Lactate preconditioning promotes a HIF-1?-mediated metabolic shift from OXPHOS to glycolysis in normal human diploid fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has emerged that cancer cells can use various metabolites as fuel sources. Restricting cultured cancer cells to sole metabolite fuel sources can promote metabolic changes leading to enhanced glycolysis or mitochondrial OXPHOS. However, the effect of metabolite-restriction on non-transformed cells remains largely unexplored. Here we examined the effect of restricting media fuel sources, including glucose, pyruvate or lactate, on the metabolic state of cultured human dermal fibroblasts. Fibroblasts cultured in lactate-only medium exhibited reduced PDH phosphorylation, indicative of OXPHOS, and a concurrent elevation of ROS. Lactate exposure primed fibroblasts to switch to glycolysis by increasing transcript abundance of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes and, upon exposure to glucose, increasing glycolytic enzyme levels. Furthermore, lactate treatment stabilized HIF-1?, a master regulator of glycolysis, in a manner attenuated by antioxidant exposure. Our findings indicate that lactate preconditioning primes fibroblasts to switch from OXPHOS to glycolysis metabolism, in part, through ROS-mediated HIF-1? stabilization. Interestingly, we found that lactate preconditioning results in increased transcript abundance of MYC and SNAI1, key facilitators of early somatic cell reprogramming. Defined metabolite treatment may represent a novel approach to increasing somatic cell reprogramming efficiency by amplifying a critical metabolic switch that occurs during iPSC generation.
Project description:While transformation of normal cells to cancer cells is accompanied with a switch from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis, it is interesting to ask if cancer cells can revert from Warburg effect to OXPHOS. Our previous works suggested that cancer cells reverted to OXPHOS, when they were exposed to lactic acidosis, a common factor in tumor environment. However, the conclusion cannot be drawn unless ATP output from glycolysis and OXPHOS is quantitatively determined. Here we quantitatively measured ATP generation from glycolysis and OXPHOS in 9 randomly selected cancer cell lines. Without lactic acidosis, glycolysis and OXPHOS generated 23.7% - 52.2 % and 47.8% - 76.3% of total ATP, respectively; with lactic acidosis (20 mM lactate with pH 6.7), glycolysis and OXPHOS provided 5.7% - 13.4% and 86.6% - 94.3% of total ATP. We concluded that cancer cells under lactic acidosis reverted from Warburg effect to OXPHOS phenotype.
Project description:Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is known as a gatekeeper directing the carbon flux into glycolysis via inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. During syncytialization of placental trophoblasts, both ATP production and oxygen consumption are increased to meet enhanced energetic demands by syntiotrophoblasts. We hypothesized that down-regulation of PDK expression may play a central role in the switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) during syncytialization. By using primary human trophoblasts, we demonstrated that PDK4 was the dominating PDK isoform in human cytotrophoblasts, and its abundance was substantially decreased upon syncytialization, which was accompanied by decreases in lactate production and increases in ATP production. Knock-down of PDK4 expression reduced lactate production and increased ATP production, while over-expression of PDK4 increased lactate production and decreased ATP production, indicating that down-regulation of PDK4 is key to the shift from glycolysis to OXPHOS during syncytialization. Moreover, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/cAMP/PKA pathway was demonstrated to be involved in the down-regulation of PDK4 expression upon syncytialization. Taken together, our findings disclosed that down-regulation of PDK4 is critical for the metabolic shift from glycolysis to OXPHOS during syncytialization, which may be a prerequisite for the proper implementation of syncytiotrophoblast functions.
Project description:Proliferating cells often have increased glucose consumption and lactate excretion relative to the same cells in the quiescent state, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Despite an increase in glycolysis, however, here we show that non-transformed mouse fibroblasts also increase oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by nearly two-fold and mitochondrial coupling efficiency by ~30% during proliferation. Both increases are supported by mitochondrial fusion. Impairing mitochondrial fusion by knocking down mitofusion-2 (Mfn2) was sufficient to attenuate proliferation, while overexpressing Mfn2 increased proliferation. Interestingly, impairing mitochondrial fusion decreased OXPHOS but did not deplete ATP levels. Instead, inhibition caused cells to transition from excreting aspartate to consuming it. Transforming fibroblasts with the Ras oncogene induced mitochondrial biogenesis, which further elevated OXPHOS. Notably, transformed fibroblasts continued to have elongated mitochondria and their proliferation remained sensitive to inhibition of Mfn2. Our results suggest that cell proliferation requires increased OXPHOS as supported by mitochondrial fusion.
Project description:Objectives: Integrins, the coordinator of extracellular and intracellular signaling, are often found to be aberrant in tumors and can reshape the tumor microenvironment. Although previous studies showed that integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) is important for host defense, its expression profile and role in tumors, especially in cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are still unknown. Methods: Immunofluorescence stain and fluorescence activated cell sorting were used to analyze the ITGB2 expression profile in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). RT-PCR and western blot were used to compare ITGB2 expression in normal fibroblasts (NFs) and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Clinical data and function-based experiments were used to investigate the promoting tumor growth ability of ITGB2 expressing CAFs. Enhanced glycolysis activity was identified by using bioinformatics analyses and GC/MS assays. MCT1 knockdown OSCC cell lines were constructed to explore the pro-proliferative mechanisms of ITGB2 expressing CAFs in multiple in vitro and in vivo assays. Results: We found that CAFs exhibited significantly higher ITGB2 expression than the matched NFs. In addition, higher ITGB2 expression in CAFs was correlated with higher TNM stages and more Ki67+ tumor cells, indicating its ability to promote OSCC proliferation. Further, co-culture assay demonstrated that ITGB2-mediated lactate release in CAFs promoted OSCC cell proliferation. Mechanically, ITGB2 regulated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways to enhance glycolysis activity in CAFs. Accordingly, lactate derived from ITGB2-expressing CAFs was absorbed and metabolized in OSCC to generate NADH, which was then oxidized in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) to produce ATP. Notably, inhibiting the OXPHOS system with metformin delayed the proliferative capacity of OSCC cells cultured in the ITGB2-expressing CAFs medium. Conclusions: Our study uncovered the ITGB2high pro-tumoral CAFs that activated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis to promote tumor proliferation in OSCC by NADH oxidation in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system.
Project description:Lactic acidosis (3 to 40 mM, pH < 6.9) is a condition found in solid tumors because tumor cells have a high rate of glucose consumption and lactate production even in the presence of oxygen; nevertheless, the microenvironment might still provide a sufficient glucose supply. Lactic acidosis has been proposed to shift metabolism from aerobic glycolysis toward oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We tested if lung tumor cells cultured under lactic acidosis shift their metabolism from glycolysis to OXPHOS by consuming extracellular lactate, increasing growth rate. We analyzed lung adenocarcinoma (A-549, A-427) cell lines and non-transformed fibroblast cells (MRC-5), which were cultured using RPMI-1640 medium initially containing lactate (2 mM) and glucose (10 mM), at pH 7.2 or 6.2 and oxygen tension 21% O2 (normoxia) or 2% O2 (hypoxia). We obtained growth curves, as well as glucose consumption and lactate production rates (measured during exponential growth) for each cell line. HIF-1? (Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ?), CS (citrate synthase) and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) transcript levels were analyzed using RT-qPCR. By flow cytometry, we determined: (a) expression of glucose transporters (GLUT)1 and 4; (b) lactate transporters (MCT)1 and 4; (c) cell cycle profile, and (d) protein levels of HIF-1?, total and phosphorylated AMPK (pAMPK). Mitochondrial functionality was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption in tumor cells using polarography and a Clark-type electrode. Tumor and non-transformed cells used both aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS for obtaining energy. As of 48 h of culture, lactate levels ranged from (4.5-14 mM), thus forming a lactic environment. Lactic acidosis diminished GLUT1/GLUT4 expression and glucose consumption in A-549, but not in A-427 cells, and induced differential expression of HIF-1?, AMPK, and CS transcripts. A-427 cells increased pAMPK and HIF-1? levels and shifted their metabolism increasing OXPHOS; thus supporting cell growth. Conversely, A-549 cells increased HIF-1? protein levels, but did not activate AMPK and diminished OXPHOS. A-549 cells survived by arresting cells in G1-phase. Our findings show that lactic acidosis diminishes Warburg effect in tumor cells, but this change does not necessarily promote a shift to OXPHOS. Hence, lung adenocarcinomas show a differential metabolic response even when they are under the same microenvironmental conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumors are highly plastic metabolic entities composed of cancer and host cells that can adopt different metabolic phenotypes. For energy production, cancer cells may use 4 main fuels that are shuttled in 5 different metabolic pathways. Glucose fuels glycolysis that can be coupled to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in oxidative cancer cells or to lactic fermentation in proliferating and in hypoxic cancer cells. Lipids fuel lipolysis, glutamine fuels glutaminolysis, and lactate fuels the oxidative pathway of lactate, all of which are coupled to the TCA cycle and OXPHOS for energy production. This review focuses on the latter metabolic pathway. SCOPE OF REVIEW:Lactate, which is prominently produced by glycolytic cells in tumors, was only recently recognized as a major fuel for oxidative cancer cells and as a signaling agent. Its exchanges across membranes are gated by monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-4. This review summarizes the current knowledge about MCT structure, regulation and functions in cancer, with a specific focus on lactate metabolism, lactate-induced angiogenesis and MCT-dependent cancer metastasis. It also describes lactate signaling via cell surface lactate receptor GPR81. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS:Lactate and MCTs, especially MCT1 and MCT4, are important contributors to tumor aggressiveness. Analyses of MCT-deficient (MCT+/- and MCT-/-) animals and (MCT-mutated) humans indicate that they are druggable, with MCT1 inhibitors being in advanced development phase and MCT4 inhibitors still in the discovery phase. Imaging lactate fluxes non-invasively using a lactate tracer for positron emission tomography would further help to identify responders to the treatments.
Project description:In this study, we report a novel perpective of metabolic consequences for the m.8993T>G variant using fibroblasts from a proband with clinical symptoms compatible with Maternally Inherited Leigh Syndrome (MILS). Definitive diagnosis was corroborated by mitochondrial DNA testing for the pathogenic variant m.8993T>G in MT-ATP6 subunit by Sanger sequencing. The long-range PCR followed by massively parallel sequencing method detected the near homoplasmic m.8993T>G variant at 83% in the proband's fibroblasts and at 0.4% in the mother's fibroblasts. Our results are compatible with very low levels of germline heteroplasmy or an apparent de novo mutation. Our mitochondrial morphometric analysis reveals severe defects in mitochondrial cristae structure in the proband's fibroblasts. Our live-cell mitochondrial respiratory analyses show impaired oxidative phosphorylation with decreased spare respiratory capacity in response to energy stress in the proband's fibroblasts. We detected a diminished glycolysis with a lessened glycolytic capacity and reserve, revealing a stunted ability to switch to glycolysis upon full inhibition of OXPHOS activities. This dysregulated energy reprogramming results in a defective interplay between OXPHOS and glycolysis during an energy crisis. Our study sheds light on the potential pathophysiologic mechanism leading to chronic energy crisis in this MILS patient harboring the m.8993T>G variant.
Project description:One of the most persistent hallmarks of cancer biology is the preference of tumor cells to derive energy through glycolysis as opposed to the more efficient process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). However, little is known about the molecular cascades by which oncogenic pathways bring about this metabolic switch. We carried out a quantitative proteomic and metabolic analysis of the MCF10A derived cell line model of breast cancer progression that includes parental cells and derivatives representing three different tumor grades of Ras-driven cancer with a common genetic background. A SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture) labeling strategy was used to quantify protein expression in conjunction with subcellular fractionation to measure dynamic subcellular localization in the nucleus, cytosol and mitochondria. Protein expression and localization across cell lines were compared to cellular metabolic rates as a measure of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), glycolysis and cellular ATP. Investigation of the metabolic capacity of the four cell lines revealed that cellular OXPHOS decreased with breast cancer progression independently of mitochondrial copy number or electron transport chain protein expression. Furthermore, glycolytic lactate secretion did not increase in accordance with cancer progression and decreasing OXPHOS capacity. However, the relative expression and subcellular enrichment of enzymes critical to lactate and pyruvate metabolism supported the observed extracellular acidification profiles. This analysis of metabolic dysfunction in cancer progression integrated with global protein expression and subcellular localization is a novel and useful technique for determining organelle-specific roles of proteins in disease.
Project description:Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome, presumably resulting from defects in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Normal HSCs depend more on glycolysis than on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for energy production. Here, we show that FA HSCs are more sensitive to the respiration inhibitor NaN3 treatment than to glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), indicating more dependence on OXPHOS. FA HSCs undergo glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch in response to oxidative stress through a p53-dependent mechanism. Metabolic stresses induce upregulation of p53 metabolic targets in FA HSCs. Inactivation of p53 in FA HSCs prevents glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch. Furthermore, p53-deficient FA HSCs are more sensitive to 2-DG-mediated metabolic stress. Finally, oxidative stress-induced glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch is mediated by synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2). These findings demonstrate p53-mediated OXPHOS function as a compensatory alteration in FA HSCs to ensure a functional but mildly impaired energy metabolism and suggest a cautious approach to manipulating p53 signaling in FA.
Project description:A change in the metabolic flux of glucose from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is regarded as one hallmark of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic switch between aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS are unclear. Here we show that the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), one of the rate-limiting enzymes in glycolysis, interacts with mitofusin 2 (MFN2), a key regulator of mitochondrial fusion, to promote mitochondrial fusion and OXPHOS, and attenuate glycolysis. mTOR increases the PKM2:MFN2 interaction by phosphorylating MFN2 and thereby modulates the effect of PKM2:MFN2 on glycolysis, mitochondrial fusion and OXPHOS. Thus, an mTOR-MFN2-PKM2 signaling axis couples glycolysis and OXPHOS to modulate cancer cell growth.