High expression levels of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor are correlated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has extremely poor prognosis, warranting the discovery of novel therapeutic and prognostic markers. The expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), a key component of the mucosal immune system, is increased in several cancers. However, its clinical relevance in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, the prognostic value of pIgR in pancreatic cancer patients after surgical resection was assessed and it was determined that the expression of pIgR was correlated with poor prognosis. Ten pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines were established, followed by next-generation sequencing of tumor tissues from these lines after standard chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis of chemoresistance-related molecules using 77 pancreatic cancer tissues was also performed. The expression of pIgR mRNA in the PDX group treated with anticancer drugs was higher than in the untreated group. High pIgR expression in tissue specimens from 77 pancreatic cancer patients was significantly associated with poor prognosis and was revealed to be an independent prognostic factor, predicting poor outcomes. High pIgR mRNA and protein levels were independent prognostic factors, indicating that pIgR could be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis, and identification of novel predictors of therapeutic efficacy and prognosis is urgently needed. Chemoresistance-related molecules are correlated with poor prognosis and may be effective targets for cancer treatment. Here, we aimed to identify novel molecules correlated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. We established 10 patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines from patients with pancreatic cancer and performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumor tissues from PDXs after treatment with standard drugs. We established a gene-transferred tumor cell line to express chemoresistance-related molecules and analyzed the chemoresistance of the established cell line against standard drugs. Finally, we performed immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of chemoresistance-related molecules using 80 pancreatic cancer tissues. From NGS analysis, we identified olfactomedin-4 (OLFM4) as having high expression in the PDX group treated with anticancer drugs. In IHC analysis, OLFM4 expression was also high in PDXs administered anticancer drugs compared with that in untreated PDXs. Chemoresistance was observed by in vitro analysis of tumor cell lines with forced expression of OLFM4. In an assessment of tissue specimens from 80 patients with pancreatic cancer, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients in the low OLFM4 expression group had a better survival rate than patients in the high OLFM4 expression group. Additionally, multivariate analysis showed that high expression of OLFM4 was an independent prognostic factor predicting poor outcomes. Overall, our study revealed that high expression of OLFM4 was involved in chemoresistance and was an independent prognostic factor in pancreatic cancer. OLFM4 may be a candidate therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is associated with an exceedingly poor prognosis, warranting the development of novel therapeutic strategies and discovery of prognostic predictors. Given that chemoresistance?related molecules are reportedly associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, the present study aimed to identify molecules that could be efficacious therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer. First, 10 patient?derived xenografts (PDXs) were established from patients with pancreatic cancer. Subsequently, after treating tumor tissue generated from the PDXs with standard drugs, next?generation sequencing (NGS) was performed using these tissues. The results of NGS analysis and immunohistochemical analysis on 80 pancreatic cancer tissues revealed that human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) expression in the anticancer drug?treated PDX group was higher than that in the untreated PDXs. In addition, chemoresistance ability was observed in tumor cell lines overexpressing HE4. Furthermore, Kaplan?Meier analysis of tumor tissues from 80 patients with pancreatic cancer was performed and it was found that patients with a high HE4 expression level had a poor survival rate compared with those who had a low HE4 expression level. Multivariate analysis also indicated the high expression level of HE4 was an independent poor prognostic biomarker. Thus, it was concluded that high gene and protein expression levels of HE4 mediate chemoresistance and are independent prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer.
Project description:The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a key component of the mucosal immune system that mediates epithelial transcytosis of immunoglobulins. High pIgR expression has been reported to correlate with a less aggressive tumour phenotype and an improved prognosis in several human cancer types. Here, we examined the expression and prognostic significance of pIgR in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma. The study cohort encompasses a consecutive series of 175 patients surgically treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma in Malmö and Lund University Hospitals, Sweden, between 2001-2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed from primary tumours (n = 175) and paired lymph node metastases (n = 105). A multiplied score was calculated from the fraction and intensity of pIgR staining. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to select the prognostic cut-off. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death and recurrence within 5 years were calculated. pIgR expression could be evaluated in 172/175 (98.3%) primary tumours and in 96/105 (91.4%) lymph node metastases. pIgR expression was significantly down-regulated in lymph node metastases as compared with primary tumours (p = 0.018). Low pIgR expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation grade (p < 0.001), perineural growth (p = 0.027), lymphatic invasion (p = 0.016), vascular invasion (p = 0.033) and infiltration of the peripancreatic fat (p = 0.039). In the entire cohort, low pIgR expression was significantly associated with an impaired 5-year survival (HR = 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-5.25) and early recurrence (HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.67-4.98). This association remained significant for survival after adjustment for conventional clinicopathological factors, tumour origin and adjuvant treatment (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.10-3.57). These results demonstrate, for the first time, that high tumour-specific pIgR expression signifies a more favourable tumour phenotype and that low expression independently predicts a shorter survival in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer. The mechanistic basis for the putative tumour suppressing properties of pIgR in these cancers merits further study.
Project description:High expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers is related to poor prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the expression of these markers in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and the relationship of the expression levels of these markers between HCC patients and their PDX models at subsequent low passages are unclear. To investigate the prognostic impact of putative CSC markers in patients with HCC and in related PDX models, the expression of CD133, CD90, CD44, ALDH1, CK7, CK19, OCT4, SOX2, vimentin, nestin, CD13 and EpCam were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and then were validated using immunohistochemistry in tumor or peritumoral tissues from patients and tumor tissues from PDX models. Cumulative survival analysis of the patients and animals was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Only the expression levels of CD133 and CD44 were higher in tumor tissues than in the peritumoral tissues of HCC patients by qRT-PCR. High consistency of the prognostic value of the expression of CD133/CD44 was observed in HCC patients and the PDX models. High expression levels of CD133 and CD44 were positively related to the poor prognosis of HCC patients and to that in the PDX models. PDX HCC models in the present study have been suggested to be predictive of disease outcome, which could shed light on personalized medicine and the mechanisms of CSC marker expression on prognosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis because of its high refractoriness to chemotherapy and tumour recurrence, and these properties have been attributed to cancer stem cells (CSCs). MicroRNA (miRNA) regulates various molecular mechanisms of cancer progression associated with CSCs. This study aimed to identify the candidate miRNA and to characterise the clinical significance. METHODS: We established gemcitabine-resistant Panc1 cells, and induced CSC-like properties through sphere formation. Candidate miRNAs were selected through microarray analysis. The overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed by evaluating the in vitro cell growth and in vivo tumourigenicity. The expression was studied in 24 pancreatic cancer samples after laser captured microdissection and by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The in vitro drug sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells was altered according to the miR-1246 expression via CCNG2. In vivo, we found that miR-1246 could increase tumour-initiating potential and induced drug resistance. A high expression level of miR-1246 was correlated with a worse prognosis and CCNG2 expression was significantly lower in those patients. CONCLUSIONS: miR-1246 expression was associated with chemoresistance and CSC-like properties via CCNG2, and could predict worse prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), generally known as pancreatic cancer (PC), ranks the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the western world. While the incidence of pancreatic cancer is displaying a rising tendency every year, the mortality rate has not decreased significantly because of late diagnosis, early metastasis, and limited reaction to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection is typically the preferred option to treat early pancreatic cancer. Although 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel can profoundly improve the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer, the development of chemoresistance still leads to poor clinical outcomes. Chemoresistance is multifactorial as a result of the interaction among pancreatic cancer cells, cancer stem cells, and the tumor microenvironment. Nevertheless, more pancreatic cancer patients will benefit from precision treatment and targeted drugs. Therefore, we outline new perspectives for enhancing the efficacy of gemcitabine after reviewing the related factors of gemcitabine metabolism, mechanism of action, and chemoresistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR) has previously been associated with a favourable prognosis in a few cancer forms, but its expression and relationship with clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the clinicopathological correlates and prognostic significance of PIGR expression in EOC. METHODS:After an initial screening in the Human Protein Atlas portal, a validated antibody was selected for extended analysis of immunohistochemical PIGR expression in tissue microarrays with tumours from 154 incident cases of EOC from two pooled prospective population-based cohorts. Subsets of corresponding benign-appearing fallopian tubes (n?=?38) and omental metastases (n?=?33) were also analysed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were applied to examine the impact of PIGR expression on overall survival (OS) and ovarian cancer-specific survival (OCSS). RESULTS:PIGR expression was significantly higher in fallopian tubes compared to primary tumours and metastases (p?<?0.001) and lower in carcinoma of the serous subtype compared to other carcinomas (p?<?0.001). PIGR expression was significantly associated with lower grade (p?=?0.001), mucinous histological subtype (p?=?0.002), positive progesterone receptor expression (p?=?0.009) and negative or low Ki-67 expression (p?=?0.003). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly improved OS (p?=?0.013) and OCSS (p?=?0.009) for patients with tumours displaying high expression of PIGR. These associations were confirmed in unadjusted Cox regression analysis (HR?=?0.48; 95% CI 0.26-0.87; p?=?0.015 for OS and HR?=?0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.82; p?=?0.011 for OCSS) but did not remain significant after adjustment for age, grade and clinical stage. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides a first demonstration of PIGR expression in human fallopian tubes, primary EOC tumours and metastases. High tumour-specific expression of PIGR was found to be associated with a favourable prognosis in unadjusted, but not in adjusted, analysis. These findings are novel and merit further investigation.
Project description:Background:Pancreatic cancer is a malignancy with a very poor prognosis. The emergence of liquid biopsy is expected to achieve accurate early diagnosis through detection of tumor-derived secreted proteins in the blood. Early diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer could help to improve prognosis. Methods:The pretreatment approach of samples can have a major effect on downstream analysis. In this study, we used a pair of homologous pancreatic cancer cell supernatants with different capacities for invasion and metastasis to examine secreted proteins in the conditioned media without the removal of fetal bovine serum, namely through size exclusion chromatography combined with high-abundance protein affinity chromatography to enrich low-concentration protein, followed by mass spectrometry using triple dimethyl labeling. Identification of proteins was performed using an online public database and western blot. Results:Mass spectrometry data revealed 77 proteins with quantitative properties, of which 12 proteins had over a 1.5-fold difference (in the supernatant of the highly invasive pancreatic cancer cell line PC-1.0, the expression of 8 proteins were increased and the expression of 4 proteins were decreased). Bioinformatics analysis results showed that CCT8, CTSL, SAA1, IGF2 are secreted via the exosome pathway. According to the literature, with the exception of CCT8, the other three proteins can be detected in blood samples of pancreatic cancer patients, and they can be used as prognostic markers. Western blot results were used to validate consistency with MS results. Conclusion:This study found that CCT8 can be used as a liquid biopsy marker to assess the prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western societies. This poor prognosis is due to chemotherapeutic drug resistance and metastatic spread. Evidence suggests that microtubule proteins namely, ?-tubulins are dysregulated in tumor cells and are involved in regulating chemosensitivity. However, the role of ?-tubulins in pancreatic cancer are unknown. We measured the expression of different ?-tubulin isotypes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissue and pancreatic cancer cells. Next, we used RNAi to silence ?III-tubulin expression in pancreatic cancer cells, and measured cell growth in the absence and presence of chemotherapeutic drugs. Finally, we assessed the role of ?III-tubulin in regulating tumor growth and metastases using an orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model. We found that ?III-tubulin is highly expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissue and pancreatic cancer cells. Further, we demonstrated that silencing ?III-tubulin expression reduced pancreatic cancer cell growth and tumorigenic potential in the absence and presence of chemotherapeutic drugs. Finally, we demonstrated that suppression of ?III-tubulin reduced tumor growth and metastases in vivo. Our novel data demonstrate that ?III-tubulin is a key player in promoting pancreatic cancer growth and survival, and silencing its expression may be a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the long-term survival of pancreatic cancer patients.
Project description:Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) expression is downregulated in lung cancer, but its implications in lung tumourigenesis remain unknown. We hypothesised that loss of pIgR expression occurs early, and is associated with cell proliferation and poor prognosis. pIgR expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in airways of patients with normal mucosa, pre-invasive lesions and invasive lesions, and correlated with clinical outcomes. 16-HBE and A549 cells stably transfected with pIgR were tested for proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Immunostaining was strong in normal epithelium, but severely reduced in pre-invasive lesions and most lung cancers. Persistent expression was associated with younger age and adenocarcinoma subtype but not survival. pIgR overexpression significantly reduced A549 and 16-HBE proliferation. Growth inhibition was not due to cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but we observed altered expression of genes encoding for membrane proteins, including NOTCH3. Interestingly, NOTCH3 expression was inversely correlated with pIgR expression in cell lines and tissues. pIgR expression was lost in most lung cancers and pre-invasive bronchial lesions, suggesting that pIgR downregulation is an early event in lung tumourigenesis. pIgR overexpression in A549 and 16-HBE cells inhibited proliferation. Future investigations are required to determine the mechanisms by which pIgR contributes to cell proliferation.