Acute Stroke Care in Korea in 2013-2014: National Averages and Disparities.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:This study aimed to describe the current status of acute stroke care in Korea and explore disparities among hospitals and regions. METHODS:The 2013 and 2014 national stroke audit data and the national health insurance claims data were linked and used for this study. Stroke patients hospitalized via emergency rooms within 7 days of stroke onset were selected. RESULTS:A total of 19,608 patients treated in 216 hospitals were analyzed. Among them 76% had ischemic stroke; 15%, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); and 9%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Of the hospitals, 31% provided inpatient stroke unit care. Ambulances were used in 56% of cases, and the median interval from onset to arrival was 4.5 hours. One-quarter of patients were referred from other hospitals. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular treatment (EVT) rates were 11% and 4%, respectively. Three-quarters of the analyzed hospitals provided IVT and/or EVT, whereas 47% of hospitals providing IVT and 67% of hospitals providing EVT had less than one case per month. Decompressive surgery was performed on 28% of ICH patients, and clipping and coiling were performed in 17.2% and 14.3% of SAH patients, respectively. There were noticeable regional disparities between the various interventions, ambulance use, arrival time, and stroke unit availability. CONCLUSION:This study describes the current status of acute stroke care in Korea. Despite quite acceptable quality of stroke care, it suggests regional and hospital disparities. Expansion of stroke units, stroke center certification or accreditation, and connections between stroke centers and emergency medical services are highly recommended.
Project description:Death after acute stroke often occurs after forgoing life-sustaining interventions. We sought to determine the patient and hospital characteristics associated with an early decision to transition to comfort measures only (CMO) after ischemic stroke (IS), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry.We identified patients with IS, ICH, or SAH between November 2009 and September 2013 who met study criteria. Early CMO was defined as the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments and interventions by hospital day 0 or 1. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified patient and hospital factors associated with an early (by hospital day 0 or 1) CMO order.Among 963,525 patients from 1,675 hospitals, 54,794 (5.6%) had an early CMO order (IS: 3.0%; ICH: 19.4%; SAH: 13.1%). Early CMO use varied widely by hospital (range 0.6%-37.6% overall) and declined over time (from 6.1% in 2009 to 5.4% in 2013; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, older age, female sex, white race, Medicaid and self-pay/no insurance, arrival by ambulance, arrival off-hours, baseline nonambulatory status, and stroke type were independently associated with early CMO use (vs no early CMO). The correlation between hospital-level risk-adjusted mortality and the use of early CMO was stronger for SAH (r = 0.52) and ICH (r = 0.50) than AIS (r = 0.15) patients.Early CMO was utilized in about 5% of stroke patients, being more common in ICH and SAH than IS. Early CMO use varies widely between hospitals and is influenced by patient and hospital characteristics.
Project description:Ischemic stroke patients treated at Joint Commission Primary Stroke Center (JC-PSC)-certified hospitals have better outcomes. Data reflecting the impact of JC-PSC status on outcomes after hemorrhagic stroke are limited. We determined whether 30-day mortality and readmission rates after hemorrhagic stroke differed for patients treated at JC-PSC-certified versus noncertified hospitals.The study included all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older with a primary discharge diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in 2006. Covariate-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the effect of care at a JC-PSC-certified hospital on 30-day mortality and readmission.There were 2305 SAH and 8708 ICH discharges from JC-PSC-certified hospitals and 3892 SAH and 22 564 ICH discharges from noncertified hospitals. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality (SAH: 27.5% versus 33.2%, P<0.0001; ICH: 27.9% versus 29.6%, P=0.003) and 30-day mortality (SAH: 35.1% versus 44.0%, P<0.0001; ICH: 39.8% versus 42.4%, P<0.0001) were lower in JC-PSC hospitals, but 30-day readmission rates were similar (SAH: 17.0% versus 17.0%, P=0.97; ICH: 16.0% versus 15.5%, P=0.29). Risk-adjusted 30-day mortality was 34% lower (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.76) after SAH and 14% lower (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.92) after ICH for patients discharged from JC-PSC-certified hospitals. There was no difference in 30-day risk-adjusted readmission rates for SAH or ICH based on JC-PSC status.Patients treated at JC-PSC-certified hospitals had lower risk-adjusted mortality rates for both SAH and ICH but similar 30-day readmission rates as compared with noncertified hospitals.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Endovascular therapy (EVT) with stent retrievers in addition to i.v. thrombolysis (IVT) has proven effective in acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA, M1 segment) and distal internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Limited data exist concerning acute cervical ICA occlusion, either alone or in combination with intracranial ICA occlusion (tandem occlusion). Therefore we analyzed outcome and treatment effects in stroke associated with cervical ICA occlusion, with specific focus on the impact of intracranial ICA or M1 patency.<h4>Methods</h4>Seventy-eight patients with cervical ICA occlusion from our local stroke unit registry were analyzed retrospectively. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) classification, infarct size, modified Rankin scale (mRS), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and death were assessed as outcome parameters.<h4>Results</h4>Forty-three patients had isolated cervical ICA occlusion whereas 35 patients presented with extra-/intracranial tandem occlusion. Patients underwent IVT alone (n = 23), combined IVT/EVT (n = 28) or no treatment (n = 27). Treated and untreated patients with tandem occlusion had a worse outcome after 90 days compared to isolated cervical occlusion (OR for moderate outcome 0.29, 0.27-0.88, p = 0.01). Additional EVT improved outcome in patients with tandem occlusion (OR for moderate outcome: 15.43, 1.60-148.90, p = 0.008) but not isolated cervical occlusion (OR 1.33, 0.38-11.60, NS).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In contrast to tandem occlusion, stroke outcome in patients with isolated cervical ICA occlusion was generally more benign and not improved by combined IVT/EVT compared to IVT alone. Intracranial vessel patency may be critical for treatment decision in acute cervical ICA occlusion.
Project description:<b>Importance:</b> Reported cerebrovascular events in patients with COVID-19 are mainly ischemic, but hemorrhagic strokes and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CSVT), especially in critically ill patients, have also been described. To date, it is still not clear whether cerebrovascular manifestations are caused by direct viral action or indirect action mediated by inflammatory hyperactivation, and in some cases, the association may be casual rather than causal. <b>Objective:</b> To conduct a systematic review on the cerebrovascular events in COVID-19 infection. <b>Evidence review:</b> A comprehensive literature search on PubMed was performed including articles published from January 1, 2020, to July 23, 2020, using a suitable keyword strategy. Additional sources were added by the authors by reviewing related references. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Only articles reporting individual data on stroke mechanism and etiology, sex, age, past cardiovascular risk factors, COVID symptoms, admission NIHSS, D-dimer levels, and acute stroke treatment were selected for the review. Articles that did not report the clinical description of the cases were excluded. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data collected was performed. <b>Finding:</b> From a total of 1,210 articles published from January 1, 2020, to July 23, 2020, 80 articles (275 patients), which satisfied the abovementioned criteria, were included in this review. A total of 226 cases of ischemic stroke (IS), 35 cases of intracranial bleeding, and 14 cases of CVST were found. Among patients with IS, the mean age was 64.16 ±14.73 years (range 27-92 years) and 53.5% were male. The mean NIHSS score reported at the onset of stroke was 15.23 ±9.72 (range 0-40). Primary endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) was performed in 24/168 patients (14.29%), intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) was performed in 17/168 patients (10.12%), and combined IVT+EVT was performed in 11/168 patients (6.55%). According to the reported presence of large vessel occlusion (LVO) (105 patients), 31 patients (29.52%) underwent primary EVT or bridging. Acute intracranial bleeding was reported in 35 patients: 24 patients (68.57%) had intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), 4 patients (11.43%) had non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and the remaining 7 patients (20%) had the simultaneous presence of SAH and ICH. Fourteen cases of CVST were reported in the literature (50% males), mean age 42.8 years ±15.47 (range 23-72). Treatment was reported only in nine patients; seven were treated with anticoagulant therapy; one with acetazolamide, and one underwent venous mechanical thrombectomy. <b>Conclusion:</b> Cerebrovascular events are relatively common findings in COVID-19 infection, and they could have a multifactorial etiology. More accurate and prospective data are needed to better understand the impact of cerebrovascular events in COVID-19 infection.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine what the trends in stroke mortality have been over 2 decades in young adults.<h4>Methods</h4>In this cohort study, we analyzed death certificate data for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH] and subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]) in adults aged 20-44 in the United States for 1989 through 2009, covering approximately 2.2 billion person-years. Poisson regression was used to calculate and compare time trend data between groups and to compare trends in young adults to those in adults over age 45.<h4>Results</h4>Mortality from stroke in young adults declined by 35% over the study period, with reductions in all 3 stroke subtypes (ischemic stroke decreased by 15%, ICH by 47%, and SAH by 50%). Black race was a risk factor for all 3 stroke subtypes (relative risk 2.4 for ischemic stroke, 4.0 for ICH, and 2.1 for SAH), but declines in all stroke subtypes were more dramatic in black compared to white participants (p < 0.001 for all stroke subtypes).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although hospitalizations for stroke in young patients have been increasing, the apparent decrease in mortality rates and in racial disparities suggests that recognition and treatment in this group may be improving.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Treatment outside office hours has been associated with increased workflow times for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Limited data suggest that this "off-hours effect" also exists for endovascular treatment (EVT). We investigated this phenomenon in a well-organized acute stroke care region in the Netherlands.<h4>Methods</h4>Retrospective, observational cohort study of consecutive patients with AIS who received reperfusion therapy in the Greater Amsterdam Area, consisting of 14 primary stroke centers and 1 comprehensive stroke center (IVT: 2009-2015, EVT: 2014-2017). Office hours were defined as presentation during weekdays between 8 AM and 5 PM, excluding National Festive days. Primary outcome was door-to-treatment time (door-to-needle [DNT] for IVT, door-to-groin [DGT] for EVT). For DGT, we used the door time of the first hospital. Other outcomes were in-hospital mortality, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90 days and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). We performed multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses and used multiple imputation to account for missing values.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 59% (2450/4161) and 61% (239/395) of patients treated with IVT and EVT, respectively, presented outside office hours. Median DNT was minimally longer outside office hours (32 vs. 30 min, p?=?0.024, adjusted difference 2.5 min, 95% CI 0.7-4.2). Presentation outside office hours was not associated with a longer DGT (median 130 min for both groups, adjusted difference 7.0 min, 95% CI -?4.2 to 18.1). Clinical outcome and sICH rate also did not differ.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Presentation outside office hours did not lead to clinically relevant treatment delays for reperfusion therapy in patients with AIS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of comprehensive stroke center (CSC) capabilities on stroke mortality remains uncertain. We performed a nationwide study to examine whether CSC capabilities influenced in-hospital mortality of patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 1,369 certified training institutions in Japan, 749 hospitals responded to a questionnaire survey regarding CSC capabilities that queried the availability of personnel, diagnostic techniques, specific expertise, infrastructure, and educational components recommended for CSCs. Among the institutions that responded, data on patients hospitalized for stroke between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011 were obtained from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. In-hospital mortality was analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, level of consciousness on admission, comorbidities, and the number of fulfilled CSC items in each component and in total. Data from 265 institutions and 53,170 emergency-hospitalized patients were analyzed. Mortality rates were 7.8% for patients with ischemic stroke, 16.8% for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and 28.1% for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Mortality adjusted for age, sex, and level of consciousness was significantly correlated with personnel, infrastructural, educational, and total CSC scores in patients with ischemic stroke. Mortality was significantly correlated with diagnostic, educational, and total CSC scores in patients with ICH and with specific expertise, infrastructural, educational, and total CSC scores in patients with SAH. CONCLUSIONS: CSC capabilities were associated with reduced in-hospital mortality rates, and relevant aspects of care were found to be dependent on stroke type.
Project description:Introduction:In the nationwide Dutch Acute Stroke Audit (DASA), consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) are prospectively registered. Acute stroke care is a rapidly evolving field in which intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and intra-arterial thrombectomy (IAT) play a crucial role in increasing odds of favourable outcome. The DASA can be used to assess the variation in care between hospitals and develop 'best practice' in acute stroke care. Patients and methods: We describe the initiation and design of the DASA as well as the results from 2015 and 2016. Results:In 2015 and 2016, 55,854 patients with AIS and 7727 patients with ICH were registered in the DASA. Treatment with IVT was administered to 10,637 patients (with an increase of 1.3% in 2016) and 1740 patients underwent IAT (with an increase of 1% in 2016). Median door-to-needle time for IVT and median door-to-groin time for IAT have decreased from 27 to 25 min and 66 to 64 min, respectively. Mortality during admission was 4.9% in patients with AIS, whereas 26% of patients with ICH died. Modified Rankin Scale score at three months was registered in 49% of AIS patients and 45% of ICH patients. Discussion:During the nationwide DASA, time to treatment is reduced for IVT as well as IAT. With the rapidly evolving treatment of acute stroke care, the DASA can be used to monitor the quality provided on patient- and hospital level. Conclusion:Increasing completeness of registration of the outcome, in combination with adjustment for patient-related factors, is necessary to define and further improve the quality of the acute stroke care.
Project description:Given that substantial genetic components have been shown in ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), heritability may be higher in early-onset than late-onset individuals with these conditions. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified various genes and loci significantly associated with ischemic stroke, ICH, or intracranial aneurysm mainly in European ancestry populations, genetic variants that contribute to susceptibility to these disorders remain to be identified definitively. We performed exome-wide association studies (EWASs) to identify genetic variants that confer susceptibility to ischemic stroke, ICH, or SAH in early-onset subjects with these conditions. A total of 6,649 individuals aged ≤65 years were examined. For the EWAS of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, 6,224 individuals (450 subjects with ischemic stroke, 5,774 controls) or 6,179 individuals (261 subjects with ICH, 176 subjects with SAH, 5,742 controls), respectively, were examined. EWASs were performed with the use of Illumina Human Exome-12 v1.2 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome-24 v1.0 BeadChip. To compensate for multiple comparisons of allele frequencies with ischemic stroke, ICH, or SAH, we applied a false discovery rate (FDR) of <0.05 for statistical significance of association. The association of allele frequencies of 31,245 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control to ischemic stroke was examined with Fisher's exact test, and 31 SNPs were significantly (FDR <0.05) associated with ischemic stroke. The association of allele frequencies of 31,253 or 30,970 SNPs to ICH or SAH, respectively, was examined with Fisher's exact test, and six or two SNPs were significantly associated with ICH or SAH, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus revealed that 12 SNPs were significantly [P<0.0004 (0.05/124)] related to ischemic stroke. Similar analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and the prevalence of hypertension revealed that six or two SNPs were significantly [P<0.0016 (0.05/32)] related to ICH or SAH, respectively. After examination of linkage disequilibrium of identified SNPs and results of previous GWASs, we identified HHIPL2, CTNNA3, LOC643770, UTP20, and TRIB3 as susceptibility loci for ischemic stroke, DNTTIP2 and FAM205A as susceptibility loci for ICH, and FAM160A1 and OR52E4 as such loci for SAH. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, we have newly identified nine genes that confer susceptibility to early-onset ischemic stroke, ICH, or SAH. Determination of genotypes for the SNPs in these genes may prove informative for assessment of the genetic risk for ischemic stroke, ICH, or SAH in Japanese.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neurocritical illness is a growing healthcare problem with profound socioeconomic effects. We assessed differences in healthcare costs and long-term outcome for different forms of neurocritical illnesses treated in the intensive care unit (ICU).<h4>Methods</h4>We used the prospective Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database to identify all adult patients treated for traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at university hospital ICUs in Finland during 2003-2013. Outcome variables were one-year mortality and permanent disability. Total healthcare costs included the index university hospital costs, rehabilitation hospital costs and social security costs up to one year. All costs were converted to euros based on the 2013 currency rate.<h4>Results</h4>In total 7044 patients were included (44% with TBI, 13% with ICH, 27% with SAH, 16% with AIS). In comparison to TBI, ICH was associated with the highest risk of death and permanent disability (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1-3.2 and OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1), followed by AIS (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.3 and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8) and SAH (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1 and OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9), after adjusting for severity of illness. SAH was associated with the highest mean total costs (€51,906) followed by ICH (€47,661), TBI (€43,916) and AIS (€39,222). Cost per independent survivor was lower for TBI (€58,497) and SAH (€96,369) compared to AIS (€104,374) and ICH (€178,071).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Neurocritical illnesses are costly and resource-demanding diseases associated with poor outcomes. Intensive care of patients with TBI or SAH more commonly result in independent survivors and is associated with lower total treatments costs compared to ICH and AIS.