Potential of mesenchymal stem cells alone, or in combination, to treat traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes death and disability in the United States and around the world. The traumatic insult causes the mechanical injury of the brain and primary cellular death. While a comprehensive pathological mechanism of TBI is still lacking, the focus of the TBI research is concentrated on understanding the pathophysiology and developing suitable therapeutic approaches. Given the complexities in pathophysiology involving interconnected immunologic, inflammatory, and neurological cascades occurring after TBI, the therapies directed to a single mechanism fail in the clinical trials. This has led to the development of the paradigm of a combination therapeutic approach against TBI. While there are no drugs available for the treatment of TBI, stem cell therapy has shown promising results in preclinical studies. But, the success of the therapy depends on the survival of the stem cells, which are limited by several factors including route of administration, health of the administered cells, and inflammatory microenvironment of the injured brain. Reducing the inflammation prior to cell administration may provide a better outcome of cell therapy following TBI. This review is focused on different therapeutic approaches of TBI and the present status of the clinical trials.
Project description:Acute brain injury resulting from ischemic/hemorrhagic or traumatic damage is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide and is a significant burden to society. Neuroprotective options to counteract brain damage are very limited in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Given the multifaceted nature of acute brain injury and damage progression, several therapeutic targets may need to be addressed simultaneously to interfere with the evolution of the injury and improve the patient's outcome. Stem cells are ideal candidates since they act on various mechanisms of protection and repair, improving structural and functional outcomes after experimental stroke or TBI. Stem cells isolated from placenta offer advantages due to their early embryonic origin, ease of procurement, and ethical acceptance. We analyzed the evidence for the beneficial effects of placenta-derived stem cells in acute brain injury, with the focus on experimental studies of TBI and stroke, the engineering strategies pursued to foster cell potential, and characterization of the bioactive molecules secreted by placental cells, known as their secretome, as an alternative cell-free strategy. Results from the clinical application of placenta-derived stem cells for acute brain injury and ongoing clinical trials are summarily discussed.
Project description:Treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still an unmet need. Cell therapy by human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) has shown promising results in animal models of TBI and is under evaluation in clinical trials. HUCB contains different cell populations but to date, only mesenchymal stem cells have been evaluated for therapy of TBI. Here we present the neurotherapeutic effect, as evaluated by neurological score, using a single dose of HUCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) upon intravenous (IV) administration one day post-trauma in a mouse model of closed head injury (CHI). Delayed (eight days post-trauma) intracerebroventricular administration of MNCs showed improved neurobehavioral deficits thereby extending the therapeutic window for treating TBI. Further, we demonstrated for the first time that HUCB-derived pan-hematopoietic CD45 positive (CD45(+)) cells, isolated by magnetic sorting and characterized by expression of CD45 and CD11b markers (96-99%), improved the neurobehavioral deficits upon IV administration, which persisted for 35 days. The therapeutic effect was in a direct correlation to a reduction in the lesion volume and decreased by pre-treatment of the cells with anti-human-CD45 antibody. At the site of brain injury, 1.5-2?h after transplantation, HUCB-derived cells were identified by near infrared scanning and immunohistochemistry using anti-human-CD45 and anti-human-nuclei antibodies. Nerve growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor levels were differentially expressed in both ipsilateral and contralateral brain hemispheres, thirty-five days after CHI, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These findings indicate the neurotherapeutic potential of HUCB-derived CD45(+) cell population in a mouse model of TBI and propose their use in the clinical setting of human TBI.
Project description:This review summarizes promising approaches for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that are in either preclinical or clinical trials.The pathophysiology underlying neurological deficits after TBI is described. An overview of select therapies for TBI with neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects is presented.A literature review of preclinical TBI studies and clinical TBI trials related to neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapeutic approaches is provided.Nearly all Phase II/III clinical trials in neuroprotection have failed to show any consistent improvement in outcome for TBI patients. The next decade will witness an increasing number of clinical trials that seek to translate preclinical research discoveries to the clinic. Promising drug- or cell-based therapeutic approaches include erythropoietin and its carbamylated form, statins, bone marrow stromal cells, stem cells singularly or in combination or with biomaterials to reduce brain injury via neuroprotection and promote brain remodeling via angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis with a final goal to improve functional outcome of TBI patients. In addition, enriched environment and voluntary physical exercise show promise in promoting functional outcome after TBI, and should be evaluated alone or in combination with other treatments as therapeutic approaches for TBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes multiple long-term defects including a loss of working memory that is frequently incapacitating. Administrations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) previously produced beneficial effects in models of TBI as well as other disease models. In several models, the beneficial effects were explained by the MSCs being activated to express TSG-6, a multifunctional protein that modulates inflammation. In a mouse model of TBI, we found the initial mild phase of the inflammatory response persisted for at least 24h and was followed by secondary severe response that peaked at 3days. Intravenous human MSCs or TSG-6 during initial mild phase decreased neutrophil extravasation, expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 by endothelial cells and neutrophils, and the subsequent blood brain barrier leakage in secondary phase. Administration of TSG-6 also decreased the lesion size at 2weeks. Importantly, the acute administration of TSG-6 within 24h of TBI was followed 6 to 10weeks later by improvements in memory, depressive-like behavior and the number of newly born-neurons. The data suggested that acute administration of TSG-6 may be an effective therapy for decreasing some of the long-term consequences of TBI.
Project description:TBI (traumatic brain injury) is a major cause of death among youth in industrialized societies. Brain damage following traumatic injury is a result of direct and indirect mechanisms; indirect or secondary injury involves the initiation of an acute inflammatory response, including the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), brain edema, infiltration of peripheral blood cells, and activation of resident immunocompetent cells, as well as the release of numerous immune mediators such as interleukins and chemotactic factors. TBI can cause changes in molecular signaling and cellular functions and structures, in addition to tissue damage, such as hemorrhage, diffuse axonal damages, and contusions. TBI typically disturbs brain functions such as executive actions, cognitive grade, attention, memory data processing, and language abilities. Animal models have been developed to reproduce the different features of human TBI, better understand its pathophysiology, and discover potential new treatments. For many years, the first approach to manage TBI has been treatment of the injured tissue with interventions designed to reduce the complex secondary-injury cascade. Several studies in the literature have stressed the importance of more closely examining injuries, including endothelial, microglia, astroglia, oligodendroglia, and precursor cells. Significant effort has been invested in developing neuroprotective agents. The aim of this work is to review TBI pathophysiology and existing and potential new therapeutic strategies in the management of inflammatory events and behavioral deficits associated with TBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst civilians and military personnel globally. Despite advances in our knowledge of the complex pathophysiology of TBI, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. While initial brain insult involves acute and irreversible primary damage to the parenchyma, the ensuing secondary brain injuries often progress slowly over months to years, hence providing a window for therapeutic interventions. To date, hallmark events during delayed secondary CNS damage include Wallerian degeneration of axons, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death of neurons and glia. Extensive research has been directed to the identification of druggable targets associated with these processes. Furthermore, tremendous effort has been put forth to improve the bioavailability of therapeutics to CNS by devising strategies for efficient, specific and controlled delivery of bioactive agents to cellular targets. Here, we give an overview of the pathophysiology of TBI and the underlying molecular mechanisms, followed by an update on novel therapeutic targets and agents. Recent development of various approaches of drug delivery to the CNS is also discussed.
Project description:We explored the involvement of the lectin pathway of complement in post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathophysiology in humans. Brain samples were obtained from 28 patients who had undergone therapeutic contusion removal, within 12?h (early) or from >12?h until five days (late) from injury, and from five non-TBI patients. Imaging analysis indicated that lectin pathway initiator molecules (MBL, ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3), the key enzymes MASP-2 and MASP-3, and the downstream complement components (C3 fragments and TCC) were present inside and outside brain vessels in all contusions. Only ficolin-1 was found in the parenchyma of non-TBI tissues. Immunoassays in brain homogenates showed that MBL, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 increased in TBI compared to non-TBI (2.0, 2.2 and 6.0-times) samples. MASP-2 increased with subarachnoid hemorrhage and abnormal pupil reactivity, two indicators of structural and functional damage. C3 fragments and TCC increased, respectively, by 3.5?- and 4.0-fold in TBI compared to non-TBI tissue and significantly correlated with MBL, ficolin-2, ficolin-3, MASP-2 and MASP-3 levels in the homogenates. In conclusion, we show for the first time the direct presence of lectin pathway components in human cerebral contusions and their association with injury severity, suggesting a central role for the lectin pathway in the post-traumatic pathophysiology of human TBI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of mortality and disability for all ages worldwide. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-originated exosomes have provided therapeutic effects. However, as an indispensable component of MSCs, whether odontogenic stem cell-generated exosomes could benefit TBI is still unclear. Thus we aimed to explore the potential of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth-originated exosomes (SHED-Ex) for the management of TBI. METHODS:First, a transwell system was used to co-culture activated BV-2 microglia cells with SHED. The secretion levels of neuroinflammatory factors and nitrite were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Griess assay. Furthermore, purified SHED-Ex were co-cultured with activated BV-2. ELISA, Griess assay, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and qRT-PCR were performed to test the levels of inflammatory factors as well as the microglia phenotype. Finally, SHED and SHED-Ex were locally injected into TBI rat models. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores were chosen to evaluate the motor functional recovery. Histopathology and immunofluorescence were performed to measure the lesion volume and neuroinflammation. RESULTS:As a result, SHED-Ex could reduce neuroinflammation by shifting microglia polarization. The administration of SHED-Ex improves rat motor functional recovery and reduces cortical lesion compared with the control group 2 weeks post-injury (P?<?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The current study demonstrates for the first time that SHED-Ex contribute a therapeutic benefit to TBI in rats, at least in part by shifting microglia polarization to reduce neuroinflammation. The use of odontogenic stem cells, and indeed their exosomes, may be expanded for the treatment of TBI or other neurological disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation is a common therapeutic target for traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to its contribution to delayed secondary cell death and has the potential to occur for years after the initial insult. Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) containing the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 are a novel, cell-free regenerative approach to long-term recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) that have the potential to modulate inflammation at the genomic level. The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 has been shown to be an important component of the secretome of hASCs. METHODS:We isolated exosomes from hASC containing or depleted of MALAT1. The hASC-derived exosomes were then administered intravenously to rats following a mild controlled cortical impact (CCI). We followed the rats with behavior, in vivo imaging, histology, and RNA sequencing (RNA Seq). RESULTS:Using in vivo imaging, we show that exosomes migrate into the spleen within 1 h following administration and enter the brain several hours later following TBI. Significant recovery of function on motor behavior as well as a reduction in cortical brain injury was observed after TBI in rats treated with exosomes. Treatment with either exosomes depleted of MALAT1 or conditioned media depleted of exosomes showed limited regenerative effects, demonstrating the importance of MALAT1 in exosome-mediated recovery. Analysis of the brain and spleen transcriptome using RNA Seq showed MALAT1-dependent modulation of inflammation-related pathways, cell cycle, cell death, and regenerative molecular pathways. Importantly, our data demonstrates that MALAT1 regulates expression of other noncoding RNAs including snoRNAs. CONCLUSION:We demonstrate that MALAT1 in hASC-derived exosomes modulates multiple therapeutic targets, including inflammation, and has tremendous therapeutic potential for treatment of TBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability around the world. So far, drugs are not available to repair brain damage. Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) transplantation therapy is a promising approach, although the inflammatory microenvironment of the injured brain affects the efficacy of transplanted hMSCs. We hypothesize that reducing the inflammation in the cerebral microenvironment by reducing pro-inflammatory chemokines prior to hMSC administration will improve the efficacy of hMSC therapy. In a rat model of lateral fluid percussion injury, combined pioglitazone (PG) and hMSC (combination) treatment showed less anxiety-like behavior and improved sensorimotor responses to a noxious cold stimulus. Significant reduction in brain lesion volume, neurodegeneration, microgliosis and astrogliosis were observed after combination treatment. TBI induced expression of inflammatory chemokine CCL20 and IL1-β were significantly decreased in the combination treatment group. Combination treatment significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level and subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis. Taken together, reducing proinflammatory cytokine expression in the cerebral tissues after TBI by PG administration and prior to hMSC therapy improves the outcome of the therapy in which BDNF could have a role.