EGFR-vIII downregulated H2AZK4/7AC though the PI3K/AKT-HDAC2 axis to regulate cell cycle progression.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The EGFR-vIII mutation is the most common malignant event in GBM. Epigenetic reprogramming in EGFR-activated GBM has recently been suggested to downregulate the expression of tumour suppressor genes. Histone acetylation is important for chromatin structure and function. However, the role and biological function of H2AZK4/7AC in tumours have not yet been clarified. RESULTS:In our study, we found that EGFR-vIII negatively regulated H2AZK4/7AC expression though the PI3K/AKT-HDAC2 axis. Because HDAC1 and HDAC2 are highly homologous enzymes that usually form multi-protein complexes for transcriptional regulation and epigenetic landscaping, we simultaneously knocked out HDAC1 and HDAC2 and found that H2AZK4/7AC and H3K27AC were upregulated, which partially released EGFR-vIII-mediated inhibition of USP11, negative regulator of cell cycle. In addition, we demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that FK228 induced G1/S transition arrest in GBM with EGFR-vIII mutation. FK228 could enhance anti-tumour activity by upregulating expression of the tumour suppressor USP11 in GBM cells. CONCLUSIONS:EGFR-vIII mutation downregulates H2AZK4/7AC and H3K27AC, inhibiting USP11 expression though the PI3K/AKT-HDAC1/2 axis. FK228 is an effective and promising treatment for GBM with EGFR-vIII mutation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The EGFR-vIII mutation is the most common malignant event in GBM. Epigenetic reprogramming in EGFR-activated GBM has recently been suggested to downregulate the expression of tumour suppressor genes. Histone acetylation is important for chromatin structure and function. However, the role and biological function of H2AZK4/7AC in tumours have not yet been clarified. RESULTS:In our study, we found that EGFR-vIII negatively regulated H2AZK4/7AC expression though the PI3K/AKT-HDAC2 axis. Because HDAC1 and HDAC2 are highly homologous enzymes that usually form multi-protein complexes for transcriptional regulation and epigenetic landscaping, we simultaneously knocked out HDAC1 and HDAC2 and found that H2AZK4/7AC and H3K27AC were upregulated, which partially released EGFR-vIII-mediated inhibition of USP11, negative regulator of cell cycle. In addition, we demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that FK228 induced G1/S transition arrest in GBM with EGFR-vIII mutation. FK228 could enhance anti-tumour activity by upregulating expression of the tumour suppressor USP11 in GBM cells. CONCLUSIONS:EGFR-vIII mutation downregulates H2AZK4/7AC and H3K27AC, inhibiting USP11 expression though the PI3K/AKT-HDAC1/2 axis. FK228 is an effective and promising treatment for GBM with EGFR-vIII mutation.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive intracranial malignant brain tumor, and the abnormal expression of HDAC1 is closely correlated to the progression, recurrence and metastasis of GBM cells, making selective inhibition of HDAC1 a promising strategy for GBM treatments. Among all available selective HDAC1 inhibitors, the macrocyclic peptides have gained great attention due to their remarkable inhibitory selectivity on HDAC1. However, the binding mechanism underlying this selectivity is still elusive, which increases the difficulty of designing and synthesizing the macrocyclic peptide-based anti-GBM drug. Herein, multiple computational approaches were employed to explore the binding behaviors of a typical macrocyclic peptide FK228 in both HDAC1 and HDAC6. Starting from the docking conformations of FK228 in the binding pockets of HDAC1&6, relatively long MD simulation (500 ns) shown that the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding of E91 and D92 in the Loop2 of HDAC1 with the Cap had a certain traction effect on FK228, and the sub-pocket formed by Loop1 and Loop2 in HDAC1 could better accommodate the Cap group, which had a positive effect on maintaining the active conformation of FK228. While the weakening of the interactions between FK228 and the residues in the Loop2 of HDAC6 during the MD simulation led to the large deflection of FK228 in the binding site, which also resulted in the decrease in the interactions between the Linker region of FK228 and the previously identified key amino acids (H134, F143, H174, and F203). Therefore, the residues located in Loop1 and Loop2 contributed in maintaining the active conformation of FK228, which would provide valuable hints for the discovery and design of novel macrocyclic polypeptide HDAC inhibitors.
Project description:The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 remove acetyl moieties from lysine residues of histones and other proteins and are important regulators of gene expression. By deleting different combinations of Hdac1 and Hdac2 alleles in the epidermis, we reveal a dosage-dependent effect of HDAC1/HDAC2 activity on epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Conditional ablation of either HDAC1 or HDAC2 in the epidermis leads to no obvious phenotype due to compensation by the upregulated paralogue. Strikingly, deletion of a single Hdac2 allele in HDAC1 knockout mice results in severe epidermal defects, including alopecia, hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation and spontaneous tumour formation. These mice display impaired Sin3A co-repressor complex function, increased levels of c-Myc protein, p53 expression and apoptosis in hair follicles (HFs) and misregulation of HF bulge stem cells. Surprisingly, ablation of HDAC1 but not HDAC2 in a skin tumour model leads to accelerated tumour development. Our data reveal a crucial function of HDAC1/HDAC2 in the control of lineage specificity and a novel role of HDAC1 as a tumour suppressor in the epidermis.
Project description:Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer drugs, with one synthetic compound, SAHA (vorinostat, Zolinza; 1), and one natural product, FK228 (depsipeptide, romidepsin, Istodax; 2), approved by FDA for clinical use. Our studies of FK228 biosynthesis in Chromobacterium violaceum no. 968 led to the identification of a cryptic biosynthetic gene cluster in the genome of Burkholderia thailandensis E264. Genome mining and genetic manipulation of this gene cluster further led to the discovery of two new products, thailandepsin A (6) and thailandepsin B (7). HDAC inhibition assays showed that thailandepsins have selective inhibition profiles different from that of FK228, with comparable inhibitory activities to those of FK228 toward human HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC6, HDAC7, and HDAC9 but weaker inhibitory activities than FK228 toward HDAC4 and HDAC8, the latter of which could be beneficial. NCI-60 anticancer screening assays showed that thailandepsins possess broad-spectrum antiproliferative activities with GI50 for over 90% of the tested cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations and potent cytotoxic activities toward certain types of cell lines, particularly for those derived from colon, melanoma, ovarian, and renal cancers. Thailandepsins thus represent new naturally produced HDAC inhibitors that are promising for anticancer drug development.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are commonly dysregulated in cancer and represent promising therapeutic targets. However, global HDAC inhibitors have shown limited efficacy in the treatment of solid tumours, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of selectively inhibiting HDAC1 and 2 in HCC. METHODS:HDAC1 inhibitor Tacedinaline (CI994), HDAC2 inhibitor Santacruzamate A (CAY10683), HDAC1/2 common inhibitor Romidepsin (FK228) and global HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA) were used to treat HCC cells. Cell cycle, apoptosis and the protein levels of CDKs and CDKNs were performed to evaluate HCC cell growth. Inhibition of HDAC1/2 by RNAi was further investigated. RESULTS:Combined inhibition of HDAC1/2 led to HCC cell morphology changes, growth inhibition, cell cycle blockage and apoptosis in vitro and suppressed the growth of subcutaneous HCC xenograft tumours in vivo. p21Waf1/Cip1 and p19INK4d , which play roles in cell cycle blockage and apoptosis induction, were upregulated. Inhibition of HDAC1/2 by siRNA further demonstrated that HDAC1 and 2 cooperate in blocking the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis via p19INK4d and p21Waf1/Cip1 upregulation. Finally, H3K18, H3K56 and H4K12 in the p19INK4d and p21Waf1/Cip1 promoter regions were found to be targets of HDAC1/2. CONCLUSIONS:Pharmacological or transcriptional inhibition of HDAC1/2 increases p19INK4d and p21Waf1/Cip1 expression, decreases CDK expression and arrests HCC growth. These results indicated a potential pharmacological mechanism of selective HDAC1/2 inhibitors in HCC therapy.
Project description:High activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) causes epigenetic alterations associated with malignant cell behaviour. Consequently, HDAC inhibitors have entered late-phase clinical trials as new antineoplastic drugs. However, little is known about expression and function of specific HDAC isoforms in human tumours including prostate cancer. We investigated the expression of class I HDACs in 192 prostate carcinomas by immunohistochemistry and correlated our findings to clinicopathological parameters including follow-up data. Class I HDAC isoforms were strongly expressed in the majority of the cases (HDAC1: 69.8%, HDAC2: 74%, HDAC3: 94.8%). High rates of HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression were significantly associated with tumour dedifferentiation. Strong expression of all HDACs was accompanied by enhanced tumour cell proliferation. In addition, HDAC2 was an independent prognostic marker in our prostate cancer cohort. In conclusion, we showed that the known effects of HDACs on differentiation and proliferation of cancer cells observed in vitro can also be confirmed in vivo. The class I HDAC isoforms 1, 2 and 3 are differentially expressed in prostate cancer, which might be important for upcoming studies on HDAC inhibitors in this tumour entity. Also, the highly significant prognostic value of HDAC2 clearly deserves further study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene alterations and amplification are frequently reported in cases of glioblastoma (GBM). However, EGFR-activating mutations that confer proven sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in lung cancer have not yet been reported in GBM. CASE PRESENTATION:Using next-generation sequencing, array comparative genomic hybridization and droplet digital PCR, we identified the p.L861Q EGFR mutation in a case of GBM for the first time. The mutation was associated with gene amplification. L861Q may be a clinically valuable mutation because it is known to sensitize non-small-cell lung cancers to treatment with the second-generation EGFR TKI afatinib in particular. Furthermore, we used slice culture of the patient's GBM explant to evaluate the tumour's sensitivity to various EGFR-targeting drugs. Our results suggested that the tumour was not intrinsically sensitive to these drugs. CONCLUSIONS:Our results highlight (i) the value of comprehensive genomic analyses for identifying patient-specific, targetable alterations, and (ii) the need to combine genomic analyses with functional assays, such as tumour-derived slice cultures.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumor for which little treatment is available. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is thought to play a crucial role in GBM pathogenesis, initiating the early stages of tumor development, sustaining tumor growth, promoting infiltration, and mediating resistance to therapy. The importance of this pathway is highlighted in the fact that EGFR is mutationally activated in over 50% of GBM tumors. Consistent with this, we show here that concomitant activation of wild-type and/or mutant (vIII) EGFR and ablation of Ink4A/Arf and PTEN tumor suppressor gene function in the adult mouse central nervous system generates a fully penetrant, rapid-onset high-grade malignant glioma phenotype with prominent pathological and molecular resemblance to GBM in humans. Studies of the activation of signaling events in these GBM tumor cells revealed notable differences between wild-type and vIII EGFR-expressing cells. We show that wild-type EGF receptor signals through its canonical pathways, whereas tumors arising from expression of mutant EGFR(vIII) do not use these same pathways. Our findings provide critical insights into the role of mutant EGFR signaling function in GBM tumor biology and set the stage for testing of targeted therapeutic agents in the preclinical models described herein.
Project description:The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 are crucial regulators of chromatin structure and gene expression, thereby controlling important developmental processes. In the mouse brain, HDAC1 and HDAC2 exhibit different developmental stage- and lineage-specific expression patterns. To examine the individual contribution of these deacetylases during brain development, we deleted different combinations of Hdac1 and Hdac2 alleles in neural cells. Ablation of Hdac1 or Hdac2 by Nestin-Cre had no obvious consequences on brain development and architecture owing to compensation by the paralog. By contrast, combined deletion of Hdac1 and Hdac2 resulted in impaired chromatin structure, DNA damage, apoptosis and embryonic lethality. To dissect the individual roles of HDAC1 and HDAC2, we expressed single alleles of either Hdac1 or Hdac2 in the absence of the respective paralog in neural cells. The DNA-damage phenotype observed in double knockout brains was prevented by expression of a single allele of either Hdac1 or Hdac2. Strikingly, Hdac1(-/-)Hdac2(+/-) brains showed normal development and no obvious phenotype, whereas Hdac1(+/-)Hdac2(-/-) mice displayed impaired brain development and perinatal lethality. Hdac1(+/-)Hdac2(-/-) neural precursor cells showed reduced proliferation and premature differentiation mediated by overexpression of protein kinase C, delta, which is a direct target of HDAC2. Importantly, chemical inhibition or knockdown of protein kinase C delta was sufficient to rescue the phenotype of neural progenitor cells in vitro. Our data indicate that HDAC1 and HDAC2 have a common function in maintaining proper chromatin structures and show that HDAC2 has a unique role by controlling the fate of neural progenitors during normal brain development.
Project description:The transcriptional functions of the class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC1 and HDAC2 are mainly viewed as both repressive and redundant based on murine knockout studies, but they may have additional independent roles and their physiological functions in human cells are not as clearly defined. To address the individual epigenomic functions of HDAC2, here we utilized CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt HDAC2 in human cells. We find that while HDAC2 null cells exhibited signs of cross-regulation between HDAC1 and HDAC2, specific epigenomic phenotypes were still apparent using RNA-seq and ChIP assays. We identified specific targets of HDAC2 repression, and defined a novel class of genes that are actively expressed in a partially HDAC2-dependent manner. While HDAC2 was required for the recruitment of HDAC1 to repressed HDAC2-gene targets, HDAC2 was dispensable for HDAC1 binding to HDAC2-activated targets, supporting the notion of distinct classes of targets. Both active and repressed classes of gene targets demonstrated enhanced histone acetylation and methylation in HDAC2-null cells. Binding of the HDAC1/2-associated SIN3A corepressor was altered at most HDAC2-targets, but without a clear pattern. Overall, our study defines two classes of HDAC2 targets in human cells, with a dependence of HDAC1 on HDAC2 at one class of targets, and distinguishes unique functions for HDAC2.