Meningomyeloencephalitis secondary to Mycobacterium haemophilum infection in AIDS.
ABSTRACT: Infections by opportunistic non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are rising in global incidence. One emerging, slowly growing NTM is Mycobacterium haemophilum, which can cause skin, lung, bone, and soft tissue infections in immunocompromised patients as well as lymphadenitis in immunocompetent individuals. Detection of this microorganism is difficult using conventional culture-based methods and few reports have documented involvement of this pathogen within the central nervous system (CNS).We describe the neuropathologic autopsy findings of a 39-year-old man with AIDS who died secondary to M. haemophilum CNS infection. He initially presented with repeated bouts of pyrexia, nausea and vomiting, and altered mental status that required numerous hospitalizations. CSF infectious workups were consistently negative. His most recent admission identified hyperintensities within the brainstem by MRI and despite antibiotic therapies for suspected CNS infection, he died. Autopsy revealed a swollen brain with marked widening of the brainstem. Microscopic examination of the brain and spinal cord showed focal lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, gliosis and neuronal loss that were associated with acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The brainstem was the most severely damaged and AFB were found to congregate along arterial territories lending support to the notion of hematogenous spread as a mechanism for the organisms' dissemination. 16S rRNA sequencing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue enabled post-mortem identification of M. haemophilum. This sequencing methodology may permit diagnosis on CSF intra-vitam.
Project description:Infections associated with Mycobacterium haemophilum are underdiagnosed because specific culture methods required for its recovery are not applied routinely. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology on fine needle aspirates and biopsied specimens from 89 children with cervicofacial lymphadenitis, we assessed the importance of M. haemophilum. Application of a Mycobacterium genus-specific real-time PCR in combination with amplicon sequencing and a M. haemophilum-specific PCR resulted in the recognition of M. haemophilum as the causative agent in 16 (18%) children with cervicofacial lymphadenitis. M. avium was the most frequently found species (56%), and M. haemophilum was the second most commonly recognized pathogen. Real-time PCR results were superior to culture because only 9 (56%) of the 16 diagnosed M. haemophilum infections were positive by culture.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Mycobacterium haemophilum is an emerging pathogen associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, most commonly skin infections in immunocompromised individuals. M. haemophilum exhibits a unique requirement for iron supplementation to support its growth in culture, but the basis for this property and how it may shape pathogenesis is unclear. Using a combination of Illumina, PacBio, and Sanger sequencing, the complete genome sequence of M. haemophilum was determined. Guided by this sequence, experiments were performed to define the basis for the unique growth requirements of M. haemophilum. We found that M. haemophilum, unlike many other mycobacteria, is unable to synthesize iron-binding siderophores known as mycobactins or to utilize ferri-mycobactins to support growth. These differences correlate with the absence of genes associated with mycobactin synthesis, secretion, and uptake. In agreement with the ability of heme to promote growth, we identified genes encoding heme uptake machinery. Consistent with its propensity to infect the skin, we show at the whole-genome level the genetic closeness of M. haemophilum with Mycobacterium leprae, an organism which cannot be cultivated in vitro, and we identify genes uniquely shared by these organisms. Finally, we identify means to express foreign genes in M. haemophilum. These data explain the unique culture requirements for this important pathogen, provide a foundation upon which the genome sequence can be exploited to improve diagnostics and therapeutics, and suggest use of M. haemophilum as a tool to elucidate functions of genes shared with M. leprae. IMPORTANCE:Mycobacterium haemophilum is an emerging pathogen with an unknown natural reservoir that exhibits unique requirements for iron supplementation to grow in vitro. Understanding the basis for this iron requirement is important because it is fundamental to isolation of the organism from clinical samples and environmental sources. Defining the molecular basis for M. haemophilium's growth requirements will also shed new light on mycobacterial strategies to acquire iron and can be exploited to define how differences in such strategies influence pathogenesis. Here, through a combination of sequencing and experimental approaches, we explain the basis for the iron requirement. We further demonstrate the genetic closeness of M. haemophilum and Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy which cannot be cultured in vitro, and we demonstrate methods to genetically manipulate M. haemophilum. These findings pave the way for the use of M. haemophilum as a model to elucidate functions of genes shared with M. leprae.
Project description:Mycobacterium haemophilum is an emerging opportunistic pathogen, and since 1989, infections caused by this organism have been identified more frequently in the New York City area than in any other region of the United States. A DNA fingerprinting method, based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) was developed. A genomic library of M. haemophilum isolate 1A was constructed; screening the library yielded a recombinant strain that incorporated a genetic element present in multiple copies in the M. haemophilum genome. This clone was used to produce a probe for RFLP analyses of PvuII digests of genomic DNA. We used this probe to determine the RFLP patterns of 43 clinical isolates of M. haemophilum from 28 patients. A total of six distinct patterns were observed. Two patterns, designated types 1 and 2, accounted for 91% of the infections in patients from the New York City area. Two isolates from Arizona had identical patterns but were distinct from those of New York isolates, and an isolate from Israel, the type strain, had another distinct pattern (type 6). The type 6 pattern was also seen in a recent isolate from Norway. All of the type 1 isolates and 60% of the type 2 isolates were recovered from patients with AIDS in the New York City area. This molecular subtyping method should provide a useful tool for epidemiological studies and may help identify the associated risk factors, vehicles, and possible reservoirs of this newly emerging pathogen.
Project description:PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (PRA) was used for direct identification of Mycobacterium haemophilum in clinical specimens from immunocompromised patients. PRA correctly identified M. haemophilum in four smear-positive specimens. Direct identification by PRA takes 2 to 3 working days compared to the 3 to 5 weeks required for culture isolation and identification by conventional methods.
Project description:TB PNA FISH is a new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for differentiation between species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in acid-fast bacillus-positive (AFB+) cultures is described. The test is based on fluorescein-labelled PNA probes that target the rRNA of MTC or NTM species applied to smears of AFB+ cultures for microscopic examination. Parallel testing with the two probes serves as an internal control for each sample such that a valid test result is based on one positive and one negative reaction. TB PNA FISH was evaluated with 30 AFB+ cultures from Denmark and 42 AFB+ cultures from Thailand. The MTC-specific PNA probe showed diagnostic sensitivities of 84 and 97%, respectively, and a diagnostic specificity of 100% in both studies, whereas the NTM-specific PNA probe showed diagnostic sensitivities of 91 and 64%, respectively, and a diagnostic specificity of 100% in both studies. The low sensitivity of the NTM-specific PNA probe in the Thai study was due to a relatively high prevalence of Mycobacterium fortuitum, which is not identified by the probe. In total, 63 (87%) of the cultures were correctly identified as MTC (n = 46) or NTM (n = 17), whereas the remaining 9 were negative with both probes and thus the results were inconclusive. None of the samples were incorrectly identified as MTC or NTM; thus, the predictive value of a valid test result obtained with TB PNA FISH was 100%.
Project description:Acid-fast bacilli from pediatric patients with lymphadenopathy were detected in the BACTEC radiometric system and in MB Redox broth, but not on Löwenstein Jensen medium. PCR amplification identified the isolates as Mycobacterium haemophilum, which has special nutrition requirements (iron supplements) for growth. Suitable culture medium ensures optimal recovery of this microorganism, avoiding underdiagnosis.
Project description:To describe the autopsy case of a patient with a homozygous 2-base deletion, c171_172delGA (p.N58fs), in the C12orf65 gene.We described the clinical history, neuroimaging data, neuropathology, and genetic analysis of the patients with C12orf65 mutations.The patient was a Japanese woman with a history of delayed psychomotor development, primary amenorrhea, and gait disturbance in her 20s. She was hospitalized because of respiratory failure at the age of 60. Pectus excavatum, long fingers and toes, and pes cavus were revealed by physical examination. Her IQ score was 44. Neurologic examination revealed ophthalmoplegia, optic atrophy, dysphagia, distal dominant muscle weakness and atrophy, hyperreflexia at patellar tendon reflex, hyporeflexia at Achilles tendon reflex, and extensor plantar reflexes. At age 60, she died of pneumonia. Lactate levels were elevated in the patient's serum and CSF. T2-weighted brain MRI showed symmetrical hyperintense brainstem lesions. At autopsy, axial sections exposed symmetrical cyst formation with brownish lesions in the upper spinal cord, ventral medulla, pons, dorsal midbrain, and medial hypothalamus. Microscopic analysis of these areas demonstrated mild gliosis with rarefaction. Cell bodies in the choroid plexuses were eosinophilic and swollen. Electron microscopic examination revealed that these cells contained numerous abnormal mitochondria. Whole-exome sequencing revealed the 2-base deletion in C12orf65.We report an autopsy case of the C12orf65 mutation, and findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie the unique clinical presentations.
Project description:Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has become much more common with monoclonal antibody treatment for multiple sclerosis and other immune-mediated disorders.We report 2 patients with severe psoriasis and fatal PML treated for ?3 years with efalizumab, a neutralizing antibody to ?L?2-leukointegrin (LFA-1). In one patient, we conducted serial studies of peripheral blood and CSF including analyses of leukocyte phenotypes, migration ex vivo, and CDR3 spectratypes with controls coming from HIV-infected patients with PML. Extensive pathologic and histologic analysis was done on autopsy CNS tissue of both patients.Both patients developed progressive cognitive and motor deficits, and JC virus was identified in CSF. Despite treatment including plasma exchange (PE) and signs of immune reconstitution, both died of PML 2 and 6 months after disease onset. Neuropathologic examination confirmed PML. Efalizumab treatment was associated with reduced transendothelial migration by peripheral T cells in vitro. As expression levels of LFA-1 on peripheral T cells gradually rose after PE, in vitro migration increased. Peripheral and CSF T-cell spectratyping showed CD8+ T-cell clonal expansion but blunted activation, which was restored after PE.From these data we propose that inhibition of peripheral and intrathecal T-cell activation and suppression of CNS effector-phase migration both characterize efalizumab-associated PML. LFA-1 may be a crucial factor in homeostatic JC virus control.
Project description:Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from healthy individuals contains between 1,000 and 3,000 leukocytes per ml. Little is known about trafficking patterns of leukocytes between the systemic circulation and the noninflamed CNS. In the current study, we characterized the surface phenotype of CSF cells and defined the expression of selected adhesion molecules on vasculature in the choroid plexus, the subarachnoid space surrounding the cerebral cortex, and the cerebral parenchyma. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we found that CSF cells predominantly consisted of CD4+/CD45RA-/CD27+/CD69+-activated central memory T cells expressing high levels of CCR7 and L-selectin. CD3+ T cells were present in the choroid plexus stroma in autopsy CNS tissue sections from individuals who died without known neurological disorders. P- and E-selectin immunoreactivity was detected in large venules in the choroid plexus and subarachnoid space, but not in parenchymal microvessels. CD4+ T cells in the CSF expressed high levels of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, and a subpopulation of circulating CD4+ T cells displayed P-selectin binding activity. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1, but not vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1, was expressed in choroid plexus and subarachnoid space vessels. Based on these findings, we propose that T cells are recruited to the CSF through interactions between P-selectin/P-selectin ligands and intercellular adhesion molecule 1/lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 in choroid plexus and subarachnoid space venules. These results support the overall hypothesis that activated memory T cells enter CSF directly from the systemic circulation and monitor the subarachnoid space, retaining the capacity to either initiate local immune reactions or return to secondary lymphoid organs.