Externalising pathways to alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Both 'early-onset persistent' and 'adolescent-onset' conduct problems (CPs) are associated with alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood. The escalation of early CPs into criminal behaviour and heavy alcohol consumption prior to emerging adulthood are both likely to be important pathways. METHODS:Data were analysed from 3,038 young people in a UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The exposure was developmental trajectories of CPs ('low', 'childhood-limited', 'adolescent-onset' and 'early-onset persistent') between ages 4 and 13 years. The mediator was latent classes representing heavy alcohol consumption and/ or criminal behaviour at age 15 years. For the outcome, a quadratic latent growth curve was estimated to capture nonlinear change in alcohol-related problems between ages 18 and 23 years. RESULTS:Those with 'early-onset persistent' [b(95% CI) = 1.16 (0.17, 2.14)] and 'adolescent-onset' CPs [b(95% CI) = 1.31 (0.17, 2.45)] had higher levels of alcohol-related problems at age 18 years compared to those with 'low' CPs', but there was little evidence of an association with alcohol-related problems after age 19 years. There was evidence for an indirect effect of 'early-onset persistent' CPs [b(95% CI) = 1.12 (0.52, 1.72)] on alcohol-related problems at age 18 years via the latent classes of alcohol and criminal behaviour in adolescence. This was not found for 'adolescent-onset' CPs [b(95% CI) = 0.35 (-0.36, 1.07)]. CONCLUSIONS:Strong associations exist between early CPs, adolescent alcohol consumption and criminal behaviour and alcohol-related problems at age 18 years. Associations between early CPs and alcohol-related problems weakened considerably across emerging adulthood.
Project description:Peer relations is a vulnerable area of functioning in children with specific language impairment (SLI), but little is known about the developmental trajectories of individuals.Peer problems were investigated over a 9-year period (from 7 to 16 years of age) in 171 children with a history of SLI. Discrete factor growth modelling was used to chart developmental trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate factors associated with group membership.Four distinct developmental trajectories were identified: low-level/no problems in peer relations (22.2% of participants), childhood-limited problems (12.3%), childhood-onset persistent problems (39.2%) and adolescent-onset problems (26.3%). Risk of poor trajectories of peer relations was greater for those children with pragmatic language difficulties. Prosocial behaviour was the factor most strongly associated with trajectory group membership. Overall, the more prosocial children with better pragmatic language skills and lower levels of emotional problems had less difficulty in developing peer relations.Analysis of developmental trajectories enriches our understanding of social development. A sizeable minority in the present sample sustained positive relations through childhood and adolescence, and others overcame early difficulties to achieve low levels of problems by their early teens; the majority, however, showed childhood-onset persistent or adolescent-onset problems.
Project description:Purpose:Examine associations between childhood behavioural problems with criminal behaviour, emotional disorders, substance use and unemployment in early adulthood in two birth cohorts from a middle- and high-income country. Methods:Data were utilised from large, prospective birth cohorts in Brazil (1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort; N?=?3939) and the UK (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; ALSPAC; N?=?5079). Behavioural problems were reported on by parents at age 11 years (including disobeys, temper, lies, fights, steals). Outcomes (assessed with youth between ages 22 and 24 years) included criminal behaviour, emotional disorders, substance use and NEET (not in education, employment or training). Results:In both cohorts, children with 'conduct problems' (those with increased probability of all five behaviours at age 11), were at higher risk of criminal behaviour, emotional disorders and NEET in adulthood compared to those with 'low problems'. Associations for 'conduct problems' were stronger in Pelotas compared to ALSPAC for hazardous alcohol use [Pelotas: risk ratio?=?1.39, 95% CI?=?1.14-1.70; ALSPAC: risk ratio?=?0.76, 95% CI?=?0.57-1.02] and illegal drug use [Pelotas: risk ratio?=?1.32, 95% CI?=?1.16-1.50; ALSPAC: risk ratio?=?1.05, 95% CI?=?0.91-1.20], whereas associations for criminal behaviour [Pelotas: risk ratio?=?1.92, 95% CI?=?1.29-2.86; ALSPAC: risk ratio?=?2.75, 95% CI?=?2.04-3.73] and NEET [Pelotas: risk ratio?=?1.38, 95% CI?=?1.13-1.70; ALSPAC: risk ratio?=?3.04, 95% CI?=?1.99-4.65] were stronger in ALSPAC. Conclusions:Childhood conduct problems were associated with criminal behaviour, emotional disorders and unemployment in adulthood in both Brazil and the UK. Additional associations were found for substance use in Brazil.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The majority of studies that have examined parental alcohol use and offspring outcomes have either focused on exposure in the antenatal period or from clinical populations. This study sought to examine proximal and distal associations between parental alcohol use and offspring conduct problems and depressive symptoms in a population birth cohort. METHODS:We used prospective data from a large UK based population cohort (ALSPAC) to investigate the association between parental alcohol use, measured in units, (assessed at ages 4 and 12 years) with childhood conduct trajectories, (assessed on six occasions from 4 to 13.5 years, n = 6,927), and adolescent depressive symptoms (assessed on four occasions from ~13 to ~18 years, n = 5,539). Heavy drinking was defined as ?21 units per week in mothers and partners who drank 4+ units daily. RESULTS:We found little evidence to support a dose response association between parental alcohol use and offspring outcomes. For example, we found insufficient evidence to support an association between maternal alcohol use at age 4 years and childhood conduct problems (childhood limited: OR = 1.00, 95% CI = .99, 1.01; adolescent onset: OR = 0.99, 95% CI = .98, 1.00; and early-onset persistent: OR = 0.99, 95% CI = .98, 1.00) per 1-unit change in maternal alcohol use compared to those with low levels of conduct problems. We also found insufficient evidence to support an association between maternal alcohol use at age 4 years and adolescent depressive symptoms (intercept: b = .001, 95% CI = -.01, .01, and slope: b = .003, 95% CI = -.03, .03) per 1-unit change in maternal alcohol use. Results remained consistent across amount of alcohol consumed (i.e., number of alcohol units or heavy alcohol use), parent (maternal self-reports or maternal reports of partner's alcohol use), and timing of alcohol use (assessed at age 4 or age 12 years). CONCLUSIONS:There is no support for an association between parental alcohol use during childhood and conduct and emotional problems during childhood or adolescence.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to examine whether dispositional interpersonal callousness, negative emotionality, and hyperactivity/impulsivity uniquely influence the development of childhood-onset conduct problems and persistent criminal behavior in males, and to determine whether specific facets of negative emotionality (dysregulated anger versus anxiety) in childhood are differentially associated with the development of chronic antisocial behavior. METHOD:Childhood dispositional features and conduct problems were assessed semiannually using parent- and teacher-report measures across 9 consecutive assessments in a school-based sample of 503 boys (?7-11 years of age). Participants' criminal behavior was assessed using official records from adolescence into the early 30s. RESULTS:Interpersonal callousness, dysregulated anger, and hyperactivity/impulsivity were uniquely associated with the development of childhood-onset conduct problems. None of these features significantly predicted official records of juvenile offending after controlling for co- occurring conduct problems. However, interpersonal callousness was robustly and uniquely associated with a pattern of persistent and violent adult offending that continued into the early 30s. In contrast, anxiety problems were inversely associated with criminal offending in adolescence and adulthood after controlling for conduct problems and the other dispositional factors. CONCLUSION:Findings are consistent with theoretical models indicating that interpersonal callousness, dysregulated anger, and hyperactivity/impulsivity influence the development of childhood conduct problems. In contrast, anxiety problems in childhood tend to reduce the likelihood that boys will engage in later criminal offending. Results suggest that delinquency prevention programs should target children exhibiting features of interpersonal callousness, given that they are at high risk for engaging in chronic and violent offending in adulthood.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Heavy alcohol use during pregnancy can cause considerable developmental problems for children, but effects of light-moderate drinking are uncertain. This study examined possible effects of moderate drinking in pregnancy on children's conduct problems using a Mendelian randomisation design to improve causal inference. METHODS:A prospective cohort study (ALSPAC) followed children from their mother's pregnancy to age 13 years. Analyses were based on 3,544 children whose mothers self-reported either not drinking alcohol during pregnancy or drinking up to six units per week without binge drinking. Children's conduct problem trajectories were classified as low risk, childhood-limited, adolescence-onset or early-onset-persistent, using six repeated measures of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire between ages 4-13 years. Variants of alcohol-metabolising genes in children were used to create an instrumental variable for Mendelian randomisation analysis. RESULTS:Children's genotype scores were associated with early-onset-persistent conduct problems (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.04-1.60, p = .020) if mothers drank moderately in pregnancy, but not if mothers abstained from drinking (OR = 0.94, CI = 0.72-1.25, p = .688). Children's genotype scores did not predict childhood-limited or adolescence-onset conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS:This quasi-experimental study suggests that moderate alcohol drinking in pregnancy contributes to increased risk for children's early-onset-persistent conduct problems, but not childhood-limited or adolescence-onset conduct problems.
Project description:With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence.
Project description:Adolescent risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol use and antisocial behaviour are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of risk behaviour may vary between genders during adolescence.Analysis of data from a longitudinal birth cohort to assess the prevalence and distribution of multiple risk behaviours by gender at age 15-16 years with a focus on alcohol use at age 10, 13 and 15 years.By age 15 years, over half of boys and girls had consumed alcohol and one-fifth had engaged in binge drinking with no clear difference by gender. At age 15-16 years, the most prevalent risk behaviours were physical inactivity (74%), antisocial and criminal behaviour (42%) and hazardous drinking (34%). Boys and girls engaged in a similar number of behaviours but antisocial and criminal behaviours, cannabis use and vehicle-related risk behaviours were more prevalent among boys, whilst tobacco smoking, self-harm and physical inactivity were more prevalent among girls.Multiple risk behaviour is prevalent in both genders during adolescence but the pattern of individual risk behaviour varies between boys and girls. Effective interventions at the individual, family, school, community or population level are needed to address gender-specific patterns of risk behaviour during adolescence.
Project description:Recent research suggests a link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) in youth and later risk behaviour. We explored the association between mild TBI and psychiatric symptoms, substance use and criminal behaviour using data from a longitudinal birth cohort. Participants with mild TBI (n = 800), orthopaedic injuries (n = 2305) and no injuries (n = 8307) were identified from self and parent reports up to age 16 years. Self-report measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and criminal behaviours, and parent-reported psychiatric symptoms were collected at age 17 years. Analyses were adjusted for pre-birth and early childhood confounders. Participants with a TBI showed increased odds of hazardous alcohol use compared to those with no injury and those with an orthopaedic injury. Relative to those with no injury, participants with a TBI showed increased odds of problematic use of tobacco and cannabis, being in trouble with the police and having more parent-reported conduct problems. Sustaining either a TBI or an orthopaedic injury increased the odds of offending behaviour compared to having no injuries. There was no clear evidence of association between orthopaedic injury and the other risk outcomes. The increased odds of risk behaviour associated with TBI relative to no injury replicated previous research. However, the inclusion of a non-brain-related injury group adds evidence for a possible causal pathway between mild TBI in youth and later hazardous alcohol use only. This highlights the importance of including an additional negative control injury group in mild TBI research.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost effectiveness of social behaviour and network therapy, a new treatment for alcohol problems, with that of the proved motivational enhancement therapy. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic randomised trial. SETTING: Seven treatment sites around Birmingham, Cardiff, and Leeds. PARTICIPANTS: 742 clients with alcohol problems; 617 (83.2%) were interviewed at 12 months and full economic data were obtained on 608 (98.5% of 617). Main economic measures Quality adjusted life years (QALYs), costs of trial treatments, and consequences for public sector resources (health care, other alcohol treatment, social services, and criminal justice services). RESULTS: Both therapies saved about five times as much in expenditure on health, social, and criminal justice services as they cost. Neither net savings nor cost effectiveness differed significantly between the therapies, despite the average cost of social behaviour and network therapy (221 pounds sterling; 385 dollars; 320 euros) being significantly more than that of motivational enhancement therapy (129 pounds sterling). If a QALY were worth 30,000 pounds sterling, then the motivational therapy would have 58% chance of being more cost effective than the social therapy, and the social therapy would have 42% chance of being more cost effective than the motivational therapy. CONCLUSION: Participants reported highly significant reductions in drinking and associated problems and costs. The novel social behaviour and network therapy did not differ significantly in cost effectiveness from the proved motivational enhancement therapy.
Project description:Onset of alcohol use by 14 relative to 21 years of age strongly predicts elevated risk for severe alcohol use problems, with 27% versus 4% of individuals exhibiting alcohol dependence within 10 years of onset. What remains unclear is whether this early alcohol use (i) is a marker for later problems, reflected as a pre-existing developmental predisposition, (ii) causes global neural atrophy or (iii) specifically disturbs neuro-maturational processes implicated in addiction, such as executive functions or reward processing. Since our group has demonstrated that a novel intervention program targeting personality traits associated with adolescent alcohol use can prevent the uptake of drinking and binge drinking by 40 to 60%, a crucial question is whether prevention of early onset alcohol misuse will protect adolescent neurodevelopment and which domains of neurodevelopment can be protected.A subsample of 120 youth at high risk for substance misuse and 30 low-risk youth will be recruited from the Co-Venture trial (Montreal, Canada) to take part in this 5-year follow-up neuroimaging study. The Co-Venture trial is a community-based cluster-randomised trial evaluating the effectiveness of school-based personality-targeted interventions on substance use and cognitive outcomes involving approximately 3800 Grade 7 youths. Half of the 120 high-risk participants will have received the preventative intervention program. Cognitive tasks and structural and functional neuroimaging scans will be conducted at baseline, and at 24- and 48-month follow-up. Two functional paradigms will be used: the Stop-Signal Task to measure motor inhibitory control and a modified version of the Monetary Incentive Delay Task to evaluate reward processing.The expected results should help identify biological vulnerability factors, and quantify the consequences of early alcohol abuse as well as the benefits of early intervention using brain metrics.