Open tibia plateau fracture with intra-osseous dislocation of the patella and quadriceps tendon rupture: a case report.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Both tibial plateau fractures and extensor apparatus injuries are serious injuries to the knee joint that generally do not occur in the same patient. We report a rare case of open tibial plateau fracture combined with quadriceps tendon rupture and complete displacement of the patella into the tibial plateau fracture. CASE PRESENTATION:The case involved a male who was 19?years old who had been in a motorcycle accident. The patient was admitted to our department with an open tibial plateau fracture 3?h post-injury. X-ray showed a tibial plateau fracture and complete displacement of the patella into the tibial plateau. CT showed an avulsion fracture in the patella and tibial intercondylar eminence. Concomitant quadriceps tendon injury and both anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion avulsion fractures were considered. The operative findings of emergency surgery confirmed our preoperative diagnosis. Single-stage quadriceps tendon repair and ORIF for the tibial plateau fracture were performed. Satisfactory restoration of function was acquired at the last follow up. CONCLUSION:The most difficult aspect of this case was the determination of the cause of the intra-osseous dislocation of the patella into the tibial plateau. The most likely mechanism of the injury may be that the patient experienced transient posterior dislocation of the knee during the injury. Rupture of the quadriceps tendon should be considered with posterior dislocation of the knee, and the patella was pushed into the tibial plateau fracture by force after the rupture of the quadriceps tendon.
Project description:Detailed anatomic dissections of the deep medial knee retinaculum have shown a consistent prominent anatomic structure extending from the distal deep quadriceps tendon to the adductor tubercle region, forming a distinct medial quadriceps tendon-femoral ligament (MQTFL). Reconstruction of this anatomic structure has yielded consistent medial stabilization of the patellofemoral joint without drilling into the patella over more than 3 years in patients with recurrent patella instability and dislocation. Results are similar to those of MPFL reconstruction but with reduced risk of patella fracture, a known and serious complication of MPFL reconstruction. The reconstruction graft is secured at the anatomic femoral origin of the MQTFL and brought under the vastus medialis such that it may be woven and attached to the deep distal medial quadriceps tendon to provide a secure, reliable reproduction of the MQTFL and excellent stabilization of the patellofemoral joint without risk of patella fracture.
Project description:Neglected rupture of the patellar tendon is a rare, can be easily missed in a group of patients. We present a 24 year old, male patient who sustained right femoral diaphyseal and tibial plateau fractures and a patellar tendon rupture following a motor vehicle accident. The fractures were treated by open reduction internal fixation but the patellar tendon rupture was missed and the diagnosis was delayed by 7 months. Patella was migrated proximally. It was moved distally to the original location and neglected patellar tendon rupture treated successfully with modified Ecker technique. Neither preoperative traction nor additional intraoperative procedures were performed to relocate the patella to its anatomic position in the extended knee and good functional result was achieved with intensive rehabilitation.
Project description:Normal development of the patella typically involves fusion of secondary ossification centers into a single bone during adolescence, with failure of fusion resulting in bipartite and tripartite patellae. In such variants, injury to incomplete ossification center fusion, though uncommon, has been reported to occur in the setting of traumatic quadriceps tendon rupture. The authors present a rare and complex case of traumatic bipartite fragment separation, patellar avulsion, and a complex partial quadriceps tendon tear confirmed surgically in a 36-year-old male. In this case, a tear in the lateral aspect of the quadriceps tendon attached to the nonfused patellar ossification center resulted in retraction of the band containing the bipartite fragment and separation of the patellar fragments, with superior displacement of the smaller bony avulsion likely due to complex attachments from the medial aspect of the quadriceps tendon. Knowledge of the classical locations of a bipartite and tripartite patella can aid in the differentiation of the anatomic variant versus patellar avulsion. Additionally, knowledge of the variable and complex nature of the quadriceps tendon aids in understanding the process of patellar avulsions and various tears, leading to the appropriate orthopedic management.
Project description:Extensor mechanism deficiency in the knee may occur due to neglected patellar and quadriceps tendons rupture or may be caused by chronic fractures of the patella. Older patients can tolerate nonunion with impaired function including extension limitation or persistent muscle weakness. In young patients, performing rigid internal fixation with reoperation should be considered when a nonunion occurs. However, delayed and neglected nonunion in patella fractures require performing different surgical procedures. We report two cases, operated for a patella fracture, in whom nonunion occurred and accompanied by patellar migration and retraction of quadriceps tendon because of a fixation failure. We reconstructed the extensor mechanism with peroneus longus tendon autograft and, owing to this method, we achieved excellent functional results during a 2-year follow-up period.
Project description:Extensor mechanism disruptions are relatively uncommon injuries involving injury to the quadriceps tendon, patella, or patellar tendon. Patellar tendon avulsions from the tibial tubercle in adults are rare; as such, little technical information has been written regarding surgical management of this injury in the adult. Transosseous-equivalent repairs have been described in the management of several types of tendon ruptures, including rotator cuff and distal triceps tendon ruptures, but not previously in patellar injuries. We present a technique for repairing an avulsion injury of the patellar tendon from the tibial tubercle using suture anchors in a transosseous-equivalent manner. This technique for treating distal patellar tendon avulsion injuries likely increases contact area at the repair site while potentially improving fixation strength.
Project description:The extensor mechanism provides active knee joint extension and stability of the patellofemoral joint. Rupture of the quadriceps tendon, although uncommon, is therefore associated with impairment in knee joint stability and, thus, requires surgical repair. Although various techniques provide excellent clinical outcomes for acute rupture, treatment of chronic rupture remains clinically challenging. We describe our modified technique for quadriceps tendon repair using a semitendinosus tendon autograft, with suturing of the quadriceps tendon stump to the patella via transosseous sutures, wherein the use of allograft and anchors is avoided. Our modified Pulvertaft weave technique is simple and reproducible.
Project description:Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury.
Project description:The patellar fractures are common in adults, but rare in children. As a particular type of patellar fracture, however, sleeve fractures are almost always limited to children in the under 16's group.Herein, we report a rare case of a 19-year-old healthy adult female who presented sleeve fracture at the superior pole of the left patella. The clinical and radiological features are found including joint effusion, anterior tilt of the patella and a shell of bone lying proximally to the patella.Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination have been performed to further confirm the diagnosis of sleeve fracture, rupture of the quadriceps tendon and the cartilaginous injury.Under general anaesthesia, she underwent open surgical procedures for reconstituting anatomically the fracture and repairing the rupture of the quadriceps tendon.Six months after the operation, she could fully use her left knee without any pain and disability.Sleeve fractures of the patellar in adults are extremely rare, and our case is of interest for the first time occurring in healthy female adults. Our case report and literature review was aim to describe the clinic and imaging characteristics of superior pole sleeve fractures in adults, and highlight that physicians must be aware of this entity in adults so as to reduce misdiagnosis due to unfamiliarity.
Project description:The most commonly accepted system of classification for tibia plateau fractures is that of Schatzker. Increasingly, both high energy injuries and atypical osteoporotic fragility failures have led to more complex, unusual and previously undescribed fracture patterns being recognized. We present a case of a patient with a previously unreported pattern of tibia plateau fracture and knee dislocation. We highlight the challenges confronted and present the management and the outcomes of his injury. A 28-year old male motorcyclist was involved in a head on collision with a truck and was transferred by helicopter to our level 1 major trauma centre emergency department. His injuries were a circumferential degloving injury to his left leg and a right lateral tibial plateau fracture/knee dislocation. The pattern of the lateral tibial plateau fracture was unique and did not fit any recognised classification system. The patient received a spanning external fixator initially and after latency of 12 days for soft tissue resuscitation he underwent definite fixation through an antero-lateral approach to the proximal tibia with two cannulated 6.5 mm partially threaded screws and an additional lateral proximal tibia plate in buttress mode. A hinged knee brace was applied with unrestricted range of motion post-operatively and free weight bearing were permitted post operatively. At the 6 months follow up, the patient walks without aids and with no limp. Examination revealed a stable joint and full range of motion. Plain radiographs revealed that the fracture healed with good alignment and the fixation remained stable. High energy injuries can lead to more complicated fracture patterns, which challenge the orthopaedic surgeons in their management. It is crucial to understand the individual fracture pattern and the possible challenges that may occur. This study reports a lateral tibia plateau fracture/dislocation which perhaps is best described as a reverse Schatzker IV type fracture.
Project description:The moment arm is a crucial parameter for understanding musculoskeletal dynamics as it defines how linear muscle force is transformed into a moment. Yet, for the quadriceps tendon this parameter cannot be directly calculated, as the patella creates a dynamic fulcrum. Thus, the effective quadriceps moment arm (EQma) was developed to define the quadriceps force to tibial moment relationship. In vivo data in regards to the EQma are lacking and the critical question of how patellofemoral kinematics may influence the EQma remains unresolved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the in vivo EQma during a knee extension exercise in asymptomatic controls and to correlate the EQma with sagittal plane patellofemoral kinematics. While subjects (30F/10M, 26.5±5.6 years, 167.5±10.2 cm, 62.6±10.7 kg) cyclically flexed-extended their knees within the MR scanner, dynamic cine-phase contrast and cine MR images were acquired. From these data, patellofemoral kinematics, the ratio of the patellar tendon to quadriceps force, the patellar tendon moment arm, and the EQma were quantified. The EQma trended upwards (32.9-45.5 mm (females) and 31.5-47.1 mm (males)) as the knee angle decreased (50-10°). The quadriceps had a mechanical advantage (ratio of patellar to quadriceps tendon forces >1.0) for knee angles ?20°. The EQma did not correlate with sagittal plane patellofemoral kinematics. As this is the first study to characterize the EQma in vivo during dynamic volitional activity, in a large group of asymptomatic controls, it can serve as a foundation for future knee joint models and to explore how pathological conditions affect the EQma.