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae of which 98% showed a MDR phenotype. Genotypic characterization (PCR of ESBL/AmpC resistance genes and integrons) further revealed the domination of the CTX-M Group 1 ESBL type, followed by TEM and SHV; whilst the CIT-type was the only plasmid-mediated AmpC genetic determinant detected. Integrons were detected in 79.17% (n = 38) of the confirmed ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates, of which we highlight the high prevalence of class 3 integrons, detected in 72.92% (n = 35) of the isolates, mostly in S. fonticola. Class 2 integrons were not detected in this study. This is the first report on the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated throughout commercial spinach production systems harboring class 1 and/or class 3 integrons in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The results add to the global knowledge base regarding the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh vegetables and the agricultural environment required for future risk analysis.
Project description:Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-encoded ampC (pAmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae might spread from farm animals to humans through food. However, most studies have been limited in number of isolates tested and areas studied. We examined genetic relatedness of 716 isolates from 4,854 samples collected from humans, farm animals, and foods in Sweden to determine whether foods and farm animals might act as reservoirs and dissemination routes for ESBL/pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli. Results showed that clonal spread to humans appears unlikely. However, we found limited dissemination of genes encoding ESBL/pAmpC and plasmids carrying these genes from foods and farm animals to healthy humans and patients. Poultry and chicken meat might be a reservoir and dissemination route to humans. Although we found no evidence of clonal spread of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli from farm animals or foods to humans, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli with identical genes and plasmids were present in farm animals, foods, and humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. According to the One Health concept, an important step is to monitor the resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and trends of bacteria isolated from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff in South Korea between 2017 and 2018 were investigated. RESULTS:The minimum inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics for Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcus spp. were determined to establish representatives of different antibiotic classes relevant for treatment or surveillance. For Coagulase-positive and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, resistance to fluoroquinolones was below 13%, but resistance to ampicillin and penicillin was high (20-88%). A total of 9.5, 12.1, and 40.3% of staphylococcal isolates from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff, respectively, were confirmed to be mecA positive. For Enterobacteriaceae, resistance to carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and 3rd generation cephalosporins was low (0-11.1%). The Enterococcus spp. isolates showed no resistance to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance rates of the Staphylococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae isolates from stray cats were usually lower than those of isolates from hospital-admitted cats and veterinary staff, but the Enterococcus spp. isolates revealed the opposite. Thus, the antimicrobial resistance varied across bacterial species according to the source from which they were isolated. CONCLUSIONS:Resistance to critically important compounds were low. However, the presence of antimicrobial resistance in cat isolates is of both public health and animal health concern.
Project description:We studied 138 glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) strains, consisting of 131 glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GREfm) and 7 glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (GREfs). The GREfm strains were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin, while the GREfs strains were only resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The van A gene was the only glycopeptide determinant present in all GRE isolates investigated. Genes coding for Hyl and Hyl+ Esp were detected in 39 (29.8%) and 92 (70.2%) of the 131 GREfm isolates, respectively. Three of the 7 GREfs were positive for gelE+asa 1 genes, 3 for gel E gene, and 1 for asa 1 gene. The genetic relationship between the 138 GRE was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). GREfm isolates were clustered in a single genogroup (pulsotype A), and GREfs were clustered in six genogroups (pulsotypes B-G). Among the isolates investigated by MLST, only 18 PCR products were sequenced (12 E. faecium and 6 E. faecalis), and 9 sequence types (STs) were identified.
Project description:A longitudinal study was performed to (i) investigate the continuity of shedding of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in dogs without clinical signs, (ii) identify dominant plasmid-mediated ESBL genes, and (iii) quantify ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in feces. Fecal samples from 38 dogs were collected monthly for 6 months. Additional samples were collected from 7 included dogs on a weekly basis for 6 weeks. Numbers of CFU per gram of feces for non-wild-type Enterobacteriaceae were determined by using MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/liter cefotaxime (MCC), and those for total Enterobacteriaceae were determined by using MacConkey agar. Cefotaxime-resistant isolates were screened by PCR and sequence analysis for the presence of bla(CTX-M), bla(CMY), bla(SHV), bla(OXA), and bla(TEM) gene families. Bacterial species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. PCR-negative isolates were tested by a double-disk synergy test for enhanced AmpC expression. A total of 259 samples were screened, and 126 samples were culture positive on MCC, resulting in 352 isolates, 327 of which were Escherichia coli. Nine dogs were continuously positive during this study, and 6 dogs were continuously negative. Monthly or weekly shifts in fecal shedding were observed for 23 dogs. Genotyping showed a large variety of ESBL genes and gene combinations at single and multiple consecutive sampling moments. The ESBL genes bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-14), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(SHV-12), and bla(CMY-2) were most frequently found. The mean number of CFU of non-wild-type Enterobacteriaceae was 6.11 × 10(8) CFU/g feces. This study showed an abundance of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in dogs in the Netherlands, mostly in high concentrations. Fecal shedding was shown to be highly dynamic over time, which is important to consider when studying ESBL epidemiology.