Computer simulations explain the anomalous temperature optimum in a cold-adapted enzyme.
ABSTRACT: Cold-adapted enzymes from psychrophilic species show the general characteristics of being more heat labile, and having a different balance between enthalpic and entropic contributions to free energy barrier of the catalyzed reaction compared to mesophilic orthologs. Among cold-adapted enzymes, there are also examples that show an enigmatic inactivation at higher temperatures before unfolding of the protein occurs. Here, we analyze these phenomena by extensive computer simulations of the catalytic reactions of psychrophilic and mesophilic ?-amylases. The calculations yield temperature dependent reaction rates in good agreement with experiment, and also elicit the anomalous rate optimum for the cold-adapted enzyme, which occurs about 15?°C below the melting point. This result allows us to examine the structural basis of thermal inactivation, which turns out to be caused by breaking of a specific enzyme-substrate interaction. This type of behaviour is also likely to be relevant for other enzymes displaying such anomalous temperature optima.
Project description:Cold-adapted enzymes from psychrophilic species achieve their high catalytic efficiency at low temperature by a different partitioning of the activation free energy into its enthalpic and entropic components, compared to orthologous mesophilic enzymes. Their lower activation enthalpy, partly compensated by an increased entropic penalty, has been suggested to originate from changes in flexibility of the protein surface. Multiple sequence alignments of psychrophilic and mesophilic enzymes also show characteristic motifs located in surface loops of the protein. Here, we use computer simulations to examine the effects of a number of designed surface mutations of psychrophilic and mesophilic elastases on the temperature dependence of the catalyzed peptide cleavage reaction. For each of 14 mutant enzyme variants we report calculations of their thermodynamic activation parameters. The results show that substitution of psychrophilic loop residues into the mesophilic enzyme consistently changes both the activation parameters and loop flexibilities towards the former, and vice versa for opposite substitutions.
Project description:Psychrophiles, cold-adapted organisms, have adapted to live at low temperatures by using a variety of mechanisms. Their enzymes are active at cold temperatures by being structurally more flexible than mesophilic enzymes. Even though, there are some indications of the possible structural mechanisms by which psychrophilic enzymes are catalytic active at cold temperatures, there is not a generalized structural property common to all psychrophilic enzymes.We examine twenty homologous enzyme pairs from psychrophiles and mesophiles to investigate flexibility as a key characteristic for cold adaptation. B-factors in protein X-ray structures are one way to measure flexibility. Comparing psychrophilic to mesophilic protein B-factors reveals that psychrophilic enzymes are more flexible in 5-turn and strand secondary structures. Enzyme cavities, identified using CASTp at various probe sizes, indicate that psychrophilic enzymes have larger average cavity sizes at probe radii of 1.4-1.5 Å, sufficient for water molecules. Furthermore, amino acid side chains lining these cavities show an increased frequency of acidic groups in psychrophilic enzymes.These findings suggest that embedded water molecules may play a significant role in cavity flexibility, and therefore, overall protein flexibility. Thus, our results point to the important role enzyme flexibility plays in adaptation to cold environments.
Project description:Cold-adapted enzymes produced by psychrophilic organisms have elevated catalytic activities at low temperatures compared to their mesophilic counterparts. This is largely due to amino acids changes in the protein sequence that often confer increased molecular flexibility in the cold. Comparison of structural changes between psychrophilic and mesophilic enzymes often reveal molecular cold adaptation. In the present study, we performed an in-silico comparative analysis of 104 hydrolytic enzymes belonging to the family of lipases from two evolutionary close marine ciliate species: The Antarctic psychrophilic <i>Euplotes focardii</i> and the mesophilic <i>Euplotes crassus</i>. By applying bioinformatics approaches, we compared amino acid composition and predicted secondary and tertiary structures of these lipases to extract relevant information relative to cold adaptation. Our results not only confirm the importance of several previous recognized amino acid substitutions for cold adaptation, as the preference for small amino acid, but also identify some new factors correlated with the secondary structure possibly responsible for enhanced enzyme activity at low temperatures. This study emphasizes the subtle sequence and structural modifications that may help to transform mesophilic into psychrophilic enzymes for industrial applications by protein engineering.
Project description:The ?-amylases are endo-acting enzymes that hydrolyze starch by randomly cleaving the 1,4-?-d-glucosidic linkages between the adjacent glucose units in a linear amylose chain. They have significant advantages in a wide range of applications, particularly in the food industry. The eukaryotic ?-amylase isolated from the Antarctic ciliated protozoon Euplotes focardii (EfAmy) is an alkaline enzyme, different from most of the ?-amylases characterized so far. Furthermore, EfAmy has the characteristics of a psychrophilic ?-amylase, such as the highest hydrolytic activity at a low temperature and high thermolability, which is the major drawback of cold-active enzymes in industrial applications. In this work, we applied site-directed mutagenesis combined with rational design to generate a cold-active EfAmy with improved thermostability and catalytic efficiency at low temperatures. We engineered two EfAmy mutants. In one mutant, we introduced Pro residues on the A and B domains in surface loops. In the second mutant, we changed Val residues to Thr close to the catalytic site. The aim of these substitutions was to rigidify the molecular structure of the enzyme. Furthermore, we also analyzed mutants containing these combined substitutions. Biochemical enzymatic assays of engineered versions of EfAmy revealed that the combination of mutations at the surface loops increased the thermostability and catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The possible mechanisms responsible for the changes in the biochemical properties are discussed by analyzing the three-dimensional structural model.IMPORTANCE Cold-adapted enzymes have high specific activity at low and moderate temperatures, a property that can be extremely useful in various applications as it implies a reduction in energy consumption during the catalyzed reaction. However, the concurrent high thermolability of cold-adapted enzymes often limits their applications in industrial processes. The ?-amylase from the psychrophilic Antarctic ciliate Euplotes focardii (named EfAmy) is a cold-adapted enzyme with optimal catalytic activity in an alkaline environment. These unique features distinguish it from most ?-amylases characterized so far. In this work, we engineered a novel EfAmy with improved thermostability, substrate binding affinity, and catalytic efficiency to various extents, without impacting its pH preference. These characteristics can be considered important properties for use in the food, detergent, and textile industries and in other industrial applications. The enzyme engineering strategy developed in this study may also provide useful knowledge for future optimization of molecules to be used in particular industrial applications.
Project description:Enzymes from psychrophiles catalyze the reactions at low temperatures with higher specific activity. Among all the psychrophilic enzymes produced, cold active ?-galactosidase from marine psychrophiles revalorizes a new arena in numerous areas at industrial level. The hydrolysis of lactose in to glucose and galactose by cold active ?-galactosidase offers a new promising approach in removal of lactose from milk to overcome the problem of lactose intolerance. Herein we propose, a 3D structure of cold active ?-galactosidase enzyme sourced from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis by using Modeler 9v8 and best model was developed having 88% of favourable region in ramachandran plot. Modelling was followed by docking studies with the help of Auto dock 4.0 against the three substrates lactose, ONPG and PNPG. In addition, comparative docking studies were also performed for the 3D model of psychrophilic ?-galactosidase with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. Docking studies revealed that binding affinity of enzyme towards the three different substrates is more for psychrophilic enzyme when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. It indicates that the enzyme has high specific activity at low temperature when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes.
Project description:Understanding the characteristics that define temperature-adapted enzymes has been a major goal of extremophile enzymology in recent decades. In the present study, we explore these characteristics by comparing psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic enzymes. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show that psychrophilic enzymes exhibit a significantly larger gap (Tg) between their optimum and melting temperatures compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. These results suggest that Tg may be a useful indicator as to whether an enzyme is psychrophilic or not and that models of psychrophilic enzyme catalysis need to account for this gap. Additionally, by using predictive protein stability software, HoTMuSiC and PoPMuSiC, we show that the deleterious nature of amino acid substitutions to protein stability increases from psychrophiles to thermophiles. How this ultimately affects the mutational tolerance and evolutionary rate of temperature adapted organisms is currently unknown.
Project description:Understanding protein stability is critical for the application of enzymes in biotechnological processes. The structural basis for the stability of thermally adapted chitinases has not yet been examined. In this study, the amino acid sequences and X-ray structures of psychrophilic, mesophilic, and hyperthermophilic chitinases were analyzed using computational and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods. From the findings, the key features associated with higher stability in mesophilic and thermophilic chitinases were fewer and/or shorter loops, oligomerization, and less flexible surface regions. No consistent trends were observed between stability and amino acid composition, structural features, or electrostatic interactions. Instead, unique elements affecting stability were identified in different chitinases. Notably, hyperthermostable chitinase had a much shorter surface loop compared to psychrophilic and mesophilic homologs, implying that the extended floppy surface region in cold-adapted and mesophilic chitinases may have acted as a "weak link" from where unfolding was initiated. MD simulations confirmed that the prevalence and flexibility of the loops adjacent to the active site were greater in low-temperature-adapted chitinases and may have led to the occlusion of the active site at higher temperatures compared to their thermostable homologs. Following this, loop "hot spots" for stabilizing and destabilizing mutations were also identified. This information is not only useful for the elucidation of the structure-stability relationship, but will be crucial for designing and engineering chitinases to have enhanced thermoactivity and to withstand harsh industrial processing conditions.
Project description:Cold-adaptation strategies have been studied in multiple psychrophilic organisms, especially for psychrophilic enzymes. Decreased enzyme activity caused by low temperatures as well as a higher viscosity of the aqueous environment require certain adaptations to the metabolic machinery of the cell. In addition to this, low temperature has deleterious effects on the lipid bilayer of bacterial membranes and therefore might also affect the embedded membrane proteins. Little is known about the adaptation of membrane proteins to stresses of the cold. In this study we investigate a set of 66 membrane proteins from the core genome of the bacterial family Vibrionaceae to identify general characteristics that discern psychrophilic and mesophilic membrane proteins. Bioinformatical and statistical methods were used to analyze the alignments of the three temperature groups mesophilic, intermediate and psychrophilic. Surprisingly, our results show little or no adaptation to low temperature for those parts of the proteins that are predicted to be inside the membrane. However, changes in amino acid composition and hydrophobicity are found for complete sequences and sequence parts outside the lipid bilayer. Among others, the results presented here indicate a preference for helix-breaking and destabilizing amino acids Ile, Asp and Thr and an avoidance of the helix-forming amino acid Ala in the amino acid composition of psychrophilic membrane proteins. Furthermore, we identified a lower overall hydrophobicity of psychrophilic membrane proteins in comparison to their mesophilic homologs. These results support the stability-flexibility hypothesis and link the cold-adaptation strategies of membrane proteins to those of loop regions of psychrophilic enzymes.
Project description:Psychrophilic enzymes play crucial roles in cold adaptation of microbes and provide useful models for studies of protein evolution, folding, and dynamic properties. We examined the crystal structure (2.2-Å resolution) of the psychrophilic ?-glucosidase BglU, a member of the glycosyl hydrolase 1 (GH1) enzyme family found in the cold-adapted bacterium Micrococcus antarcticus. Structural comparison and sequence alignment between BglU and its mesophilic and thermophilic counterpart enzymes (BglB and GlyTn, respectively) revealed two notable features distinct to BglU: (i) a unique long-loop L3 (35 versus 7 amino acids in others) involved in substrate binding and (ii) a unique amino acid, His299 (Tyr in others), involved in the stabilization of an ordered water molecule chain. Shortening of loop L3 to 25 amino acids reduced low-temperature catalytic activity, substrate-binding ability, the optimal temperature, and the melting temperature (Tm). Mutation of His299 to Tyr increased the optimal temperature, the Tm, and the catalytic activity. Conversely, mutation of Tyr301 to His in BglB caused a reduction in catalytic activity, thermostability, and the optimal temperature (45 to 35°C). Loop L3 shortening and H299Y substitution jointly restored enzyme activity to the level of BglU, but at moderate temperatures. Our findings indicate that loop L3 controls the level of catalytic activity at low temperatures, residue His299 is responsible for thermolability (particularly heat lability of the active center), and long-loop L3 and His299 are jointly responsible for the psychrophilic properties. The described structural basis for the cold adaptedness of BglU will be helpful for structure-based engineering of new cold-adapted enzymes and for the production of mutants useful in a variety of industrial processes at different temperatures.
Project description:CCA-adding enzymes are highly specific RNA polymerases that synthesize and maintain the sequence CCA at the tRNA 3‘-end. Here, we investigated the impact of cold adaptation on the reactivity and specificity of CCA-adding enzymes from psychrophilic bacteria. A comparative study of the corresponding enzymes from closely related psychro-, meso-, and thermophilic Bacillales indicates that the cold-adapted enzymes show a considerable error rate during CCA synthesis, resulting in additional incorporations of C and A residues. It seems that the activity of psychrophilic CCA-adding enzymes is not only achieved at the expense of structural stability, reaction velocity and substrate affinity, but also results in a reduced polymerization fidelity. Overall design: in vivo tRNA from four Bacillales species was isolated from exponential and stationary growth phase each in triplicates resulting in a total of 24 samples. Sequencing libraries were created for small RNA species and sequenced on 3 runs of a MiSeq using 8 indices. Reads were analyzed regarding 3'-ends of tRNA and results summed up as a mean for the 8 conditions investigated. Results from B. subtilis were regarded as reference sample for a mesophilic Bacillales species. Differences towards psychophilic Planococcus halocryophilus and Exiguobacterium sibiricum and thermophilic Geobacills stearothermophilus were investigated.