Hybrid simulation of pediatric gynecologic examination: a mix-methods study of learners' attitudes and factors affecting learning.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Children and adolescents with reproductive health issues may require immediate or emergency care, however in many countries availability of the pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) service is low. That being said, teaching PAG examination to OBGYN, pediatrics and emergency medicine residents seems reasonable, and cannot be underestimated. In order to provide residents with opportunity to learn PAG examination, a high-fidelity hybrid simulation workshop was implemented in our institution. METHODS:The study aimed to investigate learners' attitudes towards the high-fidelity simulation (HFS) hybrid model as compared with task trainer-SP (simulated patient)-voice model in the HFS environment and the factors connected to learners' attitudes towards the hybrid model that could influence learning in high-fidelity simulation (HFS). The concept of attitude was used as the theoretical framework and the mixed method approach to study design was utilized with simultaneous collection of quantitative (original questionnaires) and qualitative data (semi-structured interviews). RESULTS:Residents valued the HFS hybrid model higher over task trainer-SP-voice model in regards to all three attitude components: cognitive (95%), affective (87.5%) and behavioral (83.7%). Analysis of qualitative data revealed six themes important to learners and informing learning of PAG examination in HFS. Further analysis of the themes allowed to develop a conceptual model, in which six factors connected to attitude components influenced learning. These factors were: task difficulty, attention, emotional realism of the simulation, patient's emotions, physical realism of the simulation, and technical issues. CONCLUSIONS:Participants of our study appreciated learning experience with the HFS hybrid model more, based on attitude questionnaire. Moreover, findings revealed that multiple, various factors connected to attitude may influence learning of PAG examination in HFS with hybrid model, and we propose a conceptual model illustrating relationships between those factors.
Project description:With the global pandemic of the coronavirus disease, virtual reality simulation (vSim) has emerged as a simulation educational method. The purpose of this study is to examine the learning effects of vSim by comparing three different educational modalities of nursing care for children with asthma. A quasi-experimental design with three different teaching methods, vSim, high-fidelity simulation (HFS), and vSim with HFS, were used in the study. The group using vSim with HFS showed the highest scores in knowledge, confidence in practice, and performance compared to groups using vSim or HFS alone. Simulation practice using vSim combined with HFS could be an effective educational method for nursing students.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Deficiencies in musculoskeletal knowledge are reported at every stage of learning. Medical programs are looking for effective ways to incorporate competency-based training into musculoskeletal education. AIM:To evaluate the impact of bedside feedback on learner's shoulder examination skills, confidence, and knowledge of common shoulder conditions. SETTING:Four-week musculoskeletal clinic rotation. PARTICIPANTS:UCSD third year medical students and internal medicine residents. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION:Learners completed three baseline evaluations: videotaped shoulder examination, attitude survey, and knowledge test. During the 4-week intervention learners received bedside observation and feedback from musculoskeletal experts while evaluating patients with shoulder conditions. Post-intervention learners repeated the three assessments. PROGRAM EVALUATION:Eighty-nine learners participated. In the primary outcome measure evaluating the pre/post videotaped shoulder examination, significant improvement was seen in 21 of 23 shoulder examination maneuvers. Secondary outcomes include changes in learner confidence and knowledge. Greatest gains in learner confidence were seen in performing the shoulder examination (61.5% improvement) and performing injections (97.1% improvement). Knowledge improved significantly in all categories including anatomy/examination interpretation, diagnosis, and procedures. DISCUSSION:Direct observation and feedback during clinical evaluation of patients with shoulder pain improves shoulder examination competency, provider confidence, and knowledge of common shoulder conditions.
Project description:Background:Shoulder dystocia (SD) requires emergent intervention to prevent maternal and fetal harm, and simulation models for training can be expensive. We developed a novel, cheap and easily transportable low-fidelity simulation (LFS) model to compare to a commercially available high-fidelity simulation (HFS) model. Methods:Emergency medicine residents were randomized to training on the HFS or novel LFS model. Subjects completed a pretest and a 1-week and 6-month posttest including a self-assessment and a simulated SD delivery. Results:Twenty-seven of the 43 residents completed the study (63%). The number of individuals performing dangerous maneuvers at baseline was similar, 1 week after training was five in HFS and 11 in LFS (p = 0.08) groups and at 6 months was again similar between groups. Mean checklist scores for appropriate actions increased 1 week after training but returned to baseline by 6 months and were similar between groups. The rate of successful delivery, median time to successful delivery, and maximum force applied improved at 1 week and was sustained at 6 months in both groups. Conclusion:Within our limited study population, we did not find a large difference in the occurrence of dangerous actions during simulated SD delivery following HFS and LFS training. Our novel and easily transportable LFS trainer, assembled for less than US$10 each, may be a useful tool to train inexperienced providers on the steps of this procedure. However, this requires further study, as does whether HFS models with force monitoring capabilities may be helpful to train providers to minimize dangerous maneuvers such as the application of excessive force.
Project description:Resuscitative hysterotomy is a daunting and rarely performed procedure in the emergency department (ED). Given the paucity of clinical exposure to this intervention, resuscitative hysterotomy is an ideal opportunity for simulation-mediated deliberate practice. The authors propose a novel training program using a homegrown, realistic, simulation device as a means to practice resuscitative hysterotomy. Two high-fidelity, tissue-based task-trainer models were constructed and tested on a convenience sample of 14 emergency medicine (EM) residents. The simulated human placenta, bladder, amniotic sac, and uterus were constructed through the use of porcine skin, porcine stomach, transparent plastic bag, Foley tubing, and squid mantle, all secured with nylon sutures. A Gaumard S500 Articulating Newborn was inserted in the simulated uterus, and the entire model was placed into a Gaumard S500 Childbirth Simulator. Each model required less than 1 h for assembly. Emergent hysterotomy was first demonstrated by an EM faculty facilitator, followed by hands-on deliberate practice. Formal feedback on the learners' self-reported confidence and satisfaction levels was solicited at the end of the workshop through a survey previously cited for use with a low-fidelity resuscitative hysterotomy. Quantitative evaluation of the simulated training session was extracted through a 5-item questionnaire using a 5-point Likert-type scale (i.e., from 1, strongly disagree, to 5, strongly agree). Item scores were added for a cumulative total score, with a possible maximum score of 25 and minimum score of 5. Responses were overwhelmingly positive [24.13 (±?1.36)]. Qualitative feedback was extracted from the survey through open-ended questions; these responses highlighted learners' appreciation for hands-on practice and the development of a novel, tissue-based simulation task trainer. All participants recommended the training session be available to future learners. Resuscitative hysterotomy is a high-stakes, low-frequency procedure that demands provider practice and confidence. Our hybrid, tissue-based hysterotomy model represents a feasible opportunity for training. The model is cost conscious, easily reproducible, and portable and allows for ample deliberate practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Simulation is an effective method for teaching clinical skills but has not been widely adopted to educate trainees about how to teach. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated a curriculum for pediatrics fellows by using high-fidelity simulation (mannequin with vital signs) to improve pedagogical skills. INTERVENTION: The intervention included a lecture on adult learning and active-learning techniques, development of a case from the fellows' subspecialties, and teaching the case to residents and medical students. Teaching was observed by an educator using a standardized checklist. Learners evaluated fellows' teaching by using a structured evaluation tool; learner evaluations and the observer checklist formed the basis for written feedback. Changes in fellows' pedagogic knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported skills were analyzed by using Friedman and Wilcoxon rank-sum test at baseline, immediate postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Forty fellows participated. Fellows' self-ratings significantly improved from baseline to 6-month follow-up for development of learning objectives, effectively reinforcing performance, using teaching techniques to promote critical thinking, providing constructive feedback, and using case studies to teach general rules. Fellows significantly increased agreement with the statement "providing background and context is important" (4.12 to 4.44, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Simulation was an effective means of educating fellows about teaching, with fellows' attitudes and self-rated confidence improving after participation but returning to baseline at the 6-month assessment. The simulation identified common weaknesses of fellows as teachers, including failure to provide objectives to learners, failure to provide a summary of key learning points, and lack of inclusion of all learners.
Project description:Background:High-fidelity simulation (HFS) has become a widely used and established pedagogy for teaching clinical nursing skills. Nevertheless, there are few evidence-based instruments that validate the effectiveness of simulation learning in mainland China. Methods:The Simulation Learning Effectiveness Inventory (SLEI) was adapted and validated for use in this study. Psychometric evaluation, incorporating classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) methods, was performed with 533 third-year undergraduate nursing students who were recruited from May 2017 to July 2018. Results:The findings of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the simplified Chinese version of the SLEI (SLEI-SC) was composed of six factors, namely, course arrangement, equipment resource, debriefing, clinical ability, problem solving, and confidence, which explained 60.84% of the total variance. The Cronbach's ?, MIIC, marginal reliability, and test-retest reliability values obtained for the total scale were 0.88, 0.38, 0.96, and 0.88, respectively. Furthermore, the difference between the total scores for learning effectiveness pre- and post-course was statistically significant (t = 2.59, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.60). IRT analysis showed that the SLEI-SC discriminates well between students with high and low levels of learning effectiveness and offers information about a broad range of learning effectiveness measures. The relationship between final course grade and total score on the SLEI-SC was statistically significant (r = 0.63, p < 0.05). Conclusion:We demonstrated initial psychometric evidence and support for the 31-item SLEI-SC as a developmentally appropriate instrument for assessing the learning effectiveness of all phases of HFS use with nursing students.
Project description:Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.
Project description:Introduction:High-fidelity medical simulation is widely used in emergency medicine training because it mirrors the fast-paced environment of the emergency department (ED). However, simulation is not common in emergency medicine training programs in lower-resourced countries as cost, availability of resources, and faculty experience are potential limitations. We initiated a simulation curriculum in a low-resource environment. Methods:We created a simulation lab for medical officers and students on their emergency medicine rotation at a teaching hospital in Patan, Nepal, with 48,000 ED patient visits per year. We set up a simulation lab consisting of a room with one manikin, an intubation trainer, and a projector displaying a simulation cardiac monitor. In this environment, we ran a total of eight cases over 4 simulation days. Debriefing was done at the end of each case. At the end of the curriculum, an electronic survey was delivered to the medical officers to seek improvement for future cases. Results:All eight cases were well received, and learners appreciated the safe learning space and teamwork. Of note, the first simulation case that was run (the airway lab) was more difficult for learners due to lack of experience. Survey feedback included improving the debriefing content and adding further procedural skills training. Discussion:Simulation is a valuable experience for learners in any environment. Although resources may be limited abroad, a sustainable simulation lab can be constructed and potentially play a supportive role in developing an emergency medicine curriculum.
Project description:Introduction:Studies have shown that clinicians do a poor job of diagnosing middle ear infections, and an inaccurate diagnosis may result in inappropriate treatment, such as overuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic overuse is known to lead to increased bacterial resistance and puts patients at risk of deleterious side effects, including allergic reactions, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash. In this curriculum, we teach three important topics for achieving a successful middle ear exam and diagnosis of pathology. Methods:The topics covered during the session are middle ear examination techniques, diagnosis of middle ear pathology and criteria for diagnosing acute otitis media, and treatment of acute otitis media. Each topic has a 30-minute lesson plan with broad goals, specific and measurable learning objectives, interactive learning activities, and assessment measures. Teaching activities include a mix of knowledge, skill, and attitude activities. Assessment measures aim at the highest level of Miller's pyramid of assessment when possible. Also included is a scholarship map that relates how this learning activity can fit into the assessment of learners at the program level by linking learning objectives with pediatric developmental milestones. Results:The interactive nature of these lessons has been very well received by learners, and pediatric residents have had a self-perceived increase in skills. Discussion:This curriculum provides a standardized approach to teaching the middle ear exam structured by educational rubrics and allows for accurate assessment of learners.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>This simulation on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) introduces learners to the relevant critical actions and concepts involved in going onto and off of CPB. It is intended that junior residents experience this simulation immediately prior to beginning their cardiac anesthesia rotation. Thus, this simulation serves to segue to the trainee's initial clinical experience with CPB.<h4>Methods</h4>The case is fully presented for facilitators in the simulation case file, which includes a brief narrative description of the case, learning objectives to be covered by the simulation, and a summary of critical actions to be performed by the learner during the educational activity. It is optimal to run this simulation using a high-fidelity human patient simulator with anesthesia machine and relevant monitors.<h4>Results</h4>The simulation was carried out by eight CA-1 or CA-2 residents during the 2016 academic year. Cardiac anesthesia faculties observed a significantly improved learning curve for trainees who had experienced this simulation prior to their first clinical case.<h4>Discussion</h4>Overall, this simulation has been found to be a very effective learning tool at the University of Iowa. To that end, this simulation has been incorporated into the cardiac anesthesia curriculum, and all junior residents experience this simulation prior to beginning their rotation.