Early Introduction of Solid Feeds: Ingestion Level Matters More Than Prebiotic Supplementation for Shaping Gut Microbiota.
ABSTRACT: Early introduction of a nutritional substrate is a promising biomimetic strategy for controlling the implantation of the microbiota and preserving the health of young animals. In this study, we provided experimental solid substrate in a gel form to stimulate suckling rabbits' intake and to investigate its effects on microbiota implantation and colonization. All the rabbits had access to solid feed outside the nest as of 15 days of age. Except for the control group, rabbits were offered starter feed gels inside the nests from 3 to 18 days of age. These gels were either free of additives (AF_GEL) or contained 4% of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS_GEL) or 4% of mannan-oligosaccharides and ?-glucans mixtures (MOS_GEL). The cecal content of 160 rabbits was sampled at 18, 29, 38, and 57 days of age and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Pups consumed an average of 3.95 ± 1.07 g of starter feed gel with a higher intake when it was supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides (+1.2 g; P < 0.05). Starter feed gel consumption increased the ensuing intake of pellets (+17 g from 15 to 21 days; P < 0.05). Alpha-diversity indexes were similar between groups and prebiotic supplementation did not induce a clear shift in microbiota pattern. Conversely, when considering rabbits that consumed more starter feed, the highest proportions of bacteria with plant-degrading abilities, such as species from the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families, were observed at 18 days of age. However, fermentative activities were not affected by starter feed intake at 29, 38, and 57 days of age. By providing comprehensive results on the regulation of microbial community structure at the onset of solid feed intake, this research paves the way for further studies on digestive ecosystem maturation.
Project description:CPT-11 is a drug used as chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. CPT-11 causes toxic side-effects in patients. CPT-11 toxicity has been attributed to the activity of intestinal microbiota, however, intestinal microbiota may also have protective effects in CP!-11 chemotherapy. This study aimed to elucidate mechanisms through which microbiota and dietary fibres could modify host health. Rats bearing a Ward colon carcinoma were treated with a two-cycle CPT-11/5-fluorouracil therapy recapitulating clinical therapy of colorectal cancer. Animals were fed with a semi-purified diet or a semi-purified diet was supplemented with non-digestible carbohydrates (isomalto-oligosaccharides, resistant starch, fructo-oligosaccharides, or inulin) in 3 independent experiments. Changes in intestinal microbiota, bacteria translocating to mesenteric lymphnodes, cecal GUD activity, and cecal SCFA production, and the intestinal concentration of CPT-11 and its metabolites were analysed. Non-digestible carbohydrates significantly influenced feed intake, body weight and other indicators of animal health. The identification of translocating bacteria and their quantification in cecal microbiota indicated that overgrowth of the intestine by opportunistic pathogens was not a major contributor to CPT-11 toxicity. Remarkably, fecal GUD activity positively correlated to body weight and feed intake but negatively correlated to cecal SN-38 concentrations and IL1-?. The reduction in CPT-11 toxicity by non-digestible carbohydrates did not correlate to stimulation of specific bacterial taxa. However, cecal butyrate concentrations and feed intake were highly correlated. The protective role of intestinal butyrate production was substantiated by a positive correlation of the host expression of MCT1 (monocarboxylate transporter 1) with body weight as well as a positive correlation of the abundance of bacterial butyryl-CoA gene with cecal butyrate concentrations. These correlations support the interpretation that the influence of dietary fibre on CPT-11 toxicity is partially mediated by an increased cecal production of butyrate.
Project description:Most official food composition tables and food questionnaires do not provide enough data to assess fermentable dietary fibers (DF) that can exert a health effect through their interaction with the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to develop a database and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) allowing detailed DF intake estimation including prebiotic (oligo)saccharides. A repertoire of DF detailing total, soluble DF, insoluble DF and prebiotic (oligo)saccharides (inulin-type fructans, fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides) in food products consumed in Europe has been established. A 12 month FFQ was developed and submitted to 15 healthy volunteers from the FiberTAG study. Our data report a total DF intake of 38 g/day in the tested population. Fructan and fructo-oligosaccharides intake, linked notably to condiments (garlic and onions) ingestion, reached 5 and 2 g/day, respectively, galacto-oligosaccharides intake level being lower (1 g/day). We conclude that the FiberTAG repertoire and FFQ are major tools for the evaluation of the total amount of DF including prebiotics. Their use can be helpful in intervention or observational studies devoted to analyze microbiota-nutrient interactions in different pathological contexts, as well as to revisit DF intake recommendations as part of healthy lifestyles considering specific DF.
Project description:Several prebiotics, such as inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides, are widely used commercially in foods and there is convincing evidence, in particular for galacto-oligosaccharides, that prebiotics can modulate the microbiota and promote bifidobacterial growth in the intestinal tract of infants and adults. In this study we describe the identification and functional characterization of the genetic loci responsible for the transport and metabolism of purified galacto-oligosaccharides (PGOS) by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. We further demonstrate that an extracellular endogalactanase specified by several B. breve strains, including B. breve UCC2003, is essential for partial degradation of PGOS components with a high degree of polymerization. These partially hydrolysed PGOS components are presumed to be transported into the bifidobacterial cell via various ABC transport systems and sugar permeases where they are further degraded to galactose and glucose monomers that feed into the bifid shunt. This work significantly advances our molecular understanding of bifidobacterial PGOS metabolism and its associated genetic machinery to utilize this prebiotic.
Project description:In recent years, research has focused on the use of dietary fibers and prebiotics, since many of these polysaccharides can be metabolized by intestinal microbiota, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids. The metabolites of prebiotic fermentation also show anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities, suggesting an interesting role in the treatment of several pathological conditions. Galacto-oligosaccharide and short- and long-chain fructans (Fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) are the most studied prebiotics, even if other dietary compounds seem to show the same features. There is an increasing interest in dietary strategies to modulate microbiota. The aim of this review is to explore the mechanisms of action of prebiotics and their effects on the principal gastro-intestinal disorders in adults, with a special focus on Galacto-oligosaccharides, Fructo-oligosaccharides, lactulose and new emerging substances which currently have evidence of prebiotics effects, such as xilooligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharides, isomaltooligosaccharides, lactobionic acid, resistant starch and polyphenols.
Project description:The yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber was examined with regard to its prebiotic effects compared with commercialized fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). A feed containing 10% yacon tuber, which is equivalent to 5% commercialized FOS in terms of the amount of fructo-oligosaccharides (GF2, GF3 and GF4), was administrated to rats for 28 days. The yacon diet changed the intestinal microbial communities beginning in the first week, resulting in a twofold greater concentration of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The SCFA composition differed, but the cecal pH in rats fed yacon tuber was equal to that in rats fed FOS. Serum triglycerides were lower in rats fed yacon compared with rats fed FOS and the control diet. Cecal size was greater with the yacon tuber diet compared with the control diet. The abundant fermentation in the intestines created a selective environment for the intestinal microbiota, which included Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Bifidobacterium animalis and Barnesiella spp. according to identification with culture-independent analysis, 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE combined with cloning and sequencing. Barnesiella spp. and B. pseudolongum were only found in the rats fed the yacon diet, while L. acidophilus and B. animalis were found in abundance in rats fed both the yacon and FOS diets. The genus Barnesiella has not previously been reported to be associated with yacon or FOS fermentation. We concluded that the physiological and microbiological effects of the yacon tuber were different from those of FOS. Differences in cecal size, blood triglycerides and microbial community profiles including their metabolites (SCFAs) between the yacon tuber and FOS were shown to be more greatly affected by the yacon tuber rather than FOS.
Project description:There is some evidence that early colonization of the intestine affects the composition of the intestinal microbiota after weaning. In the present study, the effect of prebiotics administered from the first day of life on fecal counts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were studied during and after the administration of the prebiotics. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, explorative study, 20 newborns of hepatitis C virus-infected mothers who decided not to breast feed due to their concerns regarding their plasma viral load were randomly assigned to either a formula with 8 g/L of a specific prebiotic mixture (short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, ratio 9:1) or a formula containing the same amount of maltodextrin (placebo). Clinical examination including anthropometric measurements, microbiological analysis of fecal samples, and blood leukocyte population analysis were performed at birth and 3, 6, and 12 mo age. At the age of 12 mo, hepatitis B vaccine-specific IgG serum titers (Hepatitis B virus surface antibodies) were also measured. Prebiotic supplementation resulted in more fecal bifidobacteria (P < 0.0001) and lactobacilli (P = 0.0044) compared with the placebo group. These differences between the groups were maintained during the second half of the first year without any prebiotic supplementation. There was no influence of the different diets on anthropometric data or the measured immunological variables. The data from this small explorative study indicate that early colonization of the intestine might have long-lasting effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate how the feeding strategy of rabbit kits at the onset of solid feed intake could affect ecological diversity and co-occurrence patterns of the cecal bacterial community. From birth to 18 days of age kits were exclusively milk-fed, and between 18 and 35 days the young rabbits also had access to solid feed. After weaning at (35 days), young rabbits were exclusively fed solid feed. Three experimental feeds were used: a high concentrate diet [H: 10.16 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg and 15.3% crude protein (CP)], a low concentrate diet (L: 9.33 MJ DE/kg and 14.7% CP) and a reproductive female diet (R: 10.57 MJ DE/kg and 17.3% CP). The rabbit kits (n = 357) were divided into three groups, differing by the diet received during two periods: from 18 to 28 and from 28 to 49 days of age. In the groups LL and HH, rabbit kits were fed L or H diets, respectively, during both periods. Kits in the group RL received feeds R and L from 18 to 28 and 28 to 49 days of age, respectively. Cecal bacterial communities of 10 rabbits per group were carried out at 18, 28, 35, 43 and 49 days of age by MiSeq Illumina sequencing 16S rRNA encoding genes. Between 18 and 28 days of age, solid feed intake was higher in the group RL compared to the other two groups (+24%; P < 0.01). Overall, 13.4% of the OTUs detected were present in the cecal ecosystem from 18 to 49 days old, whereas 17.4% were acquired with the onset of solid feeding and kept from 28 days on. Exclusive milk consumption constrains the bacterial community toward a similar structure but high phylogenetic beta-diversity. Introduction of solid feed induced a sharp change of microbial community structure and decreased phylogenetic diversity. A strong relationship in bacterial community network occurred only from 43 days on. Our feeding strategy at the onset of solid feed ingestion exhibited only a moderate effect on the microbial community structure (P = 0.072), although the LL group seemed to reach faster maturity compared to the two other groups.
Project description:Weaning is a critical period for the health of rabbits, with a high sensitivity to digestive diseases. Allowing early consumption of solid feed in the nest of the suckling rabbit could help to maintain its health around weaning. In general, previous studies have focused on feed intake of rabbits when they are able to leave the nest, i.e. around 16 days. Herein, we provide a unique dataset of the dynamics of the onset of feed intake in suckling rabbits from 8 days to weaning. We quantified the solid feed intake behaviour and determined the dietary preferences for pellets according to their physical properties using nine pellets differing in diameter or compression rate. Additionally to the data provided in Paës et al.  we provide (i) the description of the nine pellets processing (ii) the description of the 3 point-scale system for nest quality evaluation, (iii) details on the device used to provide pellets in the nest, (iv) milk intake data and milk intake curve calculation and (v) pellet intake data according to physical characteristics.
Project description:In this study, we studied the fibrolytic potential of the rumen microbiota in the rumen of 6 lambs separated from their dams from 12h of age and artificially fed with milk replacer (MR) and starter feed from d8, in absence (3 lambs) or presence (3 lambs) of a combination of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 and selected yeast metabolites. The fibrolytic potential of the rumen microbiota of the lambs at 56 days of age was analyzed with a DNA microarray (FibroChip) targeting genes coding for 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. Overall design: We analysed two groups of lambs, with or without the feed supplement. These represented six samples (3 control and 3 supplemented lambs).
Project description:Oligosaccharides (OS) are commonly added to infant formulas, however, their physiological impact, particularly on adult health programming, is poorly described. In adult animals, OS modify microbiota and stimulate colonic fermentation and enteroendocrine cell (EEC) activity. Since neonatal changes in microbiota and/or EEC density could be long-lasting and EEC-derived peptides do regulate short-term food intake, we hypothesized that neonatal OS consumption could modulate early EECs, with possible consequences for adult eating behavior. Suckling rats were supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), beta-galacto-oligosaccharides/inulin (GOS/In) mix, alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (αGOS) at 3.2 g/kg, or a control solution (CTL) between postnatal day (PND) 5 and 14/15. Pups were either sacrificed at PND14/15 or weaned at PND21 onto standard chow. The effects on both microbiota and EEC were characterized at PND14/15, and eating behavior at adulthood. Very early OS supplementation drastically impacted the intestinal environment, endocrine lineage proliferation/differentiation particularly in the ileum, and the density of GLP-1 cells and production of satiety-related peptides (GLP-1 and PYY) in the neonatal period. However, it failed to induce any significant lasting changes on intestinal microbiota, enteropeptide secretion or eating behavior later in life. Overall, the results did not demonstrate any OS programming effect on satiety peptides secreted by L-cells or on food consumption, an observation which is a reassuring outlook from a human perspective.