Antibacterial Properties of Triethoxysilylpropyl Succinic Anhydride Silane (TESPSA) on Titanium Dental Implants.
ABSTRACT: Infections related to dental implants are a common complication that can ultimately lead to implant failure, and thereby carries significant health and economic costs. In order to ward off these infections, this paper explores the immobilization of triethoxysilylpropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA, TSP) silane onto dental implants, and the interaction of two distinct monospecies biofilms and an oral plaque with the coated titanium samples. To this end, titanium disks from prior machining were first activated by a NaOH treatment and further functionalized with TESPSA silane. A porous sodium titanate surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of TESPSA on the titanium samples (8.4% for Ti-N-TSP). Furthermore, a lactate dehydrogenase assay concluded that TESPSA did not have a negative effect on the viability of human fibroblasts. Importantly, the in vitro effect of modified surfaces against Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus salivarius and oral plaque were studied using a viable bacterial adhesion assay. A significant reduction was achieved in all cases but, as expected, with different effectiveness against simple mono-species biofilm (ratio dead/live of 0.4) and complete oral biofilm (ratio dead/live of 0.6). Nevertheless, this approach holds a great potential to provide dental implants with antimicrobial properties.
Project description:Peri-implantitis is a steadily rising disease and is caused by oral bacterial pathogens able to form biofilm on implant surfaces and peri-implant tissues, making antibiotics treatment less effective. The use of commercial probiotics against oral pathogens could serve as an alternative to prevent biofilm formation. <i>Streptococcus intermedius</i> is one of the early colonizers of biofilm formation in dental implants. The aim of this study was to model the interaction between <i>S. intermedius</i> and <i>Streptococcus salivarius</i> strain K12, a probiotic bacterium producing bacteriocins. <i>S. intermedius</i> was co-cultured with <i>S. salivarius</i> K12 in an in vitro model simulating the biofilm formation in a dental implant composed by a titanium cylinder system. Biofilm formation rate was assessed by Real-Time PCR quantification of bacterial count and expression levels of <i>luxS</i> gene, used in response to cell density in the biofilm. Biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, <i>luxS</i> expression patterns were found to be already expressed within the first 12 h. More importantly, <i>S. salivarius</i> K12 was able to counter the biofilm formation in a titanium cylinder under the tested condition. In conclusion, our dental implant model may be useful for exploring probiotic-pathogen interaction to find an alternative to antibiotics for peri-implantitis treatment.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Micro- or nano-topography can both provide antimicrobial properties and improve osseointegration of dental implant titanium surfaces. Laser treatment is one of the best surface microtexturing techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in situ biofilm formation on a laser-treated titanium surface, comparing it with two conventional surfaces, machined and grit-blasted. METHODS:For the in vitro experiment, an oral microcosm biofilm model was developed on the surface of titanium disks and reference human enamel using a bioreactor for 48 h. For the in situ experiment, titanium implants with laser-treated, machined and grit-blasted surfaces were mounted on intraoral trays and worn by ten volunteers for 48 h. Biofilm formation was quantitatively evaluated, and surfaces were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. RESULTS–IN VITRO STUDY:Biofilm structures with a prevalence of viable cells covered most of the machined, grit-blasted and human enamel surfaces, whereas less dense biofilm structures with non-confluent microcolonies were observed on the laser-treated titanium. Laser-treated titanium showed the lowest biofilm formation, where microorganisms colonized the edges of the laser-created pits, with very few or no biofilm formation observed inside the pits. RESULTS–IN SITU STUDY:The biofilm formation pattern observed was similar to that in the in vitro experiment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed complete coverage of the implant threads, with mostly viable cells in grit-blasted and machined specimens. Unexpectedly, laser-treated specimens showed few dead microbial cells colonizing the bottom of the threads, while an intense colonization was found on the threading sides. CONCLUSION:This data suggests that laser-created microtopography can reduce biofilm formation, with a maximum effect when the surface is blasted orthogonally by the laser beam. In this sense the orientation of the laser beam seems to be relevant for the biological interaction with biofilms.
Project description:The rising use of titanium dental implants has increased the prevalence of peri-implant disease that shortens their useful life. A growing view of peri-implant disease suggests that plaque accumulation and microbiome dysbiogenesis trigger a host immune inflammatory response that destroys soft and hard tissues supporting the implant. The incidence of peri-implant disease is difficult to estimate, but with over 3 million implants placed in the USA alone, and the market growing by 500,000 implants/year, such extensive use demands additional interceptive approaches. We report a water-based, nonsur-gical approach to address peri-implant disease using a bifunctional peptide film, which can be applied during initial implant placement and later reapplied to existing implants to reduce bacterial growth. Bifunctional peptides are based upon a titanium binding peptide (TiBP) optimally linked by a spacer peptide to an antimicrobial peptide (AMP). We show herein that dental implant surfaces covered with a bifunctional peptide film kill bacteria. Further, using a simple protocol for cleaning implant surfaces fouled by bacteria, the surface can be effectively recoated with TiBP-AMP to regain an antimicrobial state. Fouling, cleansing, and rebinding was confirmed for up to four cycles with minimal loss of binding efficacy. After fouling, rebinding with a water-based peptide film extends control over the oral microbiome composition, providing a novel nonsurgical treatment for dental implants.
Project description:Dental implants are one of the most commonly used ways to replace missing teeth. Nevertheless, the close contact with hard and soft oral tissues expose these devices to infectious peri-implant diseases. To prevent such infection, several surface treatments have been developed in the last few years to improve the antimicrobial properties of titanium dental implants. In this in-vitro pilot study, the antimicrobial activity of titanium surfaces coated with different types of graphene nanoplatelets are investigated. Six different colloidal suspensions of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were produced from graphite intercalated compounds, setting the temperature and duration of the thermal shock and varying the number of the exfoliation cycles. Titanium disks with sand-blasted and acid-etched surfaces were sprayed with 2 mL of colloidal GNPs suspensions. The size of the GNPs and the percentage of titanium disk surfaces coated by GNPs were evaluated through a field emission-scanning electron microscope. The antibacterial activity of the specimens against Staphylococcus aureus was estimated using a crystal violet assay. The dimension of GNPs decreased progressively after each sonication cycle. The two best mean percentages of titanium disk surfaces coated by GNPs were GNPs1050°/2 and GNPs1150°/2. The reduction of biofilm development was 14.4% in GNPs1150°/2, 20.1% in GNPs1150°/3, 30.3% in GNPs1050°/3, and 39.2% in GNPs1050°/2. The results of the study suggested that the surface treatment of titanium disks with GNPs represents a promising solution to improve the antibacterial activity of titanium implants.
Project description:Titanium is the most commonly used material to manufacture dental implants and abutments. Recently, zirconia abutments have been manufactured with better aesthetic properties. However, zirconia abutments are harder than titanium implants; therefore, they could wear the implant surface. Therefore, this article aims to describe a sphere-plane system that can be used to assess the wear that different abutment materials cause in the titanium of dental implants when submitted to cyclic loading. This method can be used to simulate the oral cavity, where the abutment (sphere) applies loads onto the implant (titanium plane). The spheres were made of different materials (titanium and zirconia), and the specimens were loaded for 4,000,000 cycles. The scar size and area on titanium planes were measured with stereoscopic images and analysed through profilometry.The wear of titanium planes was similar when tested against zirconia or titanium spheres. The sphere-plane system is a method that can be used to evaluate and quantify the wear of the titanium of dental implants, and compared with methods that use real implants, this system is simpler and less expensive. This method could facilitate further research to evaluate the wear of titanium against different materials and under different testing conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The success rate of implant-supported prostheses for edentulous patients is relatively high. However, the incidence of biological complications, especially peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, increases yearly after the placement of prostheses. The accumulation of pathogenic bacteria adjacent to a prosthesis is the main cause of biological complications. Titanium, one of the classical materials for implant-supported prostheses, performs well in terms of biocompatibility and ease of maintenance, but is still susceptible to biofilm formation. Zirconia, which has emerged as an appealing substitute, not only has comparable properties, but presents different surface properties that influence the adherence of oral bacteria. However, evidence of a direct effect on oral flora is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of material properties on biofilm formation and composition. METHODS:The proposed study is designed as a 5-year randomized controlled trial. We plan to enroll 44 edentulous (mandible) patients seeking full-arch, fixed, implant-supported prostheses. The participants will be randomly allocated to one of two groups: group 1, in which the participants will receive zirconia frameworks with ceramic veneering, or group 2, in which the participants will receive titanium frameworks with acrylic resin veneering. Ten follow-up examinations will be completed by the end of this 5-year trial. Mucosal conditions around the implants will be recorded every 6?months after restoration. Peri-implant submucosal plaque will be collected at each reexamination, and bacteria flora analysis will be performed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology in order to compare differences in microbial diversity between groups. One week before each visit, periodontal maintenance will be arranged. Each participant will receive an X-ray examination every 12?months as a key index to evaluate the marginal bone level around the implants. DISCUSSION:The current study aims to explore the oral microbiology of patients following dental restoration with zirconia ceramic frameworks or titanium frameworks. The features of the microbiota and the mucosal condition around the two different materials will be evaluated and compared to determine whether zirconia is an appropriate material for fixed implant-supported prostheses for edentulous patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ChiCTR2000029470. Registered on 2 February 2020. http://www.chictr.org.cn/searchproj.aspx?
Project description:Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient's mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4-5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients.
Project description:The oral cavity serves as a nutrient-rich haven for over 600 species of microorganisms. Although many are essential to maintaining the oral microbiota, some can cause oral infections such as caries, periodontitis, mucositis, and endodontic infections, and this is further exacerbated with dental implants. Most of these infections are mixed species in nature and associated with a biofilm mode of growth. Here, after optimization of different parameters including cell density, growth media, and incubation conditions, we have developed an in vitro model of C. albicans?S. gordonii mixed-species biofilms on titanium discs that is relevant to infections of peri-implant diseases. Our results indicate a synergistic effect for the development of biofilms when both microorganisms were seeded together, confirming the existence of beneficial, mutualistic cross-kingdom interactions for biofilm formation. The morphological and architectural features of these dual-species biofilms formed on titanium were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Mixed biofilms formed on titanium discs showed a high level of resistance to combination therapy with antifungal and antibacterial drugs. This model can serve as a platform for further analyses of complex fungal/bacterial biofilms and can also be applied to screening of new drug candidates against mixed-species biofilms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dental calculus, calcified oral plaque biofilm, contains microbial and host biomolecules that can be used to study historic microbiome communities and host responses. Dental calculus does not typically accumulate as much today as historically, and clinical oral microbiome research studies focus primarily on living dental plaque biofilm. However, plaque and calculus reflect different conditions of the oral biofilm, and the differences in microbial characteristics between the sample types have not yet been systematically explored. Here, we compare the microbial profiles of modern dental plaque, modern dental calculus, and historic dental calculus to establish expected differences between these substrates. RESULTS:Metagenomic data was generated from modern and historic calculus samples, and dental plaque metagenomic data was downloaded from the Human Microbiome Project. Microbial composition and functional profile were assessed. Metaproteomic data was obtained from a subset of historic calculus samples. Comparisons between microbial, protein, and metabolomic profiles revealed distinct taxonomic and metabolic functional profiles between plaque, modern calculus, and historic calculus, but not between calculus collected from healthy teeth and periodontal disease-affected teeth. Species co-exclusion was related to biofilm environment. Proteomic profiling revealed that healthy tooth samples contain low levels of bacterial virulence proteins and a robust innate immune response. Correlations between proteomic and metabolomic profiles suggest co-preservation of bacterial lipid membranes and membrane-associated proteins. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, we find that there are systematic microbial differences between plaque and calculus related to biofilm physiology, and recognizing these differences is important for accurate data interpretation in studies comparing dental plaque and calculus.
Project description:Peri-implant infections are the most common cause of implant failure in modern dental implantology. These are caused by the formation of biofilms on the implant surface and consist of oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria, which harm adjacent soft and hard tissues and may ultimately lead to implant loss. In order to improve the clinical situation, there has to be a better understanding of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Therefore, we successfully developed a system to cultivate an oral multispecies biofilm model in a flow chamber system, optimized for the evaluation of biofilm formation on solid materials by direct microscopic investigation. The model contains four relevant oral bacterial species: Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella dispar and Porphyromonas gingivalis in ratios similar to the native situation. The reliability of the developed "Hanoverian Oral Multispecies Biofilm Implant Flow Chamber" (HOBIC) model was verified. Biofilm volume and live/dead distribution within biofilms were determined by fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM). The individual species distribution was analyzed using quantitative real time PCR with propidium monoazide pretreatment (PMA-qRT-PCR) and by urea-NaCl fluorescence in situ hybridization (urea-NaCl-FISH). This in vitro model may be used to analyze biofilm formation on dental implants in more detail and to develop future implant systems with improved material properties.