Metagenome Assembly and Metagenome-Assembled Genome Sequences from a Historical Oil Field Located in Wietze, Germany.
ABSTRACT: Crude oil-polluted sites are a global threat, raising the demand for remediation worldwide. Here, we investigated a crude oil metagenome from a former borehole in Wietze, Germany, and reconstructed 42 metagenome-assembled genomes, many of which contained genes involved in crude oil degradation with a high potential for bioremediation purposes.
Project description:This data article details Pseudomonas aeruginosa effects on the bioremediation of soil that had been polluted by different concentrations, 5% w/w and 8% w/w, of raw (for simulating oil spills from well-heads) and treated (for simulating oil spills from flow lines/storage tanks) crude oil. UV/VIS spectrophotometry instrumentation was used for obtaining absorbance measurements from the Nigerian Escravos Light blend (sourced from Chevron® Nigeria) of crude oil polluting soil samples, which, thus, also simulates light and heavy onshore oil spillage scenarios, in a 30-day measurement design. Data on bioremediation effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa added to the crude oil polluted soil samples, and which were monitored at intervals via the absorbance measurement techniques, are presented in tables with ensuing analyses for describing and validating the data presented in graphs. Information from the presented data in this article is useful to researchers, the oil industries, oil prospecting communities, governments and stakeholders involved in finding solution approach to the challenges of onshore oil spills. This information can also be used for furthering research on bioremediation kinetics such as biostimulant analyses, polluting hydrocarbon content/degradation detailing, by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain of microorganism, on petroleum pollutant removal from soil that had been polluted by crude oil spillage.
Project description:We report on the metagenome of a deep subsurface aquifer in the Tomsk region of Russia, sampled via an oil exploration borehole drilled to a depth of 2.8 km. Methanogenic archaea were present in the water along with members of various bacterial phyla, including Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Ignavibacteriae, and uncultured candidate divisions.
Project description:Over the past 100 years, oil spills and long-term waste deposition from oil refineries have significantly polluted the environment. These contaminants have widespread negative effects on human health and ecosystem functioning. Natural attenuation of long chain and polyaromatic hydrocarbons is slow and often incomplete. Bioaugmentation of polluted soils with indigenous bacteria that naturally consume petroleum hydrocarbons could speed up this process. However, the characterization of bacterial crude oil degradation efficiency - which often relies upon expensive, highly specialized gas-chromatography mass spectrometry analyses - can present a substantial bottleneck in developing and implementing these bioremediation strategies. Here, we develop a low-cost, rapid, high-throughput fluorescence-based assay for identifying wild-type bacteria that degrade crude oil using the dye Nile Red. We show that Nile Red fluoresces when in contact with crude oil and developed a robust linear model to calculate crude oil content in liquid cell cultures based on fluorescence intensity (FI). To test whether this assay could identify bacteria with enhanced metabolic capacities to break down crude oil, we screened bacteria isolated from a former Shell Oil refinery in Bay Point, CA, and identified one strain (Cupriavidus sp. OPK) with superior crude oil depletion efficiencies (up to 83%) in only 3 days. We further illustrate that this assay can be combined with fluorescence microscopy to study how bacteria interact with crude oil and the strategies they use to degrade this complex substance. We show for the first time that bacteria use three key strategies for degrading crude oil: biofilm formation, direct adherence to oil droplets, and vesicle encapsulation of oil. We propose that the quantitative and qualitative data from this assay can be used to develop new bioremediation strategies based on bioaugmentation and/or biomimetic materials that imitate the natural ability of bacteria to degrade crude oil.
Project description:Acute and chronic pollution of environments with crude oil does not bode well for biota living within the vicinity of polluted environments. This is due to environmental and public health concerns on the negative impact of crude oil pollution on living organisms. Enhancing microbial activities by adding nutrients and other amendments had proved effective in pollutant removal during bioremediation. This study was carried out to determine how microbial group respond during remediation by enhanced natural attenuation (RENA) during a field-scale bioremediation. Crude oil-polluted soil samples were collected (before, during, and after remediation) from a site undergoing remediation by enhanced natural attenuation (RENA) at Ikarama Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, and were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a shift in microbial community. The gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) results showed that the pollutant concentrations (TPH and PAH) reduced by 98 and 85%, respectively, after the remediation. Culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (CHUB) was highest (8.3 × 104 cfu/g) for sample collected during the remediation studies, whilst sample collected after remediation had low CHUB (6.1 × 104 cfu/g) compared to that collected before remediation (7.7 × 104 cfu/g). Analysis of 16S rRNA of the isolated CHUB showed they belonged to eight bacterial genera namely: Achromobacter, Alcaligenes, Azospirillus, Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Ochrobactrum, Proteus, and Pusillimonas, with Alcaligenes as the dominant genus. In this study, it was observed that the bacterial community shifted from mixed group (Gram-positive and -negative) before and during the remediation, to only the latter group after the remediation studies. The betaproteobacteria groups were the dominant isolated bacterial phylotype. This study showed that RENA is an effective method of reducing pollutant concentration in crude oil-polluted sites, and could be applied to other polluted sites in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to mitigate the devastating effects of crude oil pollution.
Project description:Among four crude oil-degrading fungi strains that were isolated from a petroleum-polluted area in the Rumaila oil field, two fungi strains showed high activity in aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation. ITS sequencing and analysis of morphological and biochemical characteristics identified these strains as Penicillium sp. RMA1 and RMA2. Gravimetric and gas chromatography analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after 14?days of incubation at 30?°C showed that RMA1 and RMA2 degraded the crude oil by 57% and 55%, respectively. These strains reduced surface tension when cultured on crude oil (1%?v/v) and exhibited a cell surface hydrophobicity of more than 70%. These results suggested that RMA1 and RMA2 performed effective crude oil-degrading activity and crude oil emulsification. In conclusion, these fungal strains can be used in bioremediation process and oil pollution reduction in aquatic ecosystems.
Project description:Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.
Project description:It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it's of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a "seed bank" of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.
Project description:Three metagenomic libraries were constructed using surface sediment samples from the northern Adriatic Sea. Two of the samples were taken from a highly polluted and an unpolluted site respectively. The third sample from a polluted site had been enriched using crude oil. The results of the metagenome analyses were incorporated in the REDPET relational database (http://redpet.bioinfo.pbf.hr/REDPET), which was generated using the previously developed MEGGASENSE platform. The database includes taxonomic data to allow the assessment of the biodiversity of metagenomic libraries and a general functional analysis of genes using hidden Markov model (HMM) profiles based on the KEGG database. A set of 22 specialised HMM profiles was developed to detect putative genes for hydrocarbon-degrading enzymes. Use of these profiles showed that the metagenomic library generated after selection on crude oil had enriched genes for aerobic n-alkane degradation. The use of this system for bioprospecting was exemplified using potential alkB and almA genes from this library.
Project description:Soil samples from Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt and Germany were polluted with 3% crude oil. Series of samples were left unbioaugmented, others were bioaugmented with Kuwaiti desert soil with a long history of oil pollution and still others with Kuwaiti marine biofouling material. In the samples from Kuwait, Egypt, and Germany, bioaugmentation did not enhance oil removal, whereas it did in the sample from Lebanon. Taxa from the desert-soil bioaugmented batches, but none of those from the biofouling-material bioaugmented ones, succeeded in colonizing the four studied soils. The dynamics of the hydrocarbonoclastic communities during bioremediation were monitored. Those communities differed in composition, not only according to the type of soil, but also for the same soil; at various phases of bioremediation. Although each soil seemed to have its characteristic microflora, they all were similar in harboring lower and higher actinomycetes and pseudomonads in addition to many other taxa. None of the taxa prevailed through all phases of bioremediation. The most powerful isolate in oil-removal; was Rhodococcus erythropolis (Germany), and the weakest was Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans (Lebanon). The pure hydrocarbonoclastic isolates tolerated unusually high oil concentrations, up to 30%.
Project description:Soil samples were collected from Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, and Germany, and artificially polluted with 3% (w/w) crude oil. Cross-bioaugmentation was done among them, and the oil-consumption and the constituent communities of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were monitored periodically through 6 months. The results showed that cross-bioaugmentation did not bring about reproducible effects on oil-removal in the four soils. After 6 months, oil-removal values reached between 82 and 95% in most of the samples including the unbioaugmented controls. The numbers of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria showed significant increases followed by significant decreases during the course of bioremediation also in the unbioaugmented controls. In most cases, the inoculated bacterial taxa failed to colonize the soils, and oil-removal was achieved mainly by the native (autochthonous) soil bacterial communities. those belonged to the genera Mycolicibacterium, Mycobacterium, Xanthobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Zavarzinia, and others. The microbial communities in the four soils also comprised nitrogen fixing bacteria belonging to the genera Gordonia, Rhizobium, Kocuria, and Azospirillum. Such diazotrophs are known to enrich the soils with fixed nitrogen and thus, contribute to enhancing the microbiological hydrocarbon-consumption. It was concluded that cross-bioaugmentation leads to unpredictable and inconsistent effects on oil removal. Therefore, it could not beregarded as the technology of choice for oil-bioremediation.