Muscarinic M1 Receptors Modulate Working Memory Performance and Activity via KCNQ Potassium Channels in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex.
ABSTRACT: Working memory relies on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), where microcircuits of pyramidal neurons enable persistent firing in the absence of sensory input, maintaining information through recurrent excitation. This activity relies on acetylcholine, although the molecular mechanisms for this dependence are not thoroughly understood. This study investigated the role of muscarinic M1 receptors (M1Rs) in the dlPFC using iontophoresis coupled with single-unit recordings from aging monkeys with naturally occurring cholinergic depletion. We found that M1R stimulation produced an inverted-U dose response on cell firing and behavioral performance when given systemically to aged monkeys. Immunoelectron microscopy localized KCNQ isoforms (Kv7.2, Kv7.3, and Kv7.5) on layer III dendrites and spines, similar to M1Rs. Iontophoretic manipulation of KCNQ channels altered cell firing and reversed the effects of M1R compounds, suggesting that KCNQ channels are one mechanism for M1R actions in the dlPFC. These results indicate that M1Rs may be an appropriate target to treat cognitive disorders with cholinergic alterations.
Project description:The recurrent excitatory circuits in dlPFC underlying working memory are known to require activation of glutamatergic NMDA receptors (NMDAR). The neurons in these circuits also rely on acetylcholine to maintain persistent activity, with evidence for actions at both nicotinic α7 receptors and muscarinic M1 receptors (M1R). It is known that nicotinic α7 receptors interact with NMDAR in these circuits, but the interactions between M1R and NMDAR on dlPFC neuronal activity are unknown. Here, we investigated whether M1Rs contribute to the permissive effects of ACh in dlPFC circuitry underlying working memory via interactions with NMDA receptors. We tested interactions between M1Rs and NMDARs <i>in vivo</i> on single neuron activity in rhesus macaques performing a working memory task, as well as on working memory behavior in rodents following infusion of M1R and NMDAR compounds into mPFC. We report that M1R antagonists block the enhancing effects of NMDA application, consistent with M1R permissive actions. Conversely, M1R positive allosteric modulators prevented the detrimental effects of NMDAR blockade in single neurons in dlPFC and on working memory performance in rodents. These data support an interaction between M1R and NMDARs in working memory circuitry in both primates and rats, and suggest M1Rs contribute to the permissive actions of ACh in primate dlPFC. These results are consistent with recent data suggesting that M1R agonists may be helpful in the treatment of schizophrenia, a cognitive disorder associated with NMDAR dysfunction.
Project description:Microglia are essential to maintain cell homeostasis in the healthy brain and are activated after brain injury. Upon activation, microglia polarize towards different phenotypes. The course of microglia activation is complex and depends on signals in the surrounding milieu. Recently, it has been suggested that microglia respond to ion currents, as a way of regulating their activity and function. Under the hypothesis that HCN and KCNQ/Kv7 channels impact on microglia, we studied primary rat microglia in the presence or absence of specific pharmacological blockade or RNA silencing. Primary microglia expressed the subunits HCN1-4, Kv7.2, Kv7.3, and Kv7.5. The expression of HCN2, as well as Kv7.2 and Kv7.3, varied among different microglia phenotypes. The pharmacological blockade of HCN channels by ZD7288 resulted in cell depolarization with slowly rising intracellular calcium levels, leading to enhanced survival and reduced proliferation rates of resting microglia. Furthermore, ZD7288 treatment, as well as knockdown of HCN2 RNA by small interfering RNA, resulted in an attenuation of later microglia activation-both towards the anti- and pro-inflammatory phenotype. However, HCN channel inhibition enhanced the phagocytic capacity of IL4-stimulated microglia. Blockade of Kv7/KCNQ channel by XE-991 exclusively inhibited the migratory capacity of resting microglia. These observations suggest that the HCN current contributes to various microglia functions and impacts on the course of microglia activation, while the Kv7/KCNQ channels affect microglia migration. Characterizing the role of HCN channels in microglial functioning may offer new therapeutic approaches for targeted modulation of neuroinflammation as a hallmark of various neurological disorders.
Project description:Although it is known that acetylcholine acting through M1 muscarinic receptors (M1Rs) is essential for memory consolidation in the anterior basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLa), virtually nothing is known about the circuits involved. In the hippocampus M1R activation facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) by potentiating NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) currents. The majority of NMDAR+ profiles in the BLa are spines. Since about half of dendritic spines of BLa pyramidal neurons (PNs) receiving glutamatergic inputs are M1R-immunoreactive (M1R+) it is possible that the role of M1Rs in BLa mnemonic functions also involves potentiation of NMDAR currents in spines. However, the finding that only about half of BLa spines are M1R+ suggests that this proposed mechanism may only apply to a subset of glutamatergic inputs. As a first step in the identification of differential glutamatergic inputs to M1R+ spines in the BLa, the present electron microscopic study used antibodies to two different vesicular glutamate transporter proteins (VGluTs) to label two different subsets of glutamatergic inputs to M1R+ spines. These inputs are largely complimentary with VGluT1+ inputs arising mainly from cortical structures and the basolateral nucleus, and VGluT2+ inputs arising mainly from the thalamus. It was found that about one-half of the spines that were postsynaptic to VGluT1+ or VGluT2+ terminals were M1R+. In addition, a subset of the VGluT1+ or VGluT2+ axon terminals were M1R+, including those that synapsed with M1R+ spines. These results suggest that acetylcholine can modulate glutamatergic inputs to BLa spines by presynaptic as well as postsynaptic M1R-mediated mechanisms.
Project description:Group IVa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2?) mediates GPCR-stimulated arachidonic acid (AA) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) located in plasma membranes. We previously found in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons that PLA2 activity is required for voltage-independent N-type Ca2+ (N-) current inhibition by M1 muscarinic receptors (M1Rs). These findings are at odds with an alternative model, previously observed for M-current inhibition, where PIP2 dissociation from channels and subsequent metabolism by phospholipase C suffices for current inhibition. To resolve cPLA2?'s importance, we have investigated its role in mediating voltage-independent N-current inhibition (~40%) that follows application of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M). Preincubation with different cPLA2? antagonists or dialyzing cPLA2? antibodies into cells minimized N-current inhibition by Oxo-M, whereas antibodies to Ca2+-independent PLA2 had no effect. Taking a genetic approach, we found that SCG neurons from cPLA2?-/- mice exhibited little N-current inhibition by Oxo-M, confirming a role for cPLA2?. In contrast, cPLA2? antibodies or the absence of cPLA2? had no effect on voltage-dependent N-current inhibition by M2/M4Rs or on M-current inhibition by M1Rs. These findings document divergent M1R signaling mediating M-current and voltage-independent N-current inhibition. Moreover, these differences suggest that cPLA2? acts locally to metabolize PIP2 intimately associated with N- but not M-channels. To determine cPLA2?'s functional importance more globally, we examined action potential firing of cPLA2?+/+ and cPLA2?-/- SCG neurons, and found decreased latency to first firing and interspike interval resulting in a doubling of firing frequency in cPLA2?-/- neurons. These unanticipated findings identify cPLA2? as a tonic regulator of neuronal membrane excitability.
Project description:CalDAG-GEFI (CDGI) is a protein highly enriched in the striatum, particularly in the principal spiny projection neurons (SPNs). CDGI is strongly down-regulated in two hyperkinetic conditions related to striatal dysfunction: Huntington's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. We demonstrate that genetic deletion of CDGI in mice disrupts dendritic, but not somatic, M1 muscarinic receptors (M1Rs) signaling in indirect pathway SPNs. Loss of CDGI reduced temporal integration of excitatory postsynaptic potentials at dendritic glutamatergic synapses and impaired the induction of activity-dependent long-term potentiation. CDGI deletion selectively increased psychostimulant-induced repetitive behaviors, disrupted sequence learning, and eliminated M1R blockade of cocaine self-administration. These findings place CDGI as a major, but previously unrecognized, mediator of cholinergic signaling in the striatum. The effects of CDGI deletion on the self-administration of drugs of abuse and its marked alterations in hyperkinetic extrapyramidal disorders highlight CDGI's therapeutic potential.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We examined whether two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), muscarinic M1 receptors (M1Rs) and dopaminergic D2 receptors (D2Rs), utilize endogenously released fatty acid to inhibit L-type Ca2+ channels, CaV1.3. HEK-293 cells, stably transfected with M1Rs, were used to transiently transfect D2Rs and CaV1.3b with different CaV?-subunits, allowing for whole-cell current measurement from a pure channel population. RESULTS:M1R activation with Oxotremorine-M inhibited currents from CaV1.3b coexpressed with ?2?-1 and a ?1b, ?2a, ?3, or ?4-subunit. Surprisingly, the magnitude of inhibition was less with ?2a than with other CaV?-subunits. Normalizing currents revealed kinetic changes after modulation with ?1b, ?3, or ?4, but not ?2a-containing channels. We then examined if D2Rs modulate CaV1.3b when expressed with different CaV?-subunits. Stimulation with quinpirole produced little inhibition or kinetic changes for CaV1.3b coexpressed with ?2a or ?3. However, quinpirole inhibited N-type Ca2+ currents in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating functional expression of D2Rs. N-current inhibition by quinpirole was voltage-dependent and independent of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), whereas a PLA2 antagonist abolished M1R-mediated N-current inhibition. These findings highlight the specific regulation of Ca2+ channels by different GPCRs. Moreover, tissue-specific and/or cellular localization of CaV1.3b with different CaV?-subunits could fine tune the response of Ca2+ influx following GPCR activation.
Project description:The KCNQ gene family, whose members encode Kv7 channels, belongs to the voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel group. The roles of this gene family have been widely investigated in nerve and muscle cells. In the present study, we investigated several characteristics of Kv7.5, which is strongly expressed in the canine osteosarcoma cell line, CCL-183. Serum starvation upregulated Kv7.5 expression, and the Kv7 channel opener, flupirtine, attenuated cell proliferation by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase. We also showed that Kv7.5 knockdown helps CCL-183 cells to proliferate. In an effort to find an endogenous regulator of Kv7.5, we used mithramycin A to reduce the level of the transcription factor Sp1, and it strongly inhibited the induction of Kv7.5 in CCL-183 cells. These results suggest that the activation of Kv7.5 by flupirtine may exert an anti-proliferative effect in canine osteosarcoma. Therefore, Kv7.5 is a possible molecular target for canine osteosarcoma therapy.
Project description:Heterozygous mutations in the KCNQ3 gene on chromosome 8q24 encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel KV7.3 subunit have previously been associated with rolandic epilepsy and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) including benign neonatal convulsions. We identified a de novo t(3;8) (q21;q24) translocation truncating KCNQ3 in a boy with childhood autism. In addition, we identified a c.1720C?>?T [p.P574S] nucleotide change in three unrelated individuals with childhood autism and no history of convulsions. This nucleotide change was previously reported in patients with rolandic epilepsy or IGE and has now been annotated as a very rare SNP (rs74582884) in dbSNP. The p.P574S KV7.3 variant significantly reduced potassium current amplitude in Xenopus laevis oocytes when co-expressed with KV7.5 but not with KV7.2 or KV7.4. The nucleotide change did not affect trafficking of heteromeric mutant KV7.3/2, KV7.3/4, or KV7.3/5 channels in HEK 293 cells or primary rat hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that dysfunction of the heteromeric KV7.3/5 channel is implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and possibly other psychiatric disorders and therefore, KCNQ3 and KCNQ5 are suggested as candidate genes for these disorders.
Project description:Members of the Kv7 family (Kv7.2-Kv7.5) generate a subthreshold K(+) current, the M- current. This regulates the excitability of many peripheral and central neurons. Recent evidence shows that Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 subunits are targeted to the axon initial segment of hippocampal neurons by association with ankyrin G. Further, spontaneous mutations in these subunits that impair axonal targeting cause human neonatal epilepsy. However, the precise functional significance of their axonal location is unknown. Using electrophysiological techniques together with a peptide that selectively disrupts axonal Kv7 targeting (ankyrin G-binding peptide, or ABP) and other pharmacological tools, we show that axonal Kv7 channels are critically and uniquely required for determining the inherent spontaneous firing of hippocampal CA1 pyramids, independently of alterations in synaptic activity. This action was primarily because of modulation of action potential threshold and resting membrane potential (RMP), amplified by control of intrinsic axosomatic membrane properties. Computer simulations verified these data when the axonal Kv7 density was three to five times that at the soma. The increased firing caused by axosomatic Kv7 channel block backpropagated into distal dendrites affecting their activity, despite these structures having fewer functional Kv7 channels. These results indicate that axonal Kv7 channels, by controlling axonal RMP and action potential threshold, are fundamental for regulating the inherent firing properties of CA1 hippocampal neurons.
Project description:Decades of research have emphasized the importance of dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) mechanisms to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) working memory function, and the hope that D1R agonists could be used to treat cognitive disorders. However, existing D1R agonists all have had high affinity for D1R, and engage ?-arrestin signaling, and these agonists have suppressed task-related neuronal firing. The current study provides the first physiological characterization of a novel D1R agonist, PF-3628, with low affinity for D1R -more similar to endogenous DA actions- as well as little engagement of ?-arrestin signaling. PF-3628 was applied by iontophoresis directly onto dlPFC neurons in aged rhesus monkeys performing a delay-dependent working memory task. Aged monkeys have naturally-occurring loss of DA, and naturally-occurring reductions in dlPFC neuronal firing and working memory performance. We found the first evidence of excitatory actions of a D1R agonist on dlPFC task-related firing, and this PF-3628 beneficial response was blocked by co-application of a D1R antagonist. These D1R actions likely occur on pyramidal cells, based on previous immunoelectron microscopic studies showing expression of D1R on layer III spines, and current microarray experiments showing that D1R are four times more prevalent in pyramidal cells than in parvalbumin-containing interneurons laser-captured from layer III of the human dlPFC. These results encourage the translation of D1R mechanisms from monkey to human, with the hope PF-3628 and related, novel D1R agonists will be more appropriate for enhancing dlPFC cognitive functions in patients with mental disorders.