Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Occurrence of ESKAPE Bacteria Group in Dogs, and the Related Zoonotic Risk in Animal-Assisted Therapy, and in Animal-Assisted Activity in the Health Context.
ABSTRACT: Animal-assisted interventions are widely implemented in different contexts worldwide. Particularly, animal-assisted therapies and animal-assisted activities are often implemented in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and other health facilities. These interventions bring several benefits to patients but can also expose them to the risk of infection with potentially zoonotic agents. The dog is the main animal species involved used in these interventions. Therefore, we aimed at collecting data regarding the occurrence of the pathogens ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.) in dogs, in order to draft guidelines concerning the possible monitoring of dogs involved in animal-assisted therapies and animal-assisted activities in healthcare facilities. We performed a literature search using the PRISMA guidelines to examine three databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Out of 2604 records found, 52 papers were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review/meta-analysis. Sixteen papers reported data on E. faecium; 16 on S. aureus; nine on K. pneumoniae; four on A. baumannii; eight on P. aeruginosa; and six on Enterobacter spp. This work will contribute to increased awareness to the potential zoonotic risks posed by the involvement of dogs in animal-assisted therapies, and animal-assisted activities in healthcare facilities.
Project description:Animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) are co-therapies in which the animal is an integral and active part of the treatment process. Dogs are widely involved in AAI projects, but little data are available to determine if AAI sessions are a source of stress for the dogs. Understanding the emotional state of animals and highlighting any signal of stress is crucial maintaining the wellness of the animals and in enhancing the probability of success of the AAI. The purpose of this study is to assess if dogs present signs of stress during animal assisted therapies sessions. The sample consisted of nine dogs, belonging to the members of the A.N.U.C.S.S. (the National Association for the Use of Dogs for Social Aims) association. Dogs lived with their owners and their health was checked by a vet once a week. Patients involved in the AAI project had disabilities due to mental disorder and/or psychomotor problems. During the therapeutic sessions, patients had to guide the dog along facilitated agility routes and/or perform the activities of cuddling and brushing the dog. When a dog accomplished a task, the patient gave him/her a reward (throwing a ball or a biscuit). Dogs were observed for a total of 174 h, 47 h before, 81 h during, and 46 h after AAI sessions. Each session of observation lasted 10-30 min. The differences of behavioural patterns in the three contexts were analysed by mean of the non-parametric Friedman test. Dogs never showed aggressive and stereotyped behaviour; the level of anxious behaviour was low and similar in all three kinds of sessions. During therapeutic sessions, attention, affiliative behavioural patterns, and sniffing behaviour increased. The highest level of attention of dogs was directed toward their conductor, rather than to the patient and to the other operator present. The results suggest that the amount of work dogs went through was adequate and that dogs did not show behavioural signs of stress.
Project description:Therapy dogs are increasingly being incorporated into numerous clinical settings. However, there are only a handful of studies that have focused on the impact of animal-assisted activity or therapy sessions on the wellbeing of the therapy dogs. Furthermore, these studies show mixed results. The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth picture of the effects of these interactions on the dogs involved by considering multiple physiological measures known to be associated with emotional state (continuous heart rate, heart rate variability, pre- and post-session tympanic membrane temperatures, and salivary cortisol and oxytocin concentrations). Nineteen Mayo Clinic Caring Canine therapy dogs completed five 20-minute animal-assisted activity (AAA) visits each in an outpatient clinical setting (Mayo Clinic Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Clinic). From a physiological perspective, the dogs showed a neutral to positive response to the AAA sessions. Heart rate (HR) was significantly lower at the end of the session compared with the beginning of the session (F = 17.26, df1 = 1, df2 = 29.7, p = 0.0003). The right tympanic membrane temperature was lower post-session (F = 8.87, df1 = 1, df2 = 107, p = 0.003). All other emotional indicators remained stable between pre- and post-session. These results suggest that the dogs involved were not negatively affected by their participation in the AAA. Moreover, there was some evidence suggesting the dogs may have been in a more relaxed state at the end of the session (lower HR and lower right tympanic membrane temperature) compared to the beginning of the session.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing hospital-acquired infections that has been grouped with Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species as ESKAPE pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing risk to human health. Twenty-four multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated.
Project description:Patients recovering from traumatic injuries or surgery often require weeks to months of hospitalization, increasing the risk for wound and surgical site infections caused by ESKAPE pathogens, which include A. baumannii (the ESKAPE pathogens are Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species). As new therapies are being developed to counter A. baumannii infections, animal models are also needed to evaluate potential treatments. Here, we present an excisional, murine wound model in which a diminutive inoculum of a clinically relevant, multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate can proliferate, form biofilms, and be effectively treated with antibiotics. The model requires a temporary, cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia to establish an infection that can persist. A 6-mm-diameter, full-thickness wound was created in the skin overlying the thoracic spine, and after the wound bed was inoculated, it was covered with a dressing for 7 days. Uninoculated control wounds healed within 13 days, whereas infected, placebo-treated wounds remained unclosed beyond 21 days. Treated and untreated wounds were assessed with multiple quantitative and qualitative techniques that included gross pathology, weight loss and recovery, wound closure, bacterial burden, 16S rRNA community profiling, histopathology, peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization, and scanning electron microscopy assessment of biofilms. The range of differences that we are able to identify with these measures in antibiotic- versus placebo-treated animals provides a clear window within which novel antimicrobial therapies can be assessed. The model can be used to evaluate antimicrobials for their ability to reduce specific pathogen loads in wounded tissues and clear biofilms. Ultimately, the mouse model approach allows for highly powered studies and serves as an initial multifaceted in vivo assessment prior to testing in larger animals.
Project description:Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a non-pharmacological therapy aimed at people with physical and/or mental disabilities. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out interventions that guarantee its benefits for patients while also avoiding the risk of zoonoses due to contact with the animals or their mucous membranes. The present study aimed to detect the occurrence of Pasteurella multocida in the oral cavity of dogs attending a "dog educational centre" and training for AAT interventions. In addition, some of the potential predictable factors of infection (i.e., age, sex, breed, and living conditions) were analyzed. In total, 25/200 dogs examined (12.5%; 95% confidence interval = 8.4-18.1%) were positive for P. multocida, as confirmed by PCR. Sex, breed, and living conditions were risk factors associated with P. multocida as revealed by the logistic regression analysis. Specifically, cross-bred female dogs living prevalently outdoors were significantly associated with the presence of P. multocida (p < 0.05). This study represents the first epidemiological survey of the prevalence of P. multocida in the oral cavity of dogs involved subsequently in AAT interventions, highlighting the potential risk of P. multocida infection in patients, often belonging to risk categories (e.g., children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals). Therefore, healthcare guidelines could be suggested to integrate the current literature related to the health check of dogs involved in AAT. In this way, it could be ensured that, even with bodily contact during AAT, the risk of pathogen transmission by the co-therapist dog can be avoided.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work.
Project description:To investigate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) preoperative imaging and intraoperative detection of a fluorescent-labeled receptor-targeted radiopharmaceutical in a prostate cancer animal model.Three male beagle dogs underwent an intraprostatic injection of fluorescent-tagged tilmanocept, radiolabeled with both gallium Ga-68 and technetium Tc-99m. One hour after injection, a pelvic PET/CT scan was performed for preoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. The definition of SLN was a standardized uptake value that exceeded 5% of the lymph node with the highest standardized uptake value. Thirty-six hours later, we performed robotic-assisted SLN dissection using a fluorescence-capable camera system. Fluorescent lymph nodes were clipped, the abdomen was opened, and the pelvic and retroperitoneal nodes were excised. All excised nodal packets were assayed by in vitro nuclear counting and reported as the percentage of injected dose.Preoperative PET/CT imaging identified a median of 3 SLNs per animal. All SLNs (100%) identified by the PET/CT were fluorescent during robotic-assisted lymph node dissection. Of all fluorescent nodes visualized by the camera system, 9 of 12 nodes (75%) satisfied the 5% rule defined by the PET/CT scan. The 2 lymph nodes that did not qualify accumulated <0.002% of the injected dose.Fluorescent-labeled tilmanocept has optimal logistic properties to obtain preoperative PET/CT and subsequent real-time intraoperative confirmation during robotic-assisted SLN dissection.
Project description:Animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) usually contribute to the well-being and health of users/patients, but it is essential that the animals involved in these activities do not represent a source of zoonoses. This systematic review focused on the evaluation of the potential risk of the transmission of Toxocara by dogs' fur, considering their involvement as the main animal species in AAIs. Three databases were considered: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, and the PRISMA guidelines were used. Out of 162 articles found, 14 papers were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review. Although the findings were very heterogeneous, they showed that regular parasitological surveillance to plan effective control programs is strongly needed to guarantee the health of pets and consequently the public health, according to the concept of One Health. Since AAIs involve patients and/or users potentially susceptible, it is very important to appropriately treat dogs enrolled in these interventions after an accurate diagnosis of parasitic zoonoses.
Project description:Extending from a study we recently published examining the antitrypanosomal effects of a series of GroEL/ES inhibitors based on a pseudosymmetrical bis-sulfonamido-2-phenylbenzoxazole scaffold, here, we report the antibiotic effects of asymmetric analogs of this scaffold against a panel of bacteria known as the ESKAPE pathogens ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species). While GroEL/ES inhibitors were largely ineffective against K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. cloacae (Gram-negative bacteria), many analogs were potent inhibitors of E. faecium and S. aureus proliferation (Gram-positive bacteria, EC50 values of the most potent analogs were in the 1-2 ?M range). Furthermore, even though some compounds inhibit human HSP60/10 biochemical functions in vitro (IC50 values in the 1-10 ?M range), many of these exhibited moderate to low cytotoxicity to human liver and kidney cells (CC50 values > 20 ?M).
Project description:A single-tube method, ligation-mediated real-time PCR high-resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), was modified for the rapid typing of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. (ESKAPE) pathogens. A 97% agreement (60/62 isolates) was achieved in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results, which indicates that LMqPCR HRMA is a rapid and accurate screening tool for monitoring nosocomial outbreaks.