Phosphoproteomics identifies dual-site phosphorylation in an extended basophilic motif regulating FILIP1-mediated degradation of filamin-C.
ABSTRACT: The PI3K/Akt pathway promotes skeletal muscle growth and myogenic differentiation. Although its importance in skeletal muscle biology is well documented, many of its substrates remain to be identified. We here studied PI3K/Akt signaling in contracting skeletal muscle cells by quantitative phosphoproteomics. We identified the extended basophilic phosphosite motif RxRxxp[S/T]xxp[S/T] in various proteins including filamin-C (FLNc). Importantly, this extended motif, located in a unique insert in Ig-like domain 20 of FLNc, is doubly phosphorylated. The protein kinases responsible for this dual-site phosphorylation are Akt and PKC?. Proximity proteomics and interaction analysis identified filamin A-interacting protein 1 (FILIP1) as direct FLNc binding partner. FILIP1 binding induces filamin degradation, thereby negatively regulating its function. Here, dual-site phosphorylation of FLNc not only reduces FILIP1 binding, providing a mechanism to shield FLNc from FILIP1-mediated degradation, but also enables fast dynamics of FLNc necessary for its function as signaling adaptor in cross-striated muscle cells.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is known to adapt dynamically to changes in workload by regulatory processes of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. We performed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis of contracting mouse C2 myotubes treated with insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or LY294002 to activate or inhibit PI3K/Akt signaling, respectively. Among the significantly regulated phosphopeptides we identified the novel extended basophilic motif RxRxxp[S/T]xxp[S] to be enriched in the set of down-regulated phosphopeptides following inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling. Using literature-based text mining we identified the kinases Akt, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) and p70S6 kinase to be potentially involved in the phosphorylation of the first serine in the RxRxxp[S/T]xxp[S] motif, whereas no kinase targeting the serine in the +3 position was revealed. In the signaling adapter protein filamin c (FLNc) we found this novel motif in immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain 20 which is involved in various protein interactions. Through in vitro and in cellulo kinase assays we identified Akt and protein kinase C alpha as the responsible kinases phosphorylating FLNc in this motif at the first and the second serine, respectively.
Project description:Filamin C (FLNC) is one of three filamin proteins (Filamin A (FLNA), Filamin B (FLNB), and FLNC) that cross-link actin filaments and interact with numerous binding partners. FLNC consists of a N-terminal actin-binding domain followed by 24 immunoglobulin-like repeats with two intervening calpain-sensitive hinges separating R15 and R16 (hinge 1) and R23 and R24 (hinge-2). The FLNC subunit is dimerized through R24 and calpain cleaves off the dimerization domain to regulate mobility of the FLNC subunit. FLNC is localized in the Z-disc due to the unique insertion of 82 amino acid residues in repeat 20 and necessary for normal Z-disc formation that connect sarcomeres. Since phosphorylation of FLNC by PKC diminishes the calpain sensitivity, assembly, and disassembly of the Z-disc may be regulated by phosphorylation of FLNC. Mutations of FLNC result in cardiomyopathy and muscle weakness. Although this review will focus on the current understanding of FLNC structure and functions in muscle, we will also discuss other filamins because they share high sequence similarity and are better characterized. We will also discuss a possible role of FLNC as a mechanosensor during muscle contraction.
Project description:Maintenance of muscle structure and function depends on the precise organization of contractile proteins into sarcomeres and coupling of the contractile apparatus to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which serves as the reservoir for calcium required for contraction. Several members of the Kelch superfamily of proteins, which modulate protein stability as substrate-specific adaptors for ubiquitination, have been implicated in sarcomere formation. The Kelch protein Klhl31 is expressed in a muscle-specific manner under control of the transcription factor MEF2. To explore its functions in vivo, we created a mouse model of Klhl31 loss of function using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Mice lacking Klhl31 exhibited stunted postnatal skeletal muscle growth, centronuclear myopathy, central cores, Z-disc streaming, and SR dilation. We used proteomics to identify several candidate Klhl31 substrates, including Filamin-C (FlnC). In the Klhl31-knockout mice, FlnC protein levels were highly upregulated with no change in transcription, and we further demonstrated that Klhl31 targets FlnC for ubiquitination and degradation. These findings highlight a role for Klhl31 in the maintenance of skeletal muscle structure and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying congenital myopathies.
Project description:Filamin C (FLNC), being one of the major actin-binding proteins, is involved in the maintenance of key muscle cell functions. Inherited skeletal muscle and cardiac disorders linked to genetic variants in <i>FLNC</i> have attracted attention because of their high clinical importance and possibility of genotype-phenotype correlations. To further expand on the role of FLNC in muscle cells, we focused on detailed alterations of muscle cell properties developed after the loss of FLNC. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 method we generated a C2C12 murine myoblast cell line with stably suppressed <i>Flnc</i> expression. FLNC-deficient myoblasts have a significantly higher proliferation rate combined with an impaired cell migration capacity. The suppression of <i>Flnc</i> expression leads to inability to complete myogenic differentiation, diminished expression of <i>Myh1</i> and <i>Myh4</i>, alteration of transcriptional dynamics of myogenic factors, such as <i>Mymk</i> and <i>Myog</i>, and deregulation of Hippo signaling pathway. Specifically, we identified elevated basal levels of Hippo activity in myoblasts with loss of FLNC, and ineffective reduction of Hippo signaling activity during myogenic differentiation. The latter was restored by <i>Flnc</i> overexpression. In summary, we confirmed the role of FLNC in muscle cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, and demonstrated for the first time the direct link between <i>Flnc</i> expression and activity of TEAD-YAP\TAZ signaling. These findings support a role of FLNC in regulation of essential muscle processes relying on mechanical as well as signaling mechanisms.
Project description:Filaminopathy is a subtype of myofibrillar myopathy caused by mutations in FLNC, the gene encoding filamin C, and histologically characterized by pathologic accumulation of several proteins within skeletal muscle fibers. With the aim to get new insights in aggregate composition, we collected aggregates and control tissue from skeletal muscle biopsies of six myofibrillar myopathy patients harboring three different FLNC mutations by laser microdissection and analyzed the samples by a label-free mass spectrometry approach. A total of 390 proteins were identified, and 31 of those showed significantly higher spectral indices in aggregates compared with patient controls with a ratio >1.8. These proteins included filamin C, other known myofibrillar myopathy associated proteins, and a striking number of filamin C binding partners. Across the patients the patterns were extremely homogeneous. Xin actin-binding repeat containing protein 2, heat shock protein 27, nebulin-related-anchoring protein, and Rab35 could be verified as new filaminopathy biomarker candidates. In addition, further experiments identified heat shock protein 27 and Xin actin-binding repeat containing protein 2 as novel filamin C interaction partners and we could show that Xin actin-binding repeat containing protein 2 and the known interaction partner Xin actin-binding repeat containing protein 1 simultaneously associate with filamin C. Ten proteins showed significant lower spectral indices in aggregate samples compared with patient controls (ratio <0.56) including M-band proteins myomesin-1 and myomesin-2. Proteomic findings were consistent with previous and novel immunolocalization data. Our findings suggest that aggregates in filaminopathy have a largely organized structure of proteins also interacting under physiological conditions. Different filamin C mutations seem to lead to almost identical aggregate compositions. The finding that filamin C was detected as highly abundant protein in aggregates in filaminopathy indicates that our proteomic approach may be suitable to identify new candidate genes among the many MFM patients with so far unknown mutation.
Project description:FLNc, the muscle-specific isoform of the filamin family, is a multi-adaptor protein, comprising 1 amino-terminal actin-binding (ABD) domain followed by 24 immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains. While FLNc can form homodimers via the last Ig-like domain and thus function as an actin-crosslinker like the other filamins, it features a unique insertion of 82 amino acids (aa) in domain 20. This insert was not only shown to mediate the interaction to several FLNc binding partners, but also to contain an Akt-mediated phosphorylation site at S2234 of mouse FLNc (mFLNc). To reveal novel proteins in the nano-environment of FLNc within myotubes under mild electrical pulse stimulation conditions, we applied a quantitative BioID appraoch.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether a new indel mutation in the dimerization domain of filamin C (FLNc) causes a hereditary myopathy with protein aggregation in muscle fibers, we clinically and molecularly studied a German family with autosomal dominant myofibrillar myopathy (MFM).<h4>Methods</h4>We performed mutational analysis in 3 generations, muscle histopathology, and proteomic studies of IM protein aggregates. Functional consequences of the <i>FLNC</i> mutation were investigated with interaction and transfection studies and biophysics molecular analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Eight patients revealed clinical features of slowly progressive proximal weakness associated with a heterozygous c.8025_8030delCAAGACinsA (p.K2676Pfs*3) mutation in <i>FLNC</i>. Two patients exhibited a mild cardiomyopathy. MRI of skeletal muscle revealed lipomatous changes typical for MFM with <i>FLNC</i> mutations. Muscle biopsies showed characteristic MFM findings with protein aggregation and lesion formation. The proteomic profile of aggregates was specific for MFM-filaminopathy and indicated activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagic pathways. Functional studies revealed that mutant FLNc is misfolded, unstable, and incapable of forming homodimers and heterodimers with wild-type FLNc.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This new MFM-filaminopathy family confirms that expression of mutant <i>FLNC</i> leads to an adult-onset muscle phenotype with intracellular protein accumulation. Mutant FLNc protein is biochemically compromised and leads to dysregulation of protein quality control mechanisms. Proteomic analysis of MFM protein aggregates is a potent method to identify disease-relevant proteins, differentiate MFM subtypes, evaluate the relevance of gene variants, and identify novel MFM candidate genes.
Project description:Linkage analysis of the dominant distal myopathy we previously identified in a large Australian family demonstrated one significant linkage region located on chromosome 7 and encompassing 18.6 Mbp and 151 genes. The strongest candidate gene was FLNC because filamin C, the encoded protein, is muscle-specific and associated with myofibrillar myopathy. Sequencing of FLNC cDNA identified a c.752T>C (p.Met251Thr) mutation in the N-terminal actin-binding domain (ABD); this mutation segregated with the disease and was absent in 200 controls. We identified an Italian family with the same phenotype and found a c.577G>A (p.Ala193Thr) filamin C ABD mutation that segregated with the disease. Filamin C ABD mutations have not been described, although filamin A and filamin B ABD mutations cause multiple musculoskeletal disorders. The distal myopathy phenotype and muscle pathology in the two families differ from myofibrillar myopathies caused by filamin C rod and dimerization domain mutations because of the distinct involvement of hand muscles and lack of pathological protein aggregation. Thus, like the position of FLNA and B mutations, the position of the FLNC mutation determines disease phenotype. The two filamin C ABD mutations increase actin-binding affinity in a manner similar to filamin A and filamin B ABD mutations. Cell-culture expression of the c.752T>C (p.Met251)Thr mutant filamin C ABD demonstrated reduced nuclear localization as did mutant filamin A and filamin B ABDs. Expression of both filamin C ABD mutants as full-length proteins induced increased aggregation of filamin. We conclude filamin C ABD mutations cause a recognizable distal myopathy, most likely through increased actin affinity, similar to the pathological mechanism of filamin A and filamin B ABD mutations.
Project description:FILIP1 was identified as potential new filamin C interaction partner by a SILAC-based BioID experiment. Interaction of the two protein via the carboxy-terminal end of FILIP and domain 18-21 of filamin C was prooven by yeast-2-hybrid sreens and dot-blot assays, respectively. To verify this interaction by mass spectrometry, recombinantly expressed FILIP1 carboxy-term was fused via its His6-tag to Ni2+-NTA beads. Subsequently. beads were incubated with cell extracts from human skeletal muscle cells. Bands observed in SDS-PAGE from the pull-down assay were cut and analysed by LC-MS. As a result Filamin C could be identified as FILIP1 binding partner.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to assess the phenotype of Filamin C (FLNC) truncating variants in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and understand the mechanism leading to an arrhythmogenic phenotype. BACKGROUND:Mutations in FLNC are known to lead to skeletal myopathies, which may have an associated cardiac component. Recently, the clinical spectrum of FLNC mutations has been recognized to include a cardiac-restricted presentation in the absence of skeletal muscle involvement. METHODS:A population of 319 U.S. and European DCM cardiomyopathy families was evaluated using whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequencing. FLNC truncation probands were identified and evaluated by clinical examination, histology, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:A total of 13 individuals in 7 families (2.2%) were found to harbor 6 different FLNC truncation variants (2 stopgain, 1 frameshift, and 3 splicing). Of the 13 FLNC truncation carriers, 11 (85%) had either ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death, and 5 (38%) presented with evidence of right ventricular dilation. Pathology analysis of 2 explanted hearts from affected FLNC truncation carriers showed interstitial fibrosis in the right ventricle and epicardial fibrofatty infiltration in the left ventricle. Ultrastructural findings included occasional disarray of Z-discs within the sarcomere. Immunohistochemistry showed normal plakoglobin signal at cell-cell junctions, but decreased signals for desmoplakin and synapse-associated protein 97 in the myocardium and buccal mucosa. CONCLUSIONS:We found FLNC truncating variants, present in 2.2% of DCM families, to be associated with a cardiac-restricted arrhythmogenic DCM phenotype characterized by a high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and a pathological cellular phenotype partially overlapping with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.