CTLA4 +49AG (rs231775) and CT60 (rs3087243) gene variants are not associated with alopecia areata in a Mexican population from Monterrey Mexico.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that produces non-scarring hair loss around the body. Gene variants of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene, a negative regulator of T-cell response, have been associated with a predisposition to autoimmune diseases in different populations; however, the involvement of these genetic variants in the development of AA is controversial. OBJECTIVE:The present study evaluated the potential association of two CTLA4 gene variants with alopecia areata in a Mexican population. METHODS:We genotyped +49AG (rs231775) and CT60 (rs3087243) variants in 50 AA patients and 100 healthy control participants through PCR-RFLP. RESULTS:No statistical difference was observed for either of the gene variants regarding allele or genotype frequencies between AA patients and the controls when the parameters of family/personal history of autoimmune diseases or gender were considered (p>0.05). STUDY LIMITATIONS:Small sample size of patients and the data were obtained from Northeast Mexico population. CONCLUSION:The genetic variants rs231775 and rs3087243 of the CTLA4 gene are not a risk factor for the development of alopecia areata in the analyzed Mexican population.
Project description:We conducted a case/control study to assess the impact of SNP rs3087243 and rs231775 within the CTLA4 gene, on the susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) in a Chinese Han dataset (271 cases and 298 controls). The frequency of G allele for rs3087243 and rs231775 was observed to be significantly higher in subjects with GD than in control subjects (p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). After logistic regression analysis, a significant association was detected between SNP rs3087243 and GD in the additive and recessive models. Similarly, association for the SNP rs231775 could also be detected in the additive model, dominant model and recessive model. A meta-analysis, including 27 published datasets along with the current dataset, was performed to further confirm the association. Consistent with our case/control results, rs3087243 and rs231775 showed a significant association with GD in all genetic models. Of note, ethnic stratification revealed that these two SNPs were associated with susceptibility to GD in populations of both Asian and European descent. In conclusion, our data support that the rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphisms within the CTLA4 gene confer genetic susceptibility to GD.
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms in cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) play an influential role in graft rejection and the long-term clinical outcome of organ transplantation. We investigated the association of five CTLA4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs733618 C/T, rs4553808 A/G, rs5742909 C/T, rs231775 A/G, and rs3087243 G/A) with de novo malignancy in 1463 Chinese renal transplantation (RT) recipients who underwent a 192-month follow-up. Multivariate analyses revealed that recipient rs231775 genotype is significantly associated with tumorigenesis (P = 0.012). Multiplicative interaction between rs231775 AA and possible risk factors of malignancy revealed two significant results: rs231775 AA?×?primary diseases and rs231775 AA?×?number of HLA-mismatch. The frequency of haplotype TACAG was significantly higher in the tumor group (17.07%) than that in the nontumor group (1.53%). In addition, aristolochic acid nephropathy (P = 0.003) and the time of discovery of tumor (P = 0.000) also were independently associated with tumorigenesis. Our data show that the CTLA4 genotype rs231775 AA may be one of risk factors for the development of malignancy and haplotype TACAG was susceptible haplotype in Chinese kidney transplant recipients.
Project description:Several lines of evidence have implicated the gene encoding cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) in susceptibility to various autoimmune diseases. However, published studies of genetic association between CTLA4 polymorphisms and vitiligo have yielded conflicting results. Here, we describe two new genetic association studies of CTLA4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and generalized vitiligo in two independent Romanian Caucasian (CEU) case-control cohorts. The first study, of SNPs rs1863800, rs231806, rs231775, rs3087243, rs11571302, rs11571297, and rs10932037, showed no allelic, genotypic, or haplotypic association with generalized vitiligo. The second study, of SNP rs231775, likewise showed no significant association. To enhance statistical power over that of any individual study, we carried out a meta-analysis that incorporated these two new studies and all other published genetic association studies of CTLA4 SNPs and vitiligo in CEU populations. While there was no association with vitiligo overall, the meta-analysis showed significant association of SNP rs231775 in that subgroup of vitiligo patients who also had other concomitant autoimmune diseases. Similarly, there was near-significant association in this same patient subgroup with several other CTLA4 SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium with rs231775. Our results indicate that the association of CTLA4 with vitiligo is weak, and indeed may be secondary, driven by primary genetic association of CTLA4 with other autoimmune diseases that are epidemiologically associated with vitiligo.
Project description:Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4), a critical negative regulator of the T-cell response, has been considered a candidate for many autoimmune diseases. Evidence from Caucasians supported a genetic predisposition of CTLA4 to myasthenia gravis (MG), but the contribution in East Asians has not been established.To investigate the role of CTLA4 variants in the susceptibility to MG and the contribution to subtypes of MG.Six autoimmune disease-related risk alleles of CTLA4 (rs1863800, rs733618, rs4553808, rs5742909, rs231775, and rs3087243) were investigated for MG in northern Chinese. 168 patients with MG (mean age 37.1±20.5 years, 64 men and 104 women) and 233 healthy controls (mean age 53.3±8.7 years, 96 men and 137 women) were screened, and the contribution of CTLA4 to the general risk of MG and each subgroup was explored.rs1863800*C, rs733618*C, and rs231775*G were significantly associated with the whole cohort of patients with MG after permutation correction for multiple-testing adjustment (P?=?0.027, 0.001, and 0.032, respectively). A risk haplotype (CCACG) [odds ratio (OR)?=?1.535, range?=?1.150-2.059, P?=?0.004)] was also identified. The stratified subtype analysis indicated that the positive contribution was possibly derived from early onset MG (EOMG), seropositive MG (SPMG), female patients, and MG without thymoma. No association was observed in juvenile MG/LOMG, and MG coupled with thymoma.A predisposing effect of rs1863800*C, rs733618*C, and rs231775*G of CTLA4 gene to general risk of MG in Chinese was demonstrated for the first time, which was likely derived from EOMG, SPMG, MG without thymoma and the female patients.
Project description:Although insulitis is the characteristic main feature of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), many aspects of ? cell loss still remain elusive. Immune dysregulation and alterations in the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-incretin system might have a role in disease development, but their connection is poorly understood. We assessed the associations of a few selected, immunologically relevant single nucleotide gene variants with the DPP-4-incretin system in individuals with T1DM and in healthy controls. Prandial plasma (total, active) GLP-1 levels, serum DPP-4 activity, CD25 and CTLA-4 expression of T cells and DPP4 rs6741949, CTLA4 rs3087243, CD25 rs61839660 and PTPN2 rs2476601 SNPs were assessed in 33 T1DM patients and 34 age-, gender-, BMI-matched non-diabetic controls without a family history of T1DM. CTLA-4 expression was lower in the Foxp3+CD25+ regulatory T cells from individuals homozygous for the CTLA4 rs3087243-G variant compared to those who carry an A allele. Prandial plasma total GLP-1 levels 45 min after a standardized meal were reduced in individuals homozygous for the CTLA4 rs3087243 G major allele compared to A allele carriers both in the entire study population (with statistical power over 90%) and within the T1DM group. Here we report for the first time a reduced total prandial GLP-1 plasma concentration in individuals with the CTLA4 rs3087243 G/G genotype. One may speculate that immune response-related L cell damage might possibly explain this novel association.
Project description:Biliary atresia (BA) is a devastating liver disease of complex pathogenesis in neonates, characterized by an inflammatory and fibrosing obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) is expressed on the surface of a subset of regulatory T cells (Treg) and down regulates the human immune response. To investigate the possible association between CTLA4 gene polymorphisms and BA susceptibility, we conducted a case-control study in the Chinese children. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CLTA4 gene (rs231725, rs231775 and rs3087243) were genotyped in 113 BA patients and 133 healthy controls. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between BA patients and healthy controls in allele or genotype frequencies (rs231725, P = 0.2718, OR = 0.814, 95% CI = 0.564-1.175; rs231775, P = 0.1599, OR = 1.316, 95% CI = 0.897-1.931; rs3087243, P = 0.0572, OR = 1.582, 95% CI = 0.984-2.543), neither in the distribution of haplotypes of these CTLA4 gene SNPs. The result of our study is the first one to provide the evidence that there is no significant association between CLTA4 gene polymorphisms and BA susceptibility in Chinese children.
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms in cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) play an influential role in graft rejection and the long-term clinical outcome of organ transplantation. We investigated the association of 5 CTLA4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs733618 C/T, rs4553808 A/G, rs5742909 C/T, rs231775 A/G, and rs3087243 G/A) with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in Chinese renal transplantation (RT) recipients. Each recipient underwent a 24-month follow-up observation for drug-induced liver damage. The CTLA4 SNPs were genotyped in 864 renal transplantation recipients. A significant association was found between the rs231775 genotype and an early onset of DILI in the recipients. Multivariate analyses revealed that a risk factor, recipient rs231775 genotype (p = 0.040), was associated with DILI. Five haplotypes were estimated for 4 SNPs (excluding rs733618); the frequency of haplotype ACGG was significantly higher in the DILI group (68.9%) than in the non-DILI group (61.1%) (p = 0.041). In conclusion, CTLA4 haplotype ACGG was partially associated with the development of DILI in Chinese kidney transplant recipients. The rs231775 GG genotype may be a risk factor for immunosuppressive drug-induced liver damage.
Project description:Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disorder mostly presented as round patches of hair loss and subclassified into alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis (AT/AU) based on the area of alopecia. Although AA is relatively common, only 5% of AA patients progress to AT/AU, which affect the whole scalp and whole body respectively. To determine genetic determinants of this orphan disease, we undertook whole-exome sequencing of 6 samples from AU patients, and 26 variants in immune-related genes were selected as candidates. When an additional 14 AU samples were genotyped for these candidates, 6 of them remained at the level of significance in comparison with 155 Asian controls (p<1.92×10(-3)). Linkage disequilibrium was observed between some of the most significant SNPs, including rs41559420 of HLA-DRB5 (p<0.001, OR 44.57) and rs28362679 of BTNL2 (p<0.001, OR 30.21). While BTNL2 was reported as a general susceptibility gene of AA previously, HLA-DRB5 has not been implicated in AA. In addition, we found several genetic variants in novel genes (HLA-DMB, TLR1, and PMS2) and discovered an additional locus on HLA-A, a known susceptibility gene of AA. This study provides further evidence for the association of previously reported genes with AA and novel findings such as HLA-DRB5, which might represent a hidden culprit gene for AU.
Project description:Blockade of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a down-regulator of T-cell activation, can cause cancer regression in patients with metastatic melanoma. However, not all patients respond well to the therapy and some develop severe autoimmune reactions. We hypothesized that common genetic variation in the CTLA4 gene could contribute to response to CTLA-4 blockade and the occurrence of autoimmune reactions. We investigated 7 common single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, (rs733618, rs4553808, rs11571317, rs5742909, rs231775, rs3087243, and rs7565213) in 152 white melanoma patients who received CTLA-4 blockade. Three SNPs were associated with response to therapy: proximal promoter SNPs, rs4553808 [P=0.002; odds ratio (OR) 3.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.62-7.10] and rs11571327 (P=0.02; OR 2.89; 95% CI, 1.23-6.83) and the nonsynonymous SNP rs231775 (Thr17Ala, P=0.009; OR 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.82). A haplotype analysis including the 7 SNPs suggested that the common haplotype, TACCGGG could be associated with no response (P=0.02) whereas the haplotype TGCCAGG (P=0.06; OR 4.13; 95% CI, 1.17-14.5) could be associated with response to the treatment. No significant association was observed for occurrence of severe autoimmune reactions (grade III/IV) either by single SNP or haplotype analyses. Our results suggest that genetic variation in CTLA4 could influence response to CTLA-4 blockade therapy in metastatic melanoma patients, but further studies are necessary to confirm the observed associations.
Project description:Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a coinhibitory checkpoint protein expressed on the surface of T cells. A recent study by our working group revealed that the rs231775 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CTLA-4 gene was associated with the survival of patients with sepsis and served as an independent prognostic variable. To further investigate the impact of CTLA-4 genetic variants on sepsis survival, we examined the effect of two functional SNPs, CTLA-4 rs733618 and CTLA-4 rs3087243, and inferred haplotypes, on the survival of 644 prospectively enrolled septic patients. Kaplan?Meier survival analysis revealed significantly lower 90-day mortality for rs3087243 G allele carriers (n = 502) than for AA-homozygous (n = 142) patients (27.3% vs. 40.8%, p = 0.0024). Likewise, lower 90-day mortality was observed for TAA haplotype-negative patients (n = 197; compound rs733618 T/rs231775 A/rs3087243 A) than for patients carrying the TAA haplotype (n = 447; 24.4% vs. 32.9%, p = 0.0265). Carrying the rs3087243 G allele hazard ratio (HR): 0.667; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.489?0.909; p = 0.0103) or not carrying the TAA haplotype (HR: 0.685; 95% CI: 0.491?0.956; p = 0.0262) remained significant covariates for 90-day survival in the multivariate Cox regression analysis and thus served as independent prognostic variables. In conclusion, our findings underscore the significance of CTLA-4 genetic variants as predictors of survival of patients with sepsis.