Mental health interventions for suicide prevention among indigenous adolescents: a systematic review protocol.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:There are more than 370?million indigenous people from 5000 cultures living in 90 countries worldwide. Although they make up 5% of the global population, they account for 15% of the extreme poor. Youth suicide is the second leading cause of mortality among 15-29?years old and disproportionately affects indigenous youth. This research protocol pertains to a systematic review of studies that use a comparator/control group to evaluate the effectiveness of suicide interventions targeting indigenous adolescents (aged 10-19 years). METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We will conduct a systematic search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS and PsycINFO from inception to September 2019 to identify articles that compare mental health interventions for suicide prevention among indigenous adolescents. Two reviewers will independently determine the eligibility of each study. Studies will be assessed for methodological quality using the risk of bias tool to assess non-randomised studies of interventions. We will conduct a meta-analysis if possible and use established statistical methods to identify and control for heterogeneity where appropriate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This systematic review will use published data and does not require ethics approval. However, this review is in preparation of a feasibility study that will examine how best to support the physical and mental health of indigenous adolescents in Brazil. Ethics approval for the feasibility study was obtained from National Research Ethics Commission. Findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and will be made available to key decision-makers with authority for indigenous health and other relevant stakeholders. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42019141754.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Throughout the world, indigenous peoples share traumatic colonial experiences that have caused gross inequalities for them and continue to impact every aspect of their lives. The effect of intergenerational trauma and other health disparities have been remarkable for Indigenous children and adolescents, who are at a greater risk of adverse mental health and addiction outcomes compared with non-indigenous people of the same age. Most indigenous children are exposed to addictive substances at an early age, which often leads to early initiation of substance use and is associated with subsequent physical and mental health issues, poor social and relational functioning, and occupational and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to report the protocol for the scoping review of school-based interventions for substance use prevention in Indigenous children ages 7-13 living in Canada, the USA, Australia and New Zealand. This scoping review seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What is known about indigenous school-based interventions for preventing substance use and (2) What are the characteristics and outcomes of school-based interventions for preventing substance use? METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This scoping review will use steps described by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac: (1) identifying the research question(s); (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) selecting the studies; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarising and reporting the results and (6) consulting with experts. Our findings will be reported according to the guidelines set by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics review approval is not required for this project. Findings from this study will be presented to lay public, at scientific conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Schools have an important role in recognising and preventing self-harm and suicidal behaviour in their students, however little is known about which educational factors are associated with heightened risk. We will systematically review the existing evidence on two key educational performance indicators that are routinely collected by school administrative systems: school attendance and exclusion. We will investigate their association with self-harm and suicidal behaviour in school-age children and adolescents. Knowledge of this association could help inform suicide prevention strategies at clinical, school and population levels.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>We will conduct a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, British Education Index and Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC) from 1 January 1990, and conduct a manual search for additional references. We aim to identify studies that explore the association between poor school attendance or exclusion and self-harm or suicidal behaviours in school-age children and adolescents. Two independent reviewers will screen titles, abstracts and full-text documents and independently extract relevant data for analysis. Study quality will be assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A descriptive analysis will be performed, and where appropriate, results will be combined in meta-analyses.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>This is a systematic review of published literature, and therefore ethical approval will not be sought. We will publish reports in health and education journals, present our work at conferences focused on school mental health and communicate our findings to practitioners and managers in public health, education and child mental health.<h4>Prospero registration number</h4>CRD42018088608.
Project description:The current review provides an evidence base update of psychosocial treatments for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) in youth. A systematic search was conducted of 2 major scientific databases (PsycInfo and PubMed) and ClinicalTrials.gov for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published prior to June 2018. The search identified 26 RCTs examining interventions for SITBs in youth: 17 were included in the 2015 review and 9 trials were new to this update. The biggest change since the prior review was the evaluation of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) as the first Level 1: Well-established intervention for reducing deliberate self-harm (composite of nonsuicidal and suicidal self-injury) and suicide ideation in youth and Level 2: Probably efficacious for reducing nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempts. Five other interventions were rated as Level 2: Probably efficacious for reducing SITBs in youth, with the new addition of Integrated Family Therapy. This evidence base update indicates that there are a few promising treatments for reducing SITBs in youth. Efficacious interventions typically include a significant family or parent training component as well as skills training (e.g., emotion regulation skills). Aside from DBT-A, few treatments have been examined in more than one RCT. Given that replication by independent research groups is needed to evaluate an intervention as Well-established, future research should focus on replicating the five promising interventions currently evaluated as Probably efficacious. In addition, an important future direction is to develop brief efficacious interventions that may be scalable to reach large numbers of youth.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Developmental alterations to the circadian rhythm, in combination with lifestyle changes (eg, changes in school start time, part-time employment), contribute to insufficient sleep among youth. Insufficient sleep is associated with poor eating behaviours in other developmental stages (ie, childhood, adulthood); however, it is currently unknown if this finding generalises to youth. Consequently, identifying the characteristics and results of the studies examining this relationship in youth populations is necessary to guide the future direction of research in this field.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>We will conduct a scoping review to investigate the literature examining the relationship between sleep duration and eating behaviours in youth. The proposed scoping review will follow the standard six-stage protocol outlined by Arksey and O'Malley. To acquire relevant publications, systematic searches were conducted in PubMed, CINHAL, PsycINFO and Scopus in August 2019. Following this, a scan of the grey literature will be conducted. All relevant publications will be screened for their eligibility based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A data extraction tool will be used to collate, summarise and report the results. The findings of the scoping review will be reviewed by relevant stakeholders to aid in interpreting and disseminating the findings. The proposed review will identify existing gaps in the literature and inform the conduct of future studies aimed at understanding the effects of insufficient/excessive sleep and the eating behaviours of youth.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>This scoping review does not require ethics approval. Following the completion of the study, the findings will be disseminated at scientific meetings, submitted for peer-reviewed publication and translated to an accessible format for other relevant stakeholders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Approximately 50% of all youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Canada occurs in Indigenous children. In adults, cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality in First Nations communities, and diabetes is a significant contributor to the risk of developing this disorder. The early onset of diabetes may predispose these children to premature cardiovascular disease and influence their longevity and quality of life. As a result, the implementation of culturally tailored obesity and T2DM primary prevention programs is vital. This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness of existing traditional knowledge-based lifestyle intervention programs on preventing obesity and T2DM in Indigenous children in Canada. METHODS:We will conduct database searches in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials. We will also conduct grey literature searches of central repository of trials ( ClinicalTrials.gov ), ProQuest Dissertations, Theses A&I, and Indigenous studies portal research tools. Reviewers will independently review titles, abstracts, and full-text articles retrieved from databases to assess potentially eligible studies, and relevant articles will be assessed for risk of bias and quality. The primary outcomes include the change in body mass index z-scores or a diagnosis of diabetes. The secondary outcomes include the change in measures of adiposity as well as lifestyle and metabolic profiles. A meta-analysis will be performed if two or more studies have used similar study designs, comparable intervention techniques , similar populations and measured similar outcomes. DISCUSSION:This review will provide a summary of current interventions to prevent obesity and T2DM in Indigenous children in Canada and help determine the gaps in the literature so that interventions can be developed to control the surge in pediatric T2DM in Indigenous communities. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42017072781.
Project description:BACKGROUND:People who are at elevated risk of suicide stand to benefit from internet-based interventions; however, research in this area is likely impacted by a range of ethical and practical challenges. The aim of this study was to examine the ethical issues and practical barriers associated with clinical studies of internet-based interventions for suicide prevention. METHOD:This was a mixed-methods study involving two phases. First, a systematic search was conducted to identify studies evaluating internet-based interventions for people at risk of suicide, and information pertaining to safety protocols and exclusion criteria was extracted. Second, investigators on the included studies were invited to complete an online survey comprising open-ended and forced-choice responses. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyse the data. RESULTS:The literature search identified 18 eligible studies, of which three excluded participants based on severity of suicide risk. Half of the 15 suicide researchers who participated in the survey had experienced problems obtaining ethics approval, and none had encountered adverse events attributed to their intervention. Survey respondents noted the difficulty of managing risk in online environments and the limitations associated with implementing safety protocols, although some also reported increased confidence resulting from the ethical review process. Respondents recommended researchers pursue a collaborative relationship with their research ethics committees. CONCLUSION:There is a balance to be achieved between the need to minimise the risk of adverse events whilst also ensuring interventions are being validated on populations who may be most likely to use and benefit from them (i.e., those who prefer anonymity). Further research is required to obtain the views of research ethics committees and research participants on these issues. Dialogue between researchers and ethics committees is necessary to address the need to ensure safety while also advancing the timely development of effective interventions in this critical area.
Project description:Background:Youth peer-led interventions have become a popular way of sharing health information with young people and appear well suited to Indigenous community contexts. However, no systematic reviews focusing on Indigenous youth have been published. We conducted a systematic review to understand the range and characteristics of Indigenous youth-led health promotion projects implemented and their effectiveness. Methods:A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and ProQuest Social Sciences databases was conducted, supplemented by gray literature searches. Included studies focused on interventions where young Indigenous people delivered health information to age-matched peers. Results:Twenty-four studies were identified for inclusion, based on 20 interventions (9 Australian, 4 Canadian, and 7 from the United States of America). Only one intervention was evaluated using a randomized controlled study design. The majority of evaluations took the form of pre-post studies. Methodological limitations were identified in a majority of studies. Study outcomes included improved knowledge, attitude, and behaviors. Conclusion:Currently, there is limited high quality evidence for the effectiveness of peer-led health interventions with Indigenous young people, and the literature is dominated by Australian-based sexual health interventions. More systematic research investigating the effectiveness of peer-led inventions is required, specifically with Indigenous populations. To improve health outcomes for Indigenous youth, greater knowledge of the mechanisms and context under which peer-delivered health promotion is effective in comparison to other methods of health promotion is needed.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) constitutes 15% of new adult leukaemia cases as well as 2%-3% of leukaemia in children under 15% and 9% of leukaemias in adolescents 15-19 years of age annually. The introduction of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) therapy has dramatically improved survival in these patients, yet the off-target effects of this treatment may have long-term health impacts on CML survivors. The risk of adverse health outcomes is especially important in children, where TKI exposure may occur during critical windows of growth and puberty, and patients require treatment for prolonged periods of time. The aim of this systematic review protocol is to report on the methods used to conduct a systematic review to investigate the endometabolic and bone health effects of TKI therapy in CML.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>Searches will be conducted in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and MEDLINE from inception on August 1st, 2019. Searches may be updated while performing the systematic review to ensure new evidence is included if applicable. Grey literature search will include ClinicalTrials.gov and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses A&I. We will perform a meta-analysis if there are at least two studies reporting similar populations, interventions, methods and tracking the same outcome measures. The studies should also have similar age and sex distributions.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>As this is a systematic review protocol, it does not include patient data; therefore, Research Ethics Board approval is not indicated. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences.<h4>Prospero registration number</h4>CRD42018091175.
Project description:Multivariate dynamic relationships among suicide attempts, anxiety and/or depressive symptoms, hope, and help-seeking were examined across time in Native Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian adolescents, using data from a 5-year longitudinal cohort study (N = 7,317). The rate of suicide attempts decreased over time, but this reduction was significantly less among Native Hawaiian youth than their non-Hawaiian peers. There were also significant differences between groups in hope and help-seeking, with Native Hawaiian youth increasing help-seeking and decreasing hope to a greater degree. Youth-centered, cultural approaches to suicide prevention are essential in enhancing well-being in indigenous communities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents worldwide, and is a major driver of health inequity among Indigenous people in high-income countries. However, little is known about the burden of suicide among Indigenous populations in low- and middle-income nations, and no synthesis of the global data is currently available. Our objective was to examine the global incidence of suicide among Indigenous peoples and assess disparities through comparisons with non-Indigenous populations. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review of suicide rates among Indigenous peoples worldwide and assessed disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. We performed text word and Medical Subject Headings searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) for observational studies in any language, indexed from database inception until June 1, 2017. Eligible studies examined crude or standardized suicide rates in Indigenous populations at national, regional, or local levels, and examined rate ratios for comparisons to non-Indigenous populations. RESULTS:The search identified 13,736 papers and we included 99. Eligible studies examined suicide rates among Indigenous peoples in 30 countries and territories, though the majority focused on populations in high-income nations. Results showed that suicide rates are elevated in many Indigenous populations worldwide, though rate variation is common, and suicide incidence ranges from 0 to 187.5 suicide deaths per 100,000 population. We found evidence of suicide rate parity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in some contexts, while elsewhere rates were more than 20 times higher among Indigenous peoples. CONCLUSIONS:This review showed that suicide rates in Indigenous populations vary globally, and that suicide rate disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations are substantial in some settings but not universal. Including Indigenous identifiers and disaggregating national suicide mortality data by geography and ethnicity will improve the quality and relevance of evidence that informs community, clinical, and public health practice in Indigenous suicide prevention.