Supplement With Calcium or Alendronate Suppresses Osteopenia Due to Long Term Rabeprazole Treatment in Female Mice: Influence on Bone TRAP and Osteopontin Levels.
ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose:Rabeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor (PPIs) is much endorsed to patients with increased gastric acidity. PPIs were accused to have osteoporotic effects on patients who chronically use them. The point of the current investigation was to decide the impact of rabeprazole on osteoporosis and to explore the modulatory effects of dietary calcium or alendronate on this side effect. Methods:80 female mice were alienated into four groups maintained for 18 weeks:  Vehicle group: given distilled water in 12 ml/kg, P.O.  Rabeprazole control group: given rabeprazole in a dose equals 10 mg/kg every 48 h, P.O.  Rabeprazole + calcium: given rabeprazole (10 mg/kg every 48 h) along with calcium supplement.  Rabeprazole + alendronate: given rabeprazole (10 mg/kg every 48 h) and alendronate (1 mg/kg per week, i.p.). Serum calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone were measured. Both femurs were kept in paraformaldehyde, and then the right one was used for X-ray examination with analysis by Digora software and the left one for histopathological examination (H&E) and immunohistochemical stains for osteopontin and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Results:Calcium supplementation or administration of alendronate along with rabeprazole significantly restored the mean bone density as shown by X-ray analysis. Femurs from mice received rabeprazole showed widely separated, thin-walled bone trabeculae and increased number of osteoclasts. Calcium or alendronate with rabeprazole showed thick bone trabeculae without full recovery from rabeprazole induced damage. Adding calcium supplementation to rabeprazole did not affect the histological abnormalities related to osteoclasts meanwhile alendronate produced inactivation of osteoclasts. Both calcium and alendronate decreased the rabeprazole-induced increment in the femur osteopontin level. Conclusion:Calcium or alendronate can be recommended for female patients on PPI therapy who are at risk of osteopenia.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Genistein aglycone positively affects bone loss in postmenopausal women, but bone quality data are still lacking. To clarify this, we investigated the effects of genistein compared with alendronate, raloxifene and oestradiol in an animal model of established osteoporosis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Six months after ovariectomy, 96 ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into 8 equal groups, randomized to treatments (genistein aglycone (1 and 10 mg kg(-1) s.c.); alendronate (0.003 and 0.03 mg kg(-1) s.c.); raloxifene hydrochloride (0.05 and 0.5 mg kg(-1) s.c.); 17-alpha-ethinyl oestradiol (0.003 and 0.03 mg kg(-1) s.c.)) for 12 weeks. Untreated OVX (n=12) and sham OVX (n=12) were used as controls. At the beginning and end of treatment, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were assessed. At the end of the experiment, calcium, phosphorus, bone-alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), collagen C-telopeptide (CTX), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (sRANKL) were assayed. Femurs were removed and tested for breaking strength and histology. KEY RESULTS: Genistein (10 mg kg(-1)) showed a greater increase in both BMD (P<0.0001 vs OVX) and BMC than all the other treatments. Moreover, genistein significantly increased breaking strength, bone quality, b-ALP (P<0.0001 vs OVX) and OPG, and reduced CTX and sRANKL compared with the other treatments at all dose levels. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The results strongly suggest that the genistein aglycone might be a new therapy for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis in humans.
Project description:1. The antiinflammatory activity of synthetic cannabinoid nabilone in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute hindpaw inflammation was compared with that of the endocannabinoid palmitoylethanolamide and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug indomethacin. 2. Preliminary experiments in rats used a tetrad of behavioural tests, specific for tetrahydrocannabinol-type activity in the CNS. These showed that the oral dose of nabilone 2.5 mg kg(-1) had no cannabinoid psychoactivity. 3. Intraplantar injection of carrageenan (1% w v(-1)) elicited a time-dependent increase in paw volume and thermal hyperalgesia. 4. Nabilone (0.75, 1.5, 2.5 mg kg(-1), p.o.), given 1 h before carrageenan, reduced the development of oedema and the associated hyperalgesia in a dose-related manner. Nabilone 2.5 mg kg(-1), palmitoylethanolamide 10 mg kg(-1) and indomethacin 5 mg kg(-1), given p.o. 1 h before carrageenan, also reduced the inflammatory parameters in a time-dependent manner. 5. The selective CB(2) cannabinoid receptor antagonist [N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3 carboxamide] (SR 144528), 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. 1 h before nabilone and palmitoylethanolamide, prevented the anti-oedema and antihyperalgesic effects of the two cannabinoid agonists 3 h after carrageenan. 6. Our findings show the antiinflammatory effect of nabilone and confirm that of palmitoylethanolamide indicating that these actions are mediated by an uncharacterized CB(2)-like cannabinoid receptor.
Project description:Background and objectives: Bisphosphonates represent selective inhibitors of excess osteoblastic bone resorption that characterizes all osteopathies, targeting osteoclasts and their precursors. Their long-term administration in postmenopausal women suffering from osteoporosis has resulted in neural adverse effects. The current study focuses on the research of possible alterations in the femoral nerve, caused by bisphosphonates. We hypothesized that bisphosphonates, taken orally (per os), may produce degenerative changes to the femoral nerve, affecting lower-limb posture and walking neuronal commands. Materials and Methods: In order to support our hypothesis, femoral nerve specimens were extracted from ten female 12-month-old Wistar rats given 0.05 milligrams (mg) per kilogram (kg) of body weight (b.w.) per week alendronate per os for 13 weeks and from ten female 12-month-old Wistar rats given normal saline that were used as a control group. Specimens were studied using immunohistochemistry for selected antibodies NeuN (Neuronal Nuclear Protein), a protein located within mature, postmitotic neural nucleus, and cytosol and Sox10 (Sex-determining Region Y (SRY) - High-Motility Group (HMG) - box 10). The latter marker is fundamental for myelination of peripheral nerves. Obtained slides were examined under a light microscope. Results: Samples extracted from rats given alendronate were more Sox10 positive compared to samples of the control group, where the marker's expression was not so intense. Both groups were equally NeuN positive. Our results are in agreement with previous studies conducted under a transmission electron microscope. Conclusions: The suggested pathophysiological mechanism linked to histological alterations described above is possibly related to toxic drug effects on Schwann and neuronal cells. Our hypothesis enhances the existing scientific evidence of degenerative changes present on femoral nerve following bisphosphonates administration, indicating a possible relationship between alendronate use and neuronal function.
Project description:Bisphosphonates are used to prevent the bone loss and fractures associated with osteoporosis, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and osteogenesis deformans. Distal limb fractures cause regional bone loss with cutaneous inflammation and pain in the injured limb that can develop into complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Clinical trials have reported that antiresorptive bisphosphonates can prevent fracture-induced bone loss, inhibit serum inflammatory cytokine levels, and alleviate CRPS pain. Previously, we observed that the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines or adaptive immune responses attenuated the development of pain behavior in a rat fracture model of CRPS, and we hypothesized that bisphosphonates could prevent pain behavior, trabecular bone loss, postfracture cutaneous cytokine upregulation, and adaptive immune responses in this CRPS model.Rats underwent tibia fracture and cast immobilization for 4 weeks and were chronically administered either subcutaneously perfused alendronate or oral zoledronate. Behavioral measurements included hindpaw von Frey allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema. Bone microarchitecture was measured by microcomputed tomography, and bone cellular activity was evaluated by static and dynamic histomorphometry. Spinal cord Fos immunostaining was performed, and skin cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Skin and sciatic nerve immunoglobulin levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay.Rats with tibia fractures developed hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema, increased spinal Fos expression and trabecular bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and bilateral distal femurs as measured by microcomputed tomography, increased trabecular bone resorption and osteoclast surface with decreased bone formation rates, increased cutaneous inflammatory cytokine and NGF expression, and elevated immunocomplex deposition in skin and nerve. Alendronate (60 ?g/kg/d subcutaneously [s.c.]) or zoledronate (3 mg/kg/d orally) treatment for 28 days, started at the time of fracture, completely inhibited the development of hindpaw allodynia and reduced hindpaw unweighting by 44% ± 13% and 58% ± 5%, respectively. Orally administered zoledronate (3 mg/kg/d for 21 days) treatment also completely reversed established allodynia and unweighting when started at 4 weeks postfracture. Histomorphometric and microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated that both the 3 and 60 ?g/kg/d alendronate treatments reversed trabecular bone loss (an 88% ± 25% and 188% ± 39% increase in the ipsilateral distal femur BV/TV, respectively) and blocked the increase in osteoclast numbers and erosion surface observed in bilateral distal femurs and in L5 vertebra of the fracture rats. Alendronate treatment inhibited fracture-induced increases in hindpaw inflammatory mediators, reducing postfracture levels of tumor necrosis factor by 43% ± 9%, IL-1 by 60% ± 9%, IL-6 by 56% ± 14%, and NGF by 37% ± 14%, but had no effect on increased spinal cord Fos expression, or skin and sciatic nerve immunocomplex deposition.Collectively, these results indicate that bisphosphonate therapy inhibits pain, osteoclast activation, trabecular bone loss, and cutaneous inflammation in the rat fracture model of CRPS, data supporting the hypothesis that bisphosphonate therapy can provide effective multimodal treatment for CRPS.
Project description:A pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), obtained from a patient, was grown orthotopically in the pancreatic tail of nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic (PDOX) model. Seven weeks after implantation, PDOX nude mice were divided into the following groups: untreated control (n = 7); gemcitabine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once a week for 2 weeks, n = 7); cobimetinib (5 mg/kg, p.o., 14 consecutive days, n = 7); trametinib (0.3 mg/kg, p.o., 14 consecutive days, n = 7); trabectedin (0.15 mg/kg, i.v., once a week for 2 weeks, n = 7); temozolomide (25 mg/kg, p.o., 14 consecutive days, n = 7); carfilzomib (2 mg/kg, i.v., twice a week for 2 weeks, n = 7); bortezomib (1 mg/kg, i.v., twice a week for 2 weeks, n = 7); MK-1775 (20 mg/kg, p.o., 14 consecutive days, n = 7); BEZ-235 (45 mg/kg, p.o., 14 consecutive days, n = 7); vorinostat (50 mg/kg, i.p., 14 consecutive days, n = 7). Only the MEK inhibitors, cobimetinib and trametinib, regressed tumor growth, and they were more significantly effective than other therapies (p < 0.0001, respectively), thereby demonstrating the precision of the PDOX models of PDAC and its potential for individualizing pancreatic-cancer therapy.
Project description:T-type calcium channels in the brain mediate the pathophysiology of epilepsy, pain, and sleep. Recently, we developed a novel therapeutic candidate, SAK3 (ethyl 8'-methyl-2',4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2'H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo[1,2-a] pyridine]-2-ene-3-carboxylate), for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cognitive improvement by SAK3 is closely associated with enhanced acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus. Since monoamines such as dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT) are also involved in hippocampus-dependent learning and psychomotor behaviors in mice, we investigated the effects of SAK3 on these monoamine releases in the mouse brain. Oral administration of SAK3 (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly promoted DA and 5-HT releases in the naive mouse hippocampal CA1 region but not in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while SAK3 did not affect NA release in either brain region. The T-type calcium channel-specific inhibitor, NNC 55-0396 (1 ?M) significantly antagonized SAK3-enhanced DA and 5-HT releases in the hippocampus. Interestingly, the ?7 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) antagonist, methyllycaconitine (1 nM) significantly inhibited DA release, and the ?4 nAChR antagonist, dihydro-?-erythroidine (100 ?M) significantly blocked both DA and 5-HT releases following SAK3 (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) administration in the hippocampus. SAK3 did not alter basal monoamine contents both in the mPFC and hippocampus. SAK3 (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) administration also significantly elevated DA and 5-HT releases in the hippocampal CA1 region of amyloid-precursor protein (APP)NL-GF knock-in (KI) mice. Moreover, hippocampal DA and 5-HT contents were significantly decreased in APPNL-GF KI mice. Taken together, our data suggest that SAK3 promotes monoamine DA and 5-HT releases by enhancing the T-type calcium channel and nAChR in the mouse hippocampus.
Project description:In earlier ex vivo studies, we reported the biphasic effect of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia fruit (MMC) on dopamine-induced contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. The present in vivo study was designed and undertaken to further explore our earlier ex vivo findings. This study examined the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (EA-MMC; 5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) on the dopaminergic system using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior, methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (sniffing, biting, gnawing, and licking) and haloperidol-induced catalepsy using the bar test. Acute treatment with EA-MMC at a low dose (25 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior in mice. Similarly, EA-MMC (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior in mice. These results demonstrated that the antidopaminergic effect of EA-MMC was observed at relatively lower doses (<25 mg/kg, p.o.). On the other hand, EA-MMC showed dopaminergic agonistic activity at a high dose (3,000 mg/kg, p.o.), which was evident from alleviation of haloperidol (a dopamine D2 blocker)-induced catalepsy in mice. Therefore, it is concluded that EA-MMC might possess a biphasic effect on the dopaminergic system, i.e., an antagonistic effect at lower doses (<25 mg/kg, p.o.) and an agonistic effect at higher doses (>1,000 mg/kg, p.o.). However, further receptor-ligand binding assays are necessary to confirm the biphasic effects of M. citrifolia fruit on the dopaminergic system.
Project description:Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and ursolic acid (UA) are ayurvedic medicines with multiple pharmacological activities including antidiabetic activity, but till date, no study is available on their combination. This study documented the antidiabetic efficacy of the combination of C. roseus and UA in rats. Rats were divided into six groups. All groups were given a single dose of Streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 50?mg/kg by intraperitoneal route for induction of diabetes, except the normal control group. Group 1 was treated as a normal control (NC) group and fed with saline water, Group 2 as a Diabetes Control group, Group 3 as a STZ+C. roseus ethanolic extract (CREE) group at 50?mg/kg p.o., Group 4 as a STZ+UA group orally at 50?mg/kg, Group 5 as a STZ+CREE (25?mg/kg p.o.)+UA (25?mg/kg p.o.) group, and Group 6 as a STZ+Glimepiride (0.1?mg/kg) group. Diabetes was confirmed after 72 hours by estimation of blood glucose level, and then treatment was given for the next 28 days. During the course of treatment, plasma insulin and blood glucose were measured regularly at the interval of 7 days. At the end of the protocol, blood was collected and animals were sacrificed. The glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen storage level, and antioxidant enzymes (LPO, CAT, SOD, GPx, GST) were measured. The blood glucose level in Group 5 significantly (P < 0.001) reduced to 98.35 ± 2.45?mg/dl in comparison with that in Group 2 (321.75 ± 5.46?mg/dl). The level of plasma insulin in Group 5 increased (13.65 ± 0.10??U/ml) significantly (P < 0.01) as compared with that in Group 2 (05.93 ± 0.31??U/ml). In Group 5, the level of glycogen in liver was significantly (P < 0.01) increased as compared with that in Group 2 rats. The level of antioxidant enzymes in Group 5 restored toward normal values significantly (P < 0.01; P < 0.001) as compared with that in Group 2 animals. These findings suggest that low-dose combination of CREE and UA is effective in the treatment of diabetes.
Project description:The downregulation of the glutamate system may be involved in positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Through enhanced glutamate signaling, the activation of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, an ionotropic glutamate receptor, could be a new therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. TAK-137 is a novel AMPA receptor potentiator with minimal agonistic activity; in this study, we used rodents and nonhuman primates to assess its potential as a drug for schizophrenia. At 10 mg kg-1 p.o., TAK-137 partially inhibited methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats, and at 3, 10, and 30 mg kg-1 p.o., TAK-137 partially inhibited MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion in mice, suggesting weak effects on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. At 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg-1 p.o., TAK-137 significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced deficits in the social interaction of rats, demonstrating potential improvement of impaired social functioning, which is a negative symptom of schizophrenia. The effects of TAK-137 were evaluated on multiple cognitive domains-attention, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. TAK-137 enhanced attention in the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats at 0.2 mg kg-1 p.o., and improved working memory both in rats and monkeys: 0.2 and 0.6 mg kg-1 p.o. ameliorated MK-801-induced deficits in the radial arm maze test in rats, and 0.1 mg kg-1 p.o. improved the performance of ketamine-treated monkeys in the delayed matching-to-sample task. At 0.1 and 1 mg kg-1 p.o., TAK-137 improved the cognitive flexibility of subchronic phencyclidine-treated rats in the reversal learning test. Thus, TAK-137-type AMPA receptor potentiators with low intrinsic activity may offer new therapies for schizophrenia.
Project description:The protective effect of pig skin gelatin water extracts (PSW) and the low molecular weight hydrolysates of PSW generated via enzymatic hydrolysis with Flavourzyme® 1000L (LPSW) against scopolamine-induced impairment of cognitive function in mice was determined. Seventy male ICR mice weighing 20-25 g were randomly assigned to seven groups: Control (CON); scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally (i.p.); tetrahydroaminoacridine 10 [THA 10, tacrine; 10 mg/kg B.W. per oral (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.)]; PSW 10 (10 mg/kg B.W. (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.); PSW 40 (40 mg/kg B.W. (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.); LPSW 100 (100 mg/kg B.W. (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.); LPSW 400 (400 mg/kg B.W. (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.). All treatment groups, except CON, received scopolamine on the day of the experiment. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of LPSW 400 at 1 mg/mL was 154.14 ?M Trolox equivalent. Administration of PSW and LPSW for 15 weeks did not significantly affect on physical performance of mice. LPSW 400 significantly increased spontaneous alternation, reaching the level observed for THA and CON. The latency time of animals receiving LPSW 400 was higher than that of mice treated with SCO alone in the passive avoidance test, whereas it was shorter in the water maze test. LPSW 400 increased acetylcholine (ACh) content and decreased ACh esterase activity (p<0.05). LPSW 100 and LPSW 400 reduced monoamine oxidase-B activity. These results indicated that LPSW at 400 mg/kg B.W. is a potentially strong antioxidant and contains novel components for the functional food industry.