Computational Models Identify Several FDA Approved or Experimental Drugs as Putative Agents Against SARS-CoV-2.
ABSTRACT: The outbreak of a novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into global health emergency, infecting hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. We have identified experimental data on the inhibitory activity of compounds tested against closely related (96% sequence identity, 100% active site conservation) protease of SARS-CoV and employed this data to build QSAR models for this dataset. We employed these models for virtual screening of all drugs from DrugBank, including compounds in clinical trials. Molecular docking and similarity search approaches were explored in parallel with QSAR modeling, but molecular docking failed to correctly discriminate between experimentally active and inactive compounds. As a result of our studies, we recommended 41 approved, experimental, or investigational drugs as potential agents against SARS-CoV-2 acting as putative inhibitors of Mpro. Ten compounds with feasible prices were purchased and are awaiting the experimental validation. .
Project description:Wuhan, China was the epicenter of the first zoonotic transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 and it is the causative agent of the novel human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Almost from the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak several attempts were made to predict possible drugs capable of inhibiting the virus replication. In the present work a drug repurposing study is performed to identify potential SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitors. We created a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model based on a machine learning strategy using hundreds of inhibitor molecules of the main protease (Mpro) of the SARS-CoV coronavirus. The QSAR model was used for virtual screening of a large list of drugs from the DrugBank database. The best 20 candidates were then evaluated in-silico against the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by using docking and molecular dynamics analyses. Docking was done by using the Gold software, and the free energies of binding were predicted with the MM-PBSA method as implemented in AMBER. Our results indicate that levothyroxine, amobarbital and ABP-700 are the best potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 virus through their binding to the Mpro enzyme. Five other compounds showed also a negative but small free energy of binding: nikethamide, nifurtimox, rebimastat, apomine and rebastinib.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 requires a fast development of antiviral drugs. SARS-CoV-2 viral main protease (Mpro, also called 3C-like protease, 3CLpro) is a potential target for drug design. Crystal and co-crystal structures of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro have been solved, enabling the rational design of inhibitory compounds. In this study we analyzed the available SARS-CoV-2 and the highly similar SARS-CoV-1 crystal structures. We identified within the active site of the Mpro, in addition to the inhibitory ligands' interaction with the catalytic C145, two key H-bond interactions with the conserved H163 and E166 residues. Both H-bond interactions are present in almost all co-crystals and are likely to occur also during the viral polypeptide cleavage process as suggested from docking of the Mpro cleavage recognition sequence. We screened in silico a library of 6900 FDA-approved drugs (ChEMBL) and filtered using these key interactions and selected 29 non-covalent compounds predicted to bind to the protease. Additional screen, using DOCKovalent was carried out on DrugBank library (11,414 experimental and approved drugs) and resulted in 6 covalent compounds. The selected compounds from both screens were tested in vitro by a protease activity inhibition assay. Two compounds showed activity at the 50 µM concentration range. Our analysis and findings can facilitate and focus the development of highly potent inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Project description:Due to the genetic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, the present work endeavored to derive a balanced Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies to identify novel molecules having inhibitory potential against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. The QSAR analysis developed on multivariate GA-MLR (Genetic Algorithm-Multilinear Regression) model with acceptable statistical performance (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.898, Q<sup>2</sup>loo = 0.859, etc.). QSAR analysis attributed the good correlation with different types of atoms like non-ring Carbons and Nitrogens, amide Nitrogen, sp<sup>2</sup>-hybridized Carbons, etc. Thus, the QSAR model has a good balance of qualitative and quantitative requirements (balanced QSAR model) and satisfies the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. After that, a QSAR-based virtual screening of 26,467 food compounds and 360 heterocyclic variants of molecule <b>1</b> (benzotriazole-indole hybrid molecule) helped to identify promising hits. Furthermore, the molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Mpro with molecule <b>1</b> recognized the structural motifs with significant stability. Molecular docking and QSAR provided consensus and complementary results. The validated analyses are capable of optimizing a drug/lead candidate for better inhibitory activity against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:The outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19), which began from Wuhan City, Hubei, China, and declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by World Health Organization (WHO) on 30th January 2020. The present study describes how the available drug candidates can be used as a potential SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor by molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation studies. Drug repurposing strategy is applied by using the library of antiviral and FDA approved drugs retrieved from the Selleckchem Inc. (Houston, TX, http://www.selleckchem.com) and DrugBank database respectively. Computational methods like molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation were used. The molecular docking calculations were performed using LeadIT FlexX software. The molecular dynamics simulations of 100?ns were performed to study conformational stability for all complex systems. Mitoxantrone and Leucovorin from FDA approved drug library and Birinapant and Dynasore from anti-viral drug libraries interact with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro at higher efficiency as a result of the improved steric and hydrophobic environment in the binding cavity to make stable complex. Also, the molecular dynamics simulations of 100?ns revealed the mean RMSD value of 2.25?Å for all the complex systems. This shows that lead compounds bound tightly within the Mpro cavity and thus having conformational stability. Glutamic acid (Glu166) of Mpro is a key residue to hold and form a stable complex of reported lead compounds by forming hydrogen bonds and salt bridge. Our findings suggest that Mitoxantrone, Leucovorin, Birinapant, and Dynasore represents potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.
Project description:The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has recently emerged as a pandemic. Here, an attempt has been made through in-silico high throughput screening to explore the antiviral compounds from traditionally used plants for antiviral treatments in India namely, Tea, Neem and Turmeric, as potential inhibitors of two widely studied viral proteases, main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) of the SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking study using BIOVIA Discovery Studio 2018 revealed, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG), a tea polyphenol has a binding affinity toward both the selected receptors, with the lowest CDocker energy - 46.22 kcal mol<sup>-1</sup> for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and CDocker energy - 44.72 kcal mol<sup>-1</sup> for SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, respectively. The SARS-CoV-2 Mpro complexed with (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, which had shown the best binding affinity was subjected to molecular dynamics simulations to validate its binding affinity, during which, the root-mean-square-deviation values of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro-Co-crystal ligand (N3) and SARS-CoV-2 Mpro- (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate systems were found to be more stable than SARS-CoV-2 Mpro system. Further, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate was subjected to QSAR analysis which predicted IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.3281 nM against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Overall, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate showed a potential binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and could be proposed as a potential natural compound for COVID-19 treatment.
Project description:Owing to the urgent need for therapeutic interventions against the SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, we employed an in silico approach to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory potential of newly synthesized imidazoles. The inhibitory potentials of the compounds against SARS-CoV-2 drug targets - main protease (Mpro), spike protein (Spro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) were investigated through molecular docking analysis. The binding free energy of the protein-ligand complexes were estimated, pharmacophore models were generated and the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) properties of the compounds were determined. The compounds displayed various levels of binding affinities for the SARS-CoV-2 drug targets. Bisimidazole C2 scored highest against all the targets, with its aromatic rings including the two imidazole groups contributing to the binding. Among the phenyl-substituted 1H-imidazoles, C9 scored highest against all targets. C11 scored highest against Spro and C12 against Mpro and RdRp among the thiophene-imidazoles. The compounds interacted with HIS 41 - CYS 145 and GLU 288 - ASP 289 - GLU 290 of Mpro, ASN 501 of Spro receptor binding motif and some active site amino acids of RdRp. These novel imidazole compounds could be further developed as drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 following lead optimization and experimental studies.
Project description:The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is an attractive target towards discovery of drugs to treat COVID-19 because of its key role in virus replication. The atomic structure of Mpro in complex with an ?-ketoamide inhibitor (Lig13b) is available (PDB ID:6Y2G). Using 6Y2G and the prior knowledge that protease inhibitors could eradicate COVID-19, we designed a computational study aimed at identifying FDA-approved drugs that could interact with Mpro. We searched the DrugBank and PubChem for analogs and built a virtual library containing ?33,000 conformers. Using high-throughput virtual screening and ligand docking, we identified Isavuconazonium, a ketoamide inhibitor (?-KI) and Pentagastrin as the top three molecules (Lig13b as the benchmark) based on docking energy. The ?Gbind of Lig13b, Isavuconazonium, ?-KI, Pentagastrin was -28.1, -45.7, -44.7, -34.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed that these ligands are stable within the Mpro active site. Binding of these ligands is driven by a variety of non-bonded interaction, including polar bonds, H-bonds, van der Waals and salt bridges. The overall conformational dynamics of the complexed-Mpro was slightly altered relative to apo-Mpro. This study demonstrates that three distinct classes molecules, Isavuconazonium (triazole), ?-KI (ketoamide) and Pentagastrin (peptide) could serve as potential drugs to treat patients with COVID-19.
Project description:COVID-19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has threatened the whole world affecting almost 243 million people globally. Originating from China, it has now spread worldwide with USA and India being the two most affected countries which emphasizes the immense potential of the coronaviruses to cause severity in the human population. This study validates the efficacy of some marine antiviral agents to target the viral main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 by in silico studies. A total of 14 marine-derived antiviral agents were screened from several databases including PubChem and DrugBank and docked against the crystallised 3D structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. MD simulation of the top two ligands was carried out for 100 ns to validate the protein-ligand stability. Later, their physicochemical, pharmacokinetics, and drug-likeness properties were evaluated and toxicity prediction was performed using eMOLTOX webtool. We found that all the 14 compounds are acting as a good target for Mpro. Among them, avarol and AcDa-1 procured the best docking results with the estimated docking score of −8.05 and −7.74 kcal/mol respectively. MD simulation revealed good conformational stability. The docked conformation was visualised and subsequent ligand-amino acid interactions were analysed. Avarol revealed good pharmacokinetic properties with oral bioavailability. The overall finding suggested that these marine compounds may have the potential to be used for the treatment of COVID-19 to tackle this pandemic. Graphical abstract Image 1
Project description:Since the emergence of SARS-CoV2, to date, no effective antiviral drug has been approved to treat the disease, and no vaccine against SARS-CoV2 is available. Under this scenario, the combination of two HIV-1 protease inhibitors, lopinavir and ritonavir, has attracted attention since they have been previously employed against the SARS-CoV main proteinase (Mpro) and exhibited some signs of effectiveness. Recently, the 3D structure of SARS-CoV2 Mpro was constructed based on the monomeric SARS-CoV Mpro and employed to identify potential approved small inhibitors against SARS-CoV2 Mpro, allowing the selection of 15 drugs among 1903 approved drugs to be employed. In this study, we performed docking of these 15 approved drugs against the recently solved X-ray crystallography structure of SARS-CoV2 Mpro in the monomeric and dimeric states; the latter is the functional state that was determined in a biological context, and these were submitted to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) approach to obtain insight into the inhibitory activity of these compounds. Similar studies were performed with lopinavir and ritonavir coupled to monomeric and dimeric SARS-CoV Mpro and SARS-CoV2 Mpro to compare the inhibitory differences. Our study provides the structural and energetic basis of the inhibitory properties of lopinavir and ritonavir on SARS-CoV Mpro and SARS-CoV2 Mpro, allowing us to identify two FDA-approved drugs that can be used against SARS-CoV2 Mpro. This study also demonstrated that drug discovery requires the dimeric state to obtain good results.
Project description:The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected several million people and caused thousands of deaths worldwide since December 2019. As the disease is spreading rapidly all over the world, it is urgent to find effective drugs to treat the virus. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the potential drug targets. Therefore, in this context, we used rigorous computational methods, including molecular docking, fast pulling of ligand (FPL), and free energy perturbation (FEP), to investigate potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We first tested our approach with three reported inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, and our computational results are in good agreement with the respective experimental data. Subsequently, we applied our approach on a database of ?4600 natural compounds, as well as 8 available HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors and an aza-peptide epoxide. Molecular docking resulted in a short list of 35 natural compounds, which was subsequently refined using the FPL scheme. FPL simulations resulted in five potential inhibitors, including three natural compounds and two available HIV-1 PR inhibitors. Finally, FEP, the most accurate and precise method, was used to determine the absolute binding free energy of these five compounds. FEP results indicate that two natural compounds, cannabisin A and isoacteoside, and an HIV-1 PR inhibitor, darunavir, exhibit a large binding free energy to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, which is larger than that of 13b, the most reliable SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor recently reported. The binding free energy largely arises from van der Waals interaction. We also found that Glu166 forms H-bonds to all of the inhibitors. Replacing Glu166 by an alanine residue leads to ?2.0 kcal/mol decreases in the affinity of darunavir to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Our results could contribute to the development of potential drugs inhibiting SARS-CoV-2.