Impact of Microbiota Transplant on Resistome of Gut Microbiota in Gnotobiotic Piglets and Human Subjects.
ABSTRACT: Microbiota transplant is becoming a popular process to restore or initiate "healthy" gut microbiota and immunity. But, the potential risks of the related practices need to be carefully evaluated. This study retrospectively examined the resistomes of donated fecal microbiota for treating intestinal disorders, vaginal microbiota of pregnant women, and infant fecal microbiota from rural and urban communities, as well as the impact of transplants on the fecal resistome of human and animal recipients. Antibiotic resistance (AR) genes were found to be abundant in all donor microbiota. An overall surge of resistomes with higher prevalence and abundance of AR genes was observed in the feces of all transplanted gnotobiotic pigs as well as in the feces of infant subjects, compared to those in donor fecal and maternal vaginal microbiota. Surprisingly, transplants using rural Amish microbiota led to more instead of less AR genes in the fecal microbiota of gnotobiotic pigs than did transplants using urban microbiota. New AR gene subtypes undetected originally also appeared in gnotobiotic pigs, in Crohn's Disease (CD) patients after transplant, and in feces of infant subjects. The data illustrated the key role of the host gastrointestinal tract system in amplifying the ever-increasing AR gene pool, even without antibiotic exposure. The data further suggest that the current approaches of microbiota transplant can introduce significant health risk factor(s) to the recipients, and newborn human and animal hosts with naïve gut microbiota were especially susceptible. Given the illustrated public health risks of microbiota transplant, minimizing massive and unnecessary damages to gut microbiota by oral antibiotics and other gut impacting drugs becomes important. Since eliminating risk factors including AR bacteria and opportunistic pathogens directly from donor microbiota is still difficult to achieve, developing microbial cocktails with defined organisms and functions has further become an urgent need, should microbiota transplantation become necessary.
Project description:The building evidence for the contribution of microbiota to human disease has spurred an effort to develop therapies that target the gut microbiota. This is particularly evident in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), where clinical trials of fecal microbiota transplantation have shown some efficacy. To aid the development of novel microbiota-targeted therapies and to better understand the biology underpinning such treatments, we have used gnotobiotic mice to model microbiota manipulations in the context of microbiotas from humans with inflammatory bowel disease. Mice colonized with IBD donor-derived microbiotas exhibit a stereotypical set of phenotypes, characterized by abundant mucosal Th17 cells, a deficit in the tolerogenic ROR?t+ regulatory T (Treg) cell subset, and susceptibility to disease in colitis models. Transplanting healthy donor-derived microbiotas into mice colonized with human IBD microbiotas led to induction of ROR?t+ Treg cells, which was associated with an increase in the density of the microbiotas following transplant. Microbiota transplant reduced gut Th17 cells in mice colonized with a microbiota from a donor with Crohn's disease. By culturing strains from this microbiota and screening them in vivo, we identified a specific strain that potently induces Th17 cells. Microbiota transplants reduced the relative abundance of this strain in the gut microbiota, which was correlated with a reduction in Th17 cells and protection from colitis.
Project description:Gnotobiotic mouse model is generally used to evaluate the efficacy of gut microbiota. Sex differences of gut microbiota are acknowledged, yet the effect of recipient's gender on the bacterial colonization remains unclear. Here we inoculated male and female germ-free C57BL/6J mice with fecal bacteria from a man with short-term vegetarian and inulin-supplemented diet. We sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA genes V3-V4 region from donor's feces and recipient's colonic content. Shannon diversity index showed female recipients have higher bacteria diversity than males. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis revealed the overall structures of male recipient's gut microbiota were significantly separated from those of females, and closer to the donor. Redundancy analysis identified 46 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) differed between the sexes. The relative abundance of 13 OTUs were higher in males, such as Parabacteroides distasonis and Blautia faecis, while 33 OTUs were overrepresented in females, including Clostridium groups and Escherichia fergusonii/Shigella sonnei. Moreover, the interactions of these differential OTUs were sexually distinct. These findings demonstrated that the intestine of male and female mice preferred to accommodate microbiota differently. Therefore, it is necessary to designate the gender of gnotobiotic mice for complete evaluation of modulatory effects of gut microbiota from human feces upon diseases.
Project description:In rodents, brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to whole body energy expenditure and low BAT activity is related to hepatic fat accumulation, partially attributable to the gut microbiome. Little is known of these relationships in humans. In adults (n=60), we assessed hepatic fat and cold-stimulated BAT activity utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and the gut microbiome with 16S sequencing. We transplanted gnotobiotic mice with feces from humans to assess the transferability of BAT activity and NAFLD through the microbiome. Individuals with NAFLD (n=29) had lower BAT activity than those without and BAT activity was inversely related to hepatic fat. Although the fecal microbiome was different in those with NAFLD, no differences were observed in relation to BAT activity and neither of these phenotypic traits were transmissible through fecal transplant to gnotobiotic mice. Thus, low BAT activity is associated with hepatic steatosis but this is not mediated through the gut microbiota.
Project description:Men who have sex with men (MSM) have differences in immune activation and gut microbiome composition compared with men who have sex with women (MSW), even in the absence of HIV infection. Gut microbiome differences associated with HIV itself when controlling for MSM, as assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing, are relatively subtle. Understanding whether gut microbiome composition impacts immune activation in HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM has important implications since immune activation has been associated with HIV acquisition risk and disease progression. To investigate the effects of MSM and HIV-associated gut microbiota on immune activation, we transplanted feces from HIV-negative MSW, HIV-negative MSM, and HIV-positive untreated MSM to gnotobiotic mice. Following transplant, 16S rRNA gene sequencing determined that the microbiomes of MSM and MSW maintained distinct compositions in mice and that specific microbial differences between MSM and MSW were replicated. Immunologically, HIV-negative MSM donors had higher frequencies of blood CD38+ HLADR+ and CD103+ T cells and their fecal recipients had higher frequencies of gut CD69+ and CD103+ T cells, compared with HIV-negative MSW donors and recipients, respectively. Significant microbiome differences were not detected between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM in this small donor cohort, and immune differences between their recipients were trending but not statistically significant. A larger donor cohort may therefore be needed to detect immune-modulating microbes associated with HIV. To investigate whether our findings in mice could have implications for HIV replication, we infected primary human lamina propria cells stimulated with isolated fecal microbiota, and found that microbiota from MSM stimulated higher frequencies of HIV-infected cells than microbiota from MSW. Finally, we identified several microbes that correlated with immune readouts in both fecal recipients and donors, and with in vitro HIV infection, which suggests a role for gut microbiota in immune activation and potentially HIV acquisition in MSM.
Project description:In rodents, lower brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is associated with greater liver steatosis and changes in the gut microbiome. However, little is known about these relationships in humans. In adults (n = 60), we assessed hepatic fat and cold-stimulated BAT activity using magnetic resonance imaging and the gut microbiota with 16S sequencing. We transplanted gnotobiotic mice with feces from humans to assess the transferability of BAT activity through the microbiota. Individuals with NAFLD (n = 29) have lower BAT activity than those without, and BAT activity is inversely related to hepatic fat content. BAT activity is not related to the characteristics of the fecal microbiota and is not transmissible through fecal transplantation to mice. Thus, low BAT activity is associated with higher hepatic fat accumulation in human adults, but this does not appear to have been mediated through the gut microbiota.
Project description:Bariatric surgery including duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery (DJB) improves insulin sensitivity and reduces obesity-associated inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism for such an improvement is still incompletely understood. Our objective was to investigate the role of the gut microbiota in DJB-associated improvement of hepatic steatosis in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. To study this, hepatic steatosis was induced in male adult Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding them with a 60% HFD. At 8 weeks after HFD feeding, the rats were subjected to either DJB or sham operation. HFD was resumed 1 week after the surgery for 3 more weeks. In additional groups of animals, feces were collected from HFD-DJB rats at 2 weeks after DJB. These feces were then transplanted to HFD-fed rats without DJB at 8 weeks after HFD feeding. Hepatic steatosis and fecal microbiota were analyzed at 4 weeks after surgery or fecal transplantation. Our results showed that DJB alleviated hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed rats. Fecal microbiota analysis showed that HFD-fed and standard diet-fed rats clustered differently. DJB induced substantial compositional changes in the gut microbiota. The fecal microbiota of HFD-fed rats received fecal transplant from DJB rats overlapped with that of HFD-DJB rats. Treatment of rats with HFD-induced liver lesions by fecal transplant from DJB-operated HFD-fed rats also attenuated hepatic steatosis. Thus, alterations in the gut microbiota after DJB surgery are sufficient to attenuate hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed rats. Targeting the gut microbiota could be a promising approach for preventing or treating human NAFLD.
Project description:Metagenome of gut microbes has been implicated in metabolism, immunity, and health maintenance of its host. However, in most of previous studies, the microbiota was sampled from feces instead of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study, we compared the microbial populations from feces at four different developmental stages and contents of four intestinal segments at maturity to examine the dynamic shift of microbiota in pigs and investigated whether adult porcine fecal samples could be used to represent samples of the GI tract. Analysis results revealed that the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes from the feces of the older pigs (2-, 3-, 6- month) were 10 times higher compared to those from piglets (1-month). As the pigs matured, so did it seem that the composition of microbiome became more stable in feces. In adult pigs, there were significant differences in microbial profiles between the contents of the small intestine and large intestine. The dominant genera in the small intestine belonged to aerobe or facultative anaerobe categories, whereas the main genera in the large intestine were all anaerobes. Compared to the GI tract, the composition of microbiome was quite different in feces. The microbial profile in large intestine was more similar to feces than those in the small intestine, with the similarity of 0.75 and 0.38 on average, respectively. Microbial functions, predicted by metagenome profiles, showed the enrichment associated with metabolism pathway and metabolic disease in large intestine and feces while higher abundance of infectious disease, immune function disease, and cancer in small intestine. Fecal microbes also showed enriched function in metabolic pathways compared to microbes from pooled gut contents. Our study extended the understanding of dynamic shift of gut microbes during pig growth and also characterized the profiles of bacterial communities across GI tracts of mature pigs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes diarrhea in humans, cows, and pigs. The gut microbiota underlies pathology of several infectious diseases yet the role of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of ETEC-induced diarrhea is unknown.<h4>Results</h4>By using an ETEC induced diarrheal model in piglet, we profiled the jejunal and fecal microbiota using metagenomics and 16S rRNA sequencing. A jejunal microbiota transplantation experiment was conducted to determine the role of the gut microbiota in ETEC-induced diarrhea. ETEC-induced diarrhea influenced the structure and function of gut microbiota. Diarrheal piglets had lower Bacteroidetes: Firmicutes ratio and microbiota diversity in the jejunum and feces, and lower percentage of Prevotella in the feces, but higher Lactococcus in the jejunum and higher Escherichia-Shigella in the feces. The transplantation of the jejunal microbiota from diarrheal piglets to uninfected piglets leaded to diarrhea after transplantation. Microbiota transplantation experiments also supported the notion that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is involved in the immune responses in ETEC-induced diarrhea.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We conclude that ETEC infection influences the gut microbiota and the dysbiosis of gut microbiota after ETEC infection mediates the immune responses in ETEC infection.
Project description:Monitoring graft recipients remains dependent on traditional biomarkers and old technologies lacking specificity, sensitivity, or accuracy. Recently, metabolomics is becoming a promising approach that may offer to kidney transplants a more effective and specific monitoring. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggested a fundamental role of gut microbiota as an important determinant of patients' metabolomes. In the current study, we enrolled forty stable renal allografts recipients compared to twenty healthy individuals. Samples were taken at different time points from patient to patient following transplantation surgery, which varied from 3 months to 22 years post-graft. All patients started the immunosuppression therapy immediately following kidney graft (Day 0). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to perform untargeted analysis of fecal metabolites. Globally, the fecal metabolic signature was significantly different between kidney transplants and the control group. Fecal metabolome was dominated by lipids (sterols and fatty acids) in the stable transplant group compared to the controls (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Overall, 18 metabolites were significantly altered within kidney transplant recipients. Furthermore, the most notable altered metabolic pathways in kidney transplants include ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis, tyrosine metabolism, tryptophan biosynthesis, and primary bile acid biosynthesis. Fecal metabolites could effectively distinguish stable transplant recipients from controls, supporting the potential utility of metabolomics in rapid and non-invasive diagnosis to produce relevant biomarkers and to help clinicians in monitoring kidney transplants. Further investigations are needed to clarify the physiological relevance of fecal metabolome and to assess the impact of microbiota modulation.
Project description:Understanding how the human gut microbiota and host are affected by probiotic bacterial strains requires carefully controlled studies in humans and in mouse models of the gut ecosystem where potentially confounding variables that are difficult to control in humans can be constrained. Therefore, we characterized the fecal microbiomes and metatranscriptomes of adult female monozygotic twin pairs through repeated sampling 4 weeks before, 7 weeks during, and 4 weeks after consumption of a commercially available fermented milk product (FMP) containing a consortium of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, two strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus. In addition, gnotobiotic mice harboring a 15-species model human gut microbiota whose genomes contain 58,399 known or predicted protein-coding genes were studied before and after gavage with all five sequenced FMP strains. No significant changes in bacterial species composition or in the proportional representation of genes encoding known enzymes were observed in the feces of humans consuming the FMP. Only minimal changes in microbiota configuration were noted in mice after single or repeated gavage with the FMP consortium. However, RNA-Seq analysis of fecal samples and follow-up mass spectrometry of urinary metabolites disclosed that introducing the FMP strains into mice results in significant changes in expression of microbiome-encoded enzymes involved in numerous metabolic pathways, most prominently those related to carbohydrate metabolism. B. animalis subsp. lactis, the dominant persistent member of the FMP consortium in gnotobiotic mice, up-regulates a locus in vivo that is involved in the catabolism of xylooligosaccharides, a class of glycans widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, and other foods, underscoring the importance of these sugars to this bacterial species. The human fecal metatranscriptome exhibited significant changes, confined to the period of FMP consumption, that mirror changes in gnotobiotic mice, including those related to plant polysaccharide metabolism. These experiments illustrate a translational research pipeline for characterizing the effects of FMPs on the human gut microbiome.