Mice Lacking ?? T Cells Exhibit Impaired Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection and Excessive Production of Inflammatory Cytokines.
ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic and life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. A better understanding of the role that innate immunity plays in the control of P. aeruginosa infection is crucial for therapeutic development. Specifically, the role of unconventional immune cells like ?? T cells in the clearance of P. aeruginosa lung infection is not yet well characterized. In this study, the role of ?? T cells was examined in an acute mouse model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. In the absence of ?? T cells, mice displayed impaired bacterial clearance and decreased survival, outcomes which were associated with delayed neutrophil recruitment and impaired recruitment of other immune cells (macrophages, T cells, natural killer cells, and natural killer T [NKT] cells) into the airways. Despite reduced NKT cell recruitment in the airways of mice lacking ?? T cells, NKT cell-deficient mice exhibited wild-type level control of P. aeruginosa infection. Proinflammatory cytokines were also altered in ?? T cell-deficient mice, with increased production of interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor. ?? T cells did not appear to contribute significantly to the production of interleukin-17A or the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2. Importantly, host survival could be improved by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor signaling with the soluble receptor construct etanercept in ?? cell-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that ?? T cells play a protective role in coordinating the host response to P. aeruginosa lung infection, both in contributing to early immune cell recruitment and by limiting inflammation.
Project description:Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), an intracellular lipid chaperone and adipokine, is expressed by lung macrophages, but the function of macrophage-FABP4 remains elusive. We investigated the role of FABP4 in host defense in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, FABP4-deficient (FABP4-/-) mice exhibited decreased bacterial clearance and increased mortality when challenged intranasally with P. aeruginosa. These findings in FABP4-/- mice were associated with a delayed neutrophil recruitment into the lungs and were followed by greater acute lung injury and inflammation. Among leukocytes, only macrophages expressed FABP4 in WT mice with P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Chimeric FABP4-/- mice with WT bone marrow were protected from increased mortality seen in chimeric WT mice with FABP4-/- bone marrow during P. aeruginosa pneumonia, thus confirming the role of macrophages as the main source of protective FABP4 against that infection. There was less production of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) in FABP4-/- alveolar macrophages and lower airway CXCL1 levels in FABP4-/- mice. Delivering recombinant CXCL1 to the airways protected FABP4-/- mice from increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Thus, macrophage-FABP4 has a novel role in pulmonary host defense against P. aeruginosa infection by facilitating crosstalk between macrophages and neutrophils via regulation of macrophage CXCL1 production.-Liang, X., Gupta, K., Rojas Quintero, J., Cernadas, M., Kobzik, L., Christou, H., Pier, G. B., Owen, C. A., Çataltepe, S. Macrophage FABP4 is required for neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.
Project description:Current understanding of adaptive immune, particularly T cell, responses to human rhinoviruses (RV) is limited. Memory T cells are thought to be of a primarily T helper 1 type, but both T helper 1 and T helper 2 memory cells have been described, and heightened T helper 2/ lessened T helper 1 responses have been associated with increased RV-induced asthma exacerbation severity. We examined the contribution of T helper 1 cells to RV-induced airways inflammation using mice deficient in the transcription factor T-Box Expressed In T Cells (Tbet), a critical controller of T helper 1 cell differentiation. Using flow cytometry we showed that Tbet deficient mice lacked the T helper 1 response of wild type mice and instead developed mixed T helper 2/T helper 17 responses to RV infection, evidenced by increased numbers of GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3) and RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROR?t), and interleukin-13 and interleukin-17A expressing CD4+ T cells in the lung. Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and interleukin-10 expressing T cell numbers were unaffected. Tbet deficient mice also displayed deficiencies in lung Natural Killer, Natural Killer T cell and ??T cell responses, and serum neutralising antibody responses. Tbet deficient mice exhibited pronounced airways eosinophilia and mucus production in response to RV infection that, by utilising a CD4+ cell depleting antibody, were found to be T helper cell dependent. RV induction of T helper 2 and T helper 17 responses may therefore have an important role in directly driving features of allergic airways disease such as eosinophilia and mucus hypersecretion during asthma exacerbations.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen that can lead to severe infection associated with lung injury and high mortality. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines (IL-36?, IL-36? and IL-36?) are newly described IL-1 like family cytokines that promote inflammatory response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Here we investigated the functional role of IL-36 cytokines in the modulating of innate immune response against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection. The intratracheal administration of flagellated cytotoxic P. aeruginosa (ATCC 19660) upregulated IL-36? and IL-36?, but not IL-36?, in the lungs. IL-36? and IL-36? were expressed in pulmonary macrophages (PMs) and alveolar epithelial cells in response to P. aeruginosa in vitro. Mortality after bacterial challenge in IL-36 receptor deficient (IL-36R-/-) mice and IL-36? deficient (IL-36?-/-) mice, but not IL-36? deficient mice, was significantly lower than that of wild type mice. Decreased mortality in IL-36R-/- mice and IL-36?-/- mice was associated with reduction in bacterial burden in the alveolar space, bacterial dissemination, production of inflammatory cytokines and lung injury, without changes in lung leukocyte influx. Interestingly, IL-36? enhanced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) during P. aeruginosa infection in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of PMs with recombinant IL-36? resulted in impaired bacterial killing via PGE2 and its receptor; EP2. P. aeruginosa infected EP2 deficient mice or WT mice treated with a COX-2-specific inhibitor showed decreased bacterial burden and dissemination, but no change in lung injury. Finally, we observed an increase in IL-36?, but not IL-36?, in the airspace and plasma of patients with P. aeruginosa-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Thus, IL-36? and its receptor signal not only impaired bacterial clearance in a possible PGE2 dependent fashion but also mediated lung injury during P. aeruginosa infection.
Project description:The respiratory mucosa is a major site for pathogen invasion and, hence, a site requiring constant immune surveillance. The type I, semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are enriched within the lung vasculature. Despite optimal positioning, the role of NKT cells in respiratory infectious diseases remains poorly understood. Hence, we assessed their function in a murine model of pulmonary tularemia--because tularemia is a sepsis-like proinflammatory disease and NKT cells are known to control the cellular and humoral responses underlying sepsis. Here we show for the first time that respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain resulted in rapid accumulation of NKT cells within the lung interstitium. Activated NKT cells produced interferon-? and promoted both local and systemic proinflammatory responses. Consistent with these results, NKT cell-deficient mice showed reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response yet they survived the infection better than their wild type counterparts. Strikingly, NKT cell-deficient mice had increased lymphocytic infiltration in the lungs that organized into tertiary lymphoid structures resembling induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) at the peak of infection. Thus, NKT cell activation by F. tularensis infection hampers iBALT formation and promotes a systemic proinflammatory response, which exacerbates severe pulmonary tularemia-like disease in mice.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is a common cause of nosocomial infections. The molecular mechanisms governing immune responses to P. aeruginosa infection remain incompletely defined. Early growth response 1 (Egr-1) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls inflammatory responses. Here, we characterized the role of Egr-1 in host defense against P. aeruginosa infection in a mouse model of acute bacterial pneumonia. Egr-1 expression was rapidly and transiently induced in response to P. aeruginosa infection. Egr-1-deficient mice displayed decreased mortality, reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukin-1? [IL-1?], IL-6, IL-12, and IL-17), and enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung. Egr-1 deficiency caused diminished NF-?B activation in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages independently of I?B? phosphorylation. A physical interaction between Egr-1 and NF-?B p65 was found in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages, suggesting that Egr-1 could be required for assembly of heterodimeric transcription factors that direct synthesis of inflammatory mediators. Interestingly, Egr-1 deficiency had no impact on neutrophil recruitment in vivo due to its differential effects on chemokine production, which included diminished accumulation of KC (CXCL1), MIP2 (CXCL2), and IP-10 (CXCL10) and increased accumulation of LIX (CXCL5). Importantly, Egr-1-deficient macrophages and neutrophils displayed significant increases in nitric oxide production and bacterial killing ability that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance in Egr-1-deficient mice. Together, these findings suggest that Egr-1 plays a detrimental role in host defense against P. aeruginosa acute lung infection by promoting systemic inflammation and negatively regulating the nitric oxide production that normally assists with bacterial clearance.
Project description:Innate immunity is critical for clearing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lungs. In response to P. aeruginosa infection, a central transcriptional regulator of innate immunity-NF-kappaB-is translocated within 15 min to the nuclei of respiratory epithelial cells expressing wild-type (WT) cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). P. aeruginosa clearance from lungs is impaired in CF, and rapid NF-kappaB nuclear translocation is defective in cells with mutant or missing CFTR. We used WT and mutant P. aeruginosa and strains of transgenic mice lacking molecules involved in innate immunity to identify additional mediators required for P. aeruginosa-induced rapid NF-kappaB nuclear translocation in lung epithelia. We found neither Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) nor TLR4 nor TLR5 were required for this response. However, both MyD88-deficient mice and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-deficient mice failed to rapidly translocate NF-kappaB to the nuclei of respiratory epithelial cells in response to P. aeruginosa. Cultured human bronchial epithelial cells rapidly released IL-1beta in response to P. aeruginosa; this process was maximized by expression of WT-CFTR and dramatically muted in cells with DeltaF508-CFTR. The IL-1R antagonist blocked P. aeruginosa-induced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. Oral inoculation via drinking water of IL-1R knockout mice resulted in higher rates of lung colonization and elevated P. aeruginosa-specific antibody titers in a manner analogous to that of CFTR-deficient mice. Overall, rapid IL-1 release and signaling through IL-1R represent key steps in the innate immune response to P. aeruginosa infection, and this process is deficient in cells lacking functional CFTR.
Project description:Several chronic respiratory diseases are characterized by recurrent and/or persistent infections, chronic inflammatory responses and tissue remodeling, including increased levels of glycosaminoglycans which are known structural components of the airways. Among glycosaminoglycans, heparan sulfate (HS) has been suggested to contribute to excessive inflammatory responses. Here, we aim at (i) investigating whether long-term infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most worrisome threat in chronic respiratory diseases, may impact HS levels, and (ii) exploring HS competitors as potential anti-inflammatory drugs during P. aeruginosa pneumonia. P. aeruginosa clinical strains and ad-hoc synthesized HS competitors were used in vitro and in murine models of lung infection. During long-term chronic P. aeruginosa colonization, infected mice showed higher heparin/HS levels, evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after selective enzymatic digestion, compared to uninfected mice. Among HS competitors, an N-acetyl heparin and a glycol-split heparin dampened leukocyte recruitment and cytokine/chemokine production induced by acute and chronic P. aeruginosa pneumonia in mice. Furthermore, treatment with HS competitors reduced bacterial burden during chronic murine lung infection. In vitro, P. aeruginosa biofilm formation decreased upon treatment with HS competitors. Overall, these findings support further evaluation of HS competitors as a novel therapy to counteract inflammation and infection during P. aeruginosa pneumonia.
Project description:?In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, chronic lung infection and inflammation due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa contribute to the decline of lung function. The increased prevalence of multidrug resistance among bacteria and the adverse effects of antiinflammatory agents highlight the need for alternative therapeutic approaches that should be tested in a relevant animal model.?Gut-corrected CF and non-CF mice were chronically infected with a multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strain and treated with the long pentraxin PTX3. Body weight, bacterial count, inflammation, and lung pathology were evaluated after 12 days. PTX3 localization in CF sputum specimens was analyzed by immunofluorescence.?Chronic P. aeruginosa infection developed similarly in CF and non-CF mice but differed in terms of the inflammatory response. Leukocyte recruitment in the airways, cytokine levels, and chemokine levels were significantly higher in CF mice, compared with non-CF mice. PTX3 treatment, which facilitates phagocytosis of pathogens, reduced P. aeruginosa colonization and restored airway inflammation in CF mice to levels observed in non-CF mice. The presence of PTX3 in CF sputum, in leukocytes, or bound to P. aeruginosa macrocolonies, as well as previous data on PTX3 polymorphisms in colonized CF patients, confirm the relevance of this molecule.?These findings represent a step forward in demonstrating the therapeutic potential of PTX3 in CF.
Project description:Intestinal helminth infections elicit Th2-type immunity, which influences host immune responses to additional threats, such as allergens, metabolic disease, and other pathogens. Th2 immunity involves a shift of the CD4+ T-cell population from type-0 to type-2 (Th2) with increased abundance of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. This study sought to investigate if existing gut-restricted intestinal helminth infections impact bacterial-induced acute airway neutrophil recruitment. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: uninfected; helminth-Heligmosomoides polygyrus infected; Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected; and coinfected. Mice infected with H. polygyrus were incubated for 2 weeks, followed by P. aeruginosa intranasal inoculation. Bronchial alveolar lavage, blood, and lung samples were analyzed. Interestingly, infection with gut-restricted helminths resulted in immunological and structural changes in the lung. These changes include increased lung CD4+ T cells, increased Th2 cytokine expression, and airway goblet cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, coinfected mice exhibited significantly more airspace neutrophil infiltration at 6?hours following P. aeruginosa infection and exhibited an improved rate of survival compared with bacterial infected alone. These results suggest that chronic helminth infection of the intestines can influence and enhance acute airway neutrophil responses to P. aeruginosa infection.
Project description:Airway hypersensitive reaction (AHR) is an animal model for asthma, which is caused or enhanced by environmental factors such as allergen exposure. However, the precise mechanisms that drive AHR remain unclear. We identified a novel subset of natural killer T (NKT) cells that expresses the interleukin 17 receptor B (IL-17RB) for IL-25 (also known as IL-17E) and is essential for the induction of AHR. IL-17RB is preferentially expressed on a fraction of CD4(+) NKT cells but not on other splenic leukocyte populations tested. IL-17RB(+) CD4(+) NKT cells produce predominantly IL-13 and Th2 chemokines upon stimulation with IL-25 in vitro. IL-17RB(+) NKT cells were detected in the lung, and depletion of IL-17RB(+) NKT cells by IL-17RB-specific monoclonal antibodies or NKT cell-deficient Jalpha18(-/-) mice failed to develop IL-25-dependent AHR. Cell transfer of IL-17RB(+) but not IL-17RB(-) NKT cells into Jalpha18(-/-) mice also successfully reconstituted AHR induction. These results strongly suggest that IL-17RB(+) CD4(+) NKT cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma.