Tigecycline Versus Colistin in the Treatment of Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Complex Osteomyelitis.
ABSTRACT: Background: Acinetobacter baumannii complex is an increasingly important cause of osteomyelitis. It is considered a difficult to treat agent, due to increasing antimicrobial resistance and few available therapeutic options. Objective: To compare effectiveness and tolerability of tigecycline and colistin in patients with osteomyelitis caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii complex (CRABC). Methods: This retrospective review included all patients admitted to a 150-bed tertiary hospital from 2007 to 2015 with microbiologically confirmed CRABC osteomyelitis for which they received tigecycline or colistin. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics, adverse events, and outcomes 12 months after the end of antimicrobial treatment were analysed and stratified according to the antimicrobial used. Results: 65 patients were included, 34 treated with colistin and 31 with tigecycline. There were significantly more men (P = 0.028) in the colistin group, and more smokers (P = 0.021) and greater occurrence of chronic osteomyelitis (P = 0.036) in the tigecycline treatment group. Median duration of therapy was 42.5 days for colistin and 42 days for tigecycline, with no significant difference. Overall incidence of adverse events was higher in the colistin group (P = 0.047). In particular, incidence of renal impairment was also higher in this group (P = 0.003). Nausea and vomiting were more frequent with tigecycline (P = 0.046). There were no significant differences between groups in relapse, amputation, or death. Conclusions: Tigecycline had a better safety profile than colistin in the treatment of osteomyelitis due to CRABC, with no significant difference in outcomes after 12 months of follow-up.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Infections sustained by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and pan-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have become a challenging problem in Intensive Care Units. Tigecycline provided new hope for the treatment of MDR A. baumannii infections, but isolates showing reduced susceptibility have emerged in many countries, further limiting the therapeutic options. Empirical combination therapy has become a common practice to treat patients infected with MDR A. baumannii, in spite of the limited microbiological and clinical evidence supporting its efficacy. Here, the in vitro interaction of tigecycline with seven commonly used anti-Acinetobacter drugs has been assessed. METHODS: Twenty-two MDR A. baumannii isolates from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and two reference strains for the European clonal lineages I and II (including 3, 15 and 6 isolates that were resistant, intermediate and susceptible to tigecycline, respectively) were tested. Antimicrobial agents were: tigecycline, levofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, imipenem, rifampicin, ampicillin-sulbactam, and colistin. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. Antibiotic interactions were determined by chequerboard and time-kill assays. Only antibiotic combinations showing synergism or antagonism in both chequerboard and time-kill assays were accepted as authentic synergistic or antagonistic interactions, respectively. RESULTS: Considering all antimicrobials in combination with tigecycline, chequerboard analysis showed 5.9% synergy, 85.7% indifference, and 8.3% antagonism. Tigecycline showed synergism with levofloxacin (4 strains; 16.6%), amikacin (2 strains; 8.3%), imipenem (2 strains; 8.3%) and colistin (2 strains; 8.3%). Antagonism was observed for the tigecycline/piperacillin-tazobactam combination (8 strains; 33.3%). Synergism was detected only among tigecycline non-susceptible strains. Time-kill assays confirmed the synergistic interaction between tigecycline and levofloxacin, amikacin, imipenem and colistin for 5 of 7 selected isolates. No antagonism was confirmed by time-kill assays. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the in vitro synergistic activity of tigecycline in combination with colistin, levofloxacin, amikacin and imipenem against five tigecycline non-susceptible A. baumannii strains, opening the way to a more rationale clinical assessment of novel combination therapies to combat infections caused by MDR and pan-resistant A. baumannii.
Project description:Drug resistance is a public health concern that threatens to undermine decades of medical progress. ESKAPE pathogens cause most nosocomial infections, and are frequently resistant to carbapenem antibiotics, usually leaving tigecycline and colistin as the last treatment options. However, increasing tigecycline resistance and colistin's nephrotoxicity severely restrict use of these antibiotics. We have designed antimicrobial peptides using a maximum common subgraph approach. Our best peptide (?76) displayed high efficacy against carbapenem and tigecycline-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in mice. Mice treated with repeated sublethal doses of ?76 displayed no signs of chronic toxicity. Sublethal ?76 doses co-administered alongside sublethal colistin doses displayed no additive toxicity. These results indicate that ?76 can potentially supplement or replace colistin, especially where nephrotoxicity is a concern. To our knowledge, no other existing antibiotics occupy this clinical niche. Mechanistically, ?76 adopts an ?-helical structure in membranes, causing rapid membrane disruption, leakage, and bacterial death.
Project description:Herein, we describe a case report of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates that were identified from the same patient at a Tertiary University Hospital Centre in Portugal. Antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular characterization of resistance and virulence determinants were performed. PCR screening identified the presence of the resistance genes blaKPC-3, blaTEM-1 and blaSHV-1 in both isolates. The KPC-3 K. pneumoniae isolate belonged to the ST-14 high risk clone and accumulated an uncommon resistance and virulence profile additional to a horizontal dissemination capacity. In conclusion, the molecular screening led to the first identification of the A. baumannii KPC-3 producer in Portugal with a full antimicrobial resistance profile including tigecycline and colistin.
Project description:Tigecycline has in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR/XDRAB), and may constitute an alternative therapy for treating pneumonia caused by MDR/XDRAB. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of tigecycline-based therapy with colistin-based therapy in patients with MDR/XDRAB pneumonia. Between January 2009 and December 2010, patients in the intensive care unit who were diagnosed with MDR/XDRAB pneumonia and treated with either tigecycline or colistin mono-/combination therapy were reviewed. A total of 70 patients were included in our analysis. Among them, 30 patients received tigecycline-based therapy, and 40 patients received colistin-based therapy. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. Clinical success rate was 47% in the tigecycline group and 48% in the colistin group (P = 0.95). There were no differences between the groups with regard to other clinical outcomes, with the exception that nephrotoxicity was observed only in the colistin group (0% vs. 20%; P = 0.009). Clinical and microbiological success rates were numerically higher, and mortality rates were numerically lower in combination therapy group than in the monotherapy group. Multivariate analysis indicated that monotherapy was independently associated with increased clinical failure (aOR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.03-15.26; P = 0.046). Our results suggest that tigecycline-based therapy was tolerable and the clinical outcome was comparable to that of colistin-based therapy for patients with MDR/XDRAB pneumonia. In addition, combination therapy may be more useful than monotherapy in treatment of MDR/XDRAB pneumonia.
Project description:Immune response stimulation to prevent infection progression may be an adjuvant to antimicrobial treatment. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an immunomodulator involved in immune cell recruitment and activation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LPC in combination with colistin, tigecycline, or imipenem in experimental murine models of peritoneal sepsis and pneumonia. We used Acinetobacter baumannii strain Ab9, which is susceptible to colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem, and multidrug-resistant strain Ab186, which is susceptible to colistin and resistant to tigecycline and imipenem. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem and the 100% minimal lethal dose (MLD100) were determined for both strains. The therapeutic efficacies of LPC, colistin (60 mg/kg of body weight/day), tigecycline (10 mg/kg/day), and imipenem (180 mg/kg/day), alone or in combination, were assessed against Ab9 and Ab186 at the MLD100 in murine peritoneal sepsis and pneumonia models. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the same experimental models after inoculating mice with the MLD of both strains. LPC in combination with colistin, tigecycline, or imipenem markedly enhanced the bacterial clearance of Ab9 and Ab186 from the spleen and lungs and reduced bacteremia and mouse mortality rates (P < 0.05) compared with those for colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem monotherapies. Moreover, at 4 h post-bacterial infection, Ab9 induced higher TNF-? and lower IL-10 levels than those with Ab186 (4 ?g/ml versus 3 ?g/ml [P < 0.05] and 2 ?g/ml versus 3.4 ?g/ml [P < 0.05], respectively). LPC treatment combined with colistin, tigecycline, or imipenem modestly reduced the severity of infection by A. baumannii strains with different resistance phenotypes compared to LPC monotherapy in both experimental models.
Project description:Emerging resistance to colistin in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates is of growing concern. Since current treatment options for these strains are extremely limited, we investigated the in vitro activities of various antimicrobial combinations against colistin-resistant A. baumannii Nine clinical isolates (8 from bacteremia cases and 1 from a pneumonia case) of colistin-resistant A. baumannii were collected in Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, between January 2010 and December 2012. To screen for potential synergistic effects, multiple combinations of two antimicrobials among 12 commercially available agents were tested using the multiple-combination bactericidal test (MCBT). Checkerboard tests were performed to validate these results. Among the 9 colistin-resistant strains, 6 were pandrug resistant and 3 were extensively drug resistant. With MCBT, the most effective combinations were colistin-rifampin and colistin-teicoplanin; both combinations showed synergistic effect against 8 of 9 strains. Colistin-aztreonam, colistin-meropenem, and colistin-vancomycin combinations showed synergy against seven strains. Colistin was the most common constituent of antimicrobial combinations that were active against colistin-resistant A. baumannii Checkerboard tests were then conducted in colistin-based combinations. Notably, colistin-rifampin showed synergism against all nine strains (100%). Both colistin-vancomycin and colistin-teicoplanin showed either synergy or partial synergy. Colistin combined with another ?-lactam agent (aztreonam, ceftazidime, or meropenem) showed a relatively moderate effect. Colistin combined with ampicillin-sulbactam, tigecycline, amikacin, azithromycin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole demonstrated limited synergism. Using MCBT and checkerboard tests, we found that only colistin-based combinations, particularly those with rifampin, glycopeptides, or ?-lactams, may confer therapeutic benefits against colistin-resistant A. baumannii.
Project description:Few effective therapeutic options are available for treating severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). Using a murine thigh-infection model, we examined the in vivo efficacy of colistin in combination with meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, rifampin, or sulbactam against 12 XDR-AB strains. Colistin, tigecycline, rifampin, and sulbactam monotherapy significantly decreased bacterial counts in murine thigh infections compared with those observed in control mice receiving no treatment. Colistin was the most effective agent tested, displaying bactericidal activity against 91.7% of strains at 48 h post-treatment. With strains showing a relatively low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for meropenem (MIC ? 32 mg/L), combination therapy with colistin plus meropenem caused synergistic inhibition at both 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. However, when the meropenem MIC was ?64 mg/L, meropenem did not significantly alter the efficacy of colistin. The addition of rifampin and fusidic acid significantly improved the efficacy of colistin, showing a synergistic effect in 100% and 58.3% of strains after 24 h of treatment, respectively, while the addition of tigecycline, fosfomycin, or sulbactam did not show obvious synergistic activity. No clear differences in activities were observed between colistin-rifampin and colistin-fusidic acid combination therapy with most strains. Overall, our in vivo study showed that administering colistin in combination with rifampin or fusidic acid is more efficacious in treating XDR-AB infections than other combinations. The colistin-meropenem combination may be another appropriate option if the MIC is ?32 mg/L. Further clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm the relevance of these findings.
Project description:Objective:Here, we report a case of severe infection caused by Escherichia coli that harbored mcr-1, bla NDM-5, and acquired resistance to tigecycline during tigecycline salvage therapy. Methods:Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Southern blot hybridization, and complete genome sequence of the strains were carried out. The genetic characteristics of the mcr-1 and bla NDM-5 plasmids were analyzed. The whole genome sequencing of mcr-1-containing plasmid was completed. Finally, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms and deletion mutations in the tigecycline-resistant strain were predicted. Results:Three E. coli isolates were obtained from ascites, pleural effusion, and stool of a patient; they were resistant to almost all the tested antibiotics. The first two strains separated from ascites (E-FQ) and hydrothorax (E-XS) were susceptible to amikacin and tigecycline; however, the third strain from stool (E-DB) was resistant to tigecycline after nearly 3 weeks' treatment with tigecycline. All three isolates possessed both mcr-1 and bla NDM-5. The bla NDM-5 gene was found on the IncX3 plasmid, whereas the mcr-1, fosA3 and blaCTX-M-14 were located on the IncHI2 plasmid. Mutations in acrB and lon were the reason for the resistance to tigecycline. Conclusion:This is the first report of a colistin-, carbapenem-, and tigecycline-resistant E. coli in China. Tigecycline resistance acquired during tigecycline therapy is of great concern for us because tigecycline is a drug of last resort to treat carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. Furthermore, the transmission of such extensively drug-resistant isolates may pose a great threat to public health.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) in patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) in order to determine a guide for the empirical antibiotic treatment of MDRAB. METHODS:The authors retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients with MDRAB infections in the PICU during a follow-up period, between January 2015 and January 2017. The identification of A. baumannii was performed using a BD Phoenix 100 Automated Microbiology System. A BD Phoenix NMIC/ID-400 commercial kit was used to test antibiotic susceptibility. All data was entered into Microsoft Excel, and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. RESULTS:The mean age of the patients was 8.1?±?6.2 y. In all, 46 isolates were obtained from 33 patients. The most effective antimicrobial agents were colistin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tigecycline. Nevertheless, with the exception of colistin, no antibiotic was associated with a susceptibility rate of >45% for the isolates. Low sensitivities in 2015 to tigecycline, aminoglycosides, levofloxacin, and carbapenems had been lost in 2016. CONCLUSIONS:Many drugs that were previously effective against MDRAB, have lost their effectiveness. Currently, there is no effective drug to fight MDRAB, apart from colistin. Thus, it is clear that new drugs and treatment protocols should be developed urgently.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii, an important emerging pathogen of nosocomial infections, is known for its ability to form biofilms. Biofilm formation increases the survival rate of A. baumannii on dry surfaces and may contribute to its persistence in the hospital environment, which increases the probability of nosocomial infections and outbreaks. This study was undertaken to characterize the biofilm production of different strains of A. baumannii and the effects of chemical compounds, especially antibiotics, on biofilm formation. In this study, no statistically significant relationship was observed between the ability to form a biofilm and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the A. baumannii clinical isolates. Biofilm formation caused by A. baumannii ATCC 17978 after gene knockout of two-component regulatory system gene baeR, efflux pump genes emrA/emrB and outer membrane coding gene ompA revealed that all mutant strains had less biofilm formation than the wild-type strain, which was further supported by the images from scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The addition of amikacin, colistin, LL-37 or tannic acid decreased the biofilm formation ability of A. baumannii. In contrast, the addition of lower subinhibitory concentration tigecycline increased the biofilm formation ability of A. baumannii. Minimum biofilm eradication concentrations of amikacin, imipenem, colistin, and tigecycline were increased obviously for both wild type and multidrug resistant clinical strain A. baumannii VGH2. In conclusion, the biofilm formation ability of A. baumannii varied in different strains, involved many genes and could be influenced by many chemical compounds.