CTLA4 +49AG (rs231775) and CT60 (rs3087243) gene variants are not associated with alopecia areata in a Mexican population from Monterrey Mexico.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that produces non-scarring hair loss around the body. Gene variants of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene, a negative regulator of T-cell response, have been associated with a predisposition to autoimmune diseases in different populations; however, the involvement of these genetic variants in the development of AA is controversial. OBJECTIVE:The present study evaluated the potential association of two CTLA4 gene variants with alopecia areata in a Mexican population. METHODS:We genotyped +49AG (rs231775) and CT60 (rs3087243) variants in 50 AA patients and 100 healthy control participants through PCR-RFLP. RESULTS:No statistical difference was observed for either of the gene variants regarding allele or genotype frequencies between AA patients and the controls when the parameters of family/personal history of autoimmune diseases or gender were considered (p>0.05). STUDY LIMITATIONS:Small sample size of patients and the data were obtained from Northeast Mexico population. CONCLUSION:The genetic variants rs231775 and rs3087243 of the CTLA4 gene are not a risk factor for the development of alopecia areata in the analyzed Mexican population.
Project description:The cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) gene is a key negative regulator of the T lymphocyte immune response. It has been found that CTLA4 +49A>G (rs231775), +6230G>A (rs3087243), and 11430G>A (rs11571319) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to many autoimmune diseases, and can down-regulate the inhibition of cellular immune response of CTLA4. Three SNPs in CTLA4 were genotyped by using the PCR and DNA sequencing methods in order to reveal the susceptibility and pathology correlation to pulmonary tuberculosis in Southern Han Chinese. We found that the frequency of CTLA4 +49AG genotype in the pulmonary tuberculosis patients (38.42%) was significantly lower than that of the healthy controls (49.77%), (P(cor)=0.038, OR 0.653, 95% CI 0.436-0.978). But, no associations were found between the other 2 SNPs (+6230G>A, 11430G>A) and tuberculosis (P>0.05). Haplotype analysis showed that the frequency of haplotype AGG in the healthy controls group (6.9%) was significantly higher than the pulmonary tuberculosis patients group (1.4%), (global P=0.005, P(cor)=0.0002, OR 0.183, 95% CI 0.072-0.468). In addition, haplotype GGA was found to be significantly related to tuberculosis with double lung lesion rather than single lung lesion (P(cor)=0.042). This study is the first to report that genetic variants in the CTLA4 gene can be associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in Southern Han Chinese, and CTLA4 +49AG genotype as well as haplotype AGG may reduce the risk of being infected with pulmonary tuberculosis. The GGA haplotype was related to tuberculosis with double lung lesion, which provides a new experimental basis to clarify the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms in cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) play an influential role in graft rejection and the long-term clinical outcome of organ transplantation. We investigated the association of five CTLA4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs733618 C/T, rs4553808 A/G, rs5742909 C/T, rs231775 A/G, and rs3087243 G/A) with de novo malignancy in 1463 Chinese renal transplantation (RT) recipients who underwent a 192-month follow-up. Multivariate analyses revealed that recipient rs231775 genotype is significantly associated with tumorigenesis (P = 0.012). Multiplicative interaction between rs231775 AA and possible risk factors of malignancy revealed two significant results: rs231775 AA?×?primary diseases and rs231775 AA?×?number of HLA-mismatch. The frequency of haplotype TACAG was significantly higher in the tumor group (17.07%) than that in the nontumor group (1.53%). In addition, aristolochic acid nephropathy (P = 0.003) and the time of discovery of tumor (P = 0.000) also were independently associated with tumorigenesis. Our data show that the CTLA4 genotype rs231775 AA may be one of risk factors for the development of malignancy and haplotype TACAG was susceptible haplotype in Chinese kidney transplant recipients.
Project description:Several lines of evidence have implicated the gene encoding cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) in susceptibility to various autoimmune diseases. However, published studies of genetic association between CTLA4 polymorphisms and vitiligo have yielded conflicting results. Here, we describe two new genetic association studies of CTLA4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and generalized vitiligo in two independent Romanian Caucasian (CEU) case-control cohorts. The first study, of SNPs rs1863800, rs231806, rs231775, rs3087243, rs11571302, rs11571297, and rs10932037, showed no allelic, genotypic, or haplotypic association with generalized vitiligo. The second study, of SNP rs231775, likewise showed no significant association. To enhance statistical power over that of any individual study, we carried out a meta-analysis that incorporated these two new studies and all other published genetic association studies of CTLA4 SNPs and vitiligo in CEU populations. While there was no association with vitiligo overall, the meta-analysis showed significant association of SNP rs231775 in that subgroup of vitiligo patients who also had other concomitant autoimmune diseases. Similarly, there was near-significant association in this same patient subgroup with several other CTLA4 SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium with rs231775. Our results indicate that the association of CTLA4 with vitiligo is weak, and indeed may be secondary, driven by primary genetic association of CTLA4 with other autoimmune diseases that are epidemiologically associated with vitiligo.
Project description:Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4), a critical negative regulator of the T-cell response, has been considered a candidate for many autoimmune diseases. Evidence from Caucasians supported a genetic predisposition of CTLA4 to myasthenia gravis (MG), but the contribution in East Asians has not been established.To investigate the role of CTLA4 variants in the susceptibility to MG and the contribution to subtypes of MG.Six autoimmune disease-related risk alleles of CTLA4 (rs1863800, rs733618, rs4553808, rs5742909, rs231775, and rs3087243) were investigated for MG in northern Chinese. 168 patients with MG (mean age 37.1±20.5 years, 64 men and 104 women) and 233 healthy controls (mean age 53.3±8.7 years, 96 men and 137 women) were screened, and the contribution of CTLA4 to the general risk of MG and each subgroup was explored.rs1863800*C, rs733618*C, and rs231775*G were significantly associated with the whole cohort of patients with MG after permutation correction for multiple-testing adjustment (P?=?0.027, 0.001, and 0.032, respectively). A risk haplotype (CCACG) [odds ratio (OR)?=?1.535, range?=?1.150-2.059, P?=?0.004)] was also identified. The stratified subtype analysis indicated that the positive contribution was possibly derived from early onset MG (EOMG), seropositive MG (SPMG), female patients, and MG without thymoma. No association was observed in juvenile MG/LOMG, and MG coupled with thymoma.A predisposing effect of rs1863800*C, rs733618*C, and rs231775*G of CTLA4 gene to general risk of MG in Chinese was demonstrated for the first time, which was likely derived from EOMG, SPMG, MG without thymoma and the female patients.
Project description:We conducted a case/control study to assess the impact of SNP rs3087243 and rs231775 within the CTLA4 gene, on the susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) in a Chinese Han dataset (271 cases and 298 controls). The frequency of G allele for rs3087243 and rs231775 was observed to be significantly higher in subjects with GD than in control subjects (p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). After logistic regression analysis, a significant association was detected between SNP rs3087243 and GD in the additive and recessive models. Similarly, association for the SNP rs231775 could also be detected in the additive model, dominant model and recessive model. A meta-analysis, including 27 published datasets along with the current dataset, was performed to further confirm the association. Consistent with our case/control results, rs3087243 and rs231775 showed a significant association with GD in all genetic models. Of note, ethnic stratification revealed that these two SNPs were associated with susceptibility to GD in populations of both Asian and European descent. In conclusion, our data support that the rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphisms within the CTLA4 gene confer genetic susceptibility to GD.
Project description:Biliary atresia (BA) is a devastating liver disease of complex pathogenesis in neonates, characterized by an inflammatory and fibrosing obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) is expressed on the surface of a subset of regulatory T cells (Treg) and down regulates the human immune response. To investigate the possible association between CTLA4 gene polymorphisms and BA susceptibility, we conducted a case-control study in the Chinese children. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CLTA4 gene (rs231725, rs231775 and rs3087243) were genotyped in 113 BA patients and 133 healthy controls. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between BA patients and healthy controls in allele or genotype frequencies (rs231725, P = 0.2718, OR = 0.814, 95% CI = 0.564-1.175; rs231775, P = 0.1599, OR = 1.316, 95% CI = 0.897-1.931; rs3087243, P = 0.0572, OR = 1.582, 95% CI = 0.984-2.543), neither in the distribution of haplotypes of these CTLA4 gene SNPs. The result of our study is the first one to provide the evidence that there is no significant association between CLTA4 gene polymorphisms and BA susceptibility in Chinese children.
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms in cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) play an influential role in graft rejection and the long-term clinical outcome of organ transplantation. We investigated the association of 5 CTLA4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs733618 C/T, rs4553808 A/G, rs5742909 C/T, rs231775 A/G, and rs3087243 G/A) with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in Chinese renal transplantation (RT) recipients. Each recipient underwent a 24-month follow-up observation for drug-induced liver damage. The CTLA4 SNPs were genotyped in 864 renal transplantation recipients. A significant association was found between the rs231775 genotype and an early onset of DILI in the recipients. Multivariate analyses revealed that a risk factor, recipient rs231775 genotype (p = 0.040), was associated with DILI. Five haplotypes were estimated for 4 SNPs (excluding rs733618); the frequency of haplotype ACGG was significantly higher in the DILI group (68.9%) than in the non-DILI group (61.1%) (p = 0.041). In conclusion, CTLA4 haplotype ACGG was partially associated with the development of DILI in Chinese kidney transplant recipients. The rs231775 GG genotype may be a risk factor for immunosuppressive drug-induced liver damage.
Project description:Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disorder mostly presented as round patches of hair loss and subclassified into alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis (AT/AU) based on the area of alopecia. Although AA is relatively common, only 5% of AA patients progress to AT/AU, which affect the whole scalp and whole body respectively. To determine genetic determinants of this orphan disease, we undertook whole-exome sequencing of 6 samples from AU patients, and 26 variants in immune-related genes were selected as candidates. When an additional 14 AU samples were genotyped for these candidates, 6 of them remained at the level of significance in comparison with 155 Asian controls (p<1.92×10(-3)). Linkage disequilibrium was observed between some of the most significant SNPs, including rs41559420 of HLA-DRB5 (p<0.001, OR 44.57) and rs28362679 of BTNL2 (p<0.001, OR 30.21). While BTNL2 was reported as a general susceptibility gene of AA previously, HLA-DRB5 has not been implicated in AA. In addition, we found several genetic variants in novel genes (HLA-DMB, TLR1, and PMS2) and discovered an additional locus on HLA-A, a known susceptibility gene of AA. This study provides further evidence for the association of previously reported genes with AA and novel findings such as HLA-DRB5, which might represent a hidden culprit gene for AU.
Project description:Autoimmune diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) result from failure in the immune mechanisms that establish and maintain self-tolerance. Evidence suggests that these processes are shared among the spectrum of autoimmune syndromes and are likely genetically determined. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell-death 1 (PDCD1) are two genes encoding coinhibitory immunoreceptors that harbor polymorphisms with demonstrated associations to multiple autoimmune disorders. We aimed to assess functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these two genes for association with PBC. SNPs in CTLA4 and PDCD1 were genotyped in 351 PBC patients and 205 controls. Allele and genotype frequencies were evaluated for association with PBC and/or antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) positivity with logistic regression. Haplotypes were inferred with an expectation-maximization algorithm, and allelic interaction was analyzed by logistic regression modeling. Individual SNPs demonstrated no association to PBC. However, the GG genotype of CTLA4 49AG was significantly associated with AMA positivity among the PBC patients. Also, individual SNPs and a haplotype of CTLA4 as well as a rare genotype of the PDCD1 SNP PD1.3 were associated with orthotopic liver transplantation. As well, we identified the influence of an interaction between the putatively autoimmune-protective CTLA4 49AG:CT60 AA haplotype and autoimmune-risk PDCD1 PD1.3 A allele on development of PBC.Our findings illustrate the complex nature of the genetically induced risk of PBC and emphasize the importance of considering definable subphenotypes of disease, such as AMA positivity, or definitive measures of disease severity/progression, like orthotopic liver transplantation, when genetic analyses are being performed. Comprehensive screening of genes involved with immune function will lead to a greater understanding of the genetic component of autoimmunity in PBC while furthering our understanding of the pathogenic properties of this enigmatic disease.
Project description:Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a coinhibitory checkpoint protein expressed on the surface of T cells. A recent study by our working group revealed that the rs231775 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CTLA-4 gene was associated with the survival of patients with sepsis and served as an independent prognostic variable. To further investigate the impact of CTLA-4 genetic variants on sepsis survival, we examined the effect of two functional SNPs, CTLA-4 rs733618 and CTLA-4 rs3087243, and inferred haplotypes, on the survival of 644 prospectively enrolled septic patients. Kaplan?Meier survival analysis revealed significantly lower 90-day mortality for rs3087243 G allele carriers (n = 502) than for AA-homozygous (n = 142) patients (27.3% vs. 40.8%, p = 0.0024). Likewise, lower 90-day mortality was observed for TAA haplotype-negative patients (n = 197; compound rs733618 T/rs231775 A/rs3087243 A) than for patients carrying the TAA haplotype (n = 447; 24.4% vs. 32.9%, p = 0.0265). Carrying the rs3087243 G allele hazard ratio (HR): 0.667; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.489?0.909; p = 0.0103) or not carrying the TAA haplotype (HR: 0.685; 95% CI: 0.491?0.956; p = 0.0262) remained significant covariates for 90-day survival in the multivariate Cox regression analysis and thus served as independent prognostic variables. In conclusion, our findings underscore the significance of CTLA-4 genetic variants as predictors of survival of patients with sepsis.