Coronavirus impacts on post-pandemic planned travel behaviours.
ABSTRACT: •Provides a prompt understanding of a real time pandemic (coronavirus Covid-19)•Analyses the intra-pandemic perception and post-pandemic planned behaviours•Evaluates planned changes to travel behaviours•Discusses intra-pandemic effects on perceptions towards tourist destinations.
Project description:The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is currently spreading across the world at an alarming rate, resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Amidst this crisis, tourism scholars are directing their attention to communities at tourist destinations, looking at their safety and well-being and the costs that they will bear due to the cessation of tourism activity. This article describes residents' perceptions of the risks posed by tourism activity, and estimates their willingness to pay to reduce public health risks based on hypothetical scenarios, using the triple-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation method. The social costs in three urban destinations are assessed and compared. Based on the findings, suggestions are made for appropriate post-pandemic recovery actions by local authorities and tourism organizations.
Project description:Guided by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health literacy concepts, SIPsmartER is a six-month multicomponent intervention effective at improving SSB behaviours. Using SIPsmartER data, this study explores prediction of SSB behavioural intention (BI) and behaviour from TPB constructs using: (1) cross-sectional and prospective models and (2) 11 single-item assessments from interactive voice response (IVR) technology.Quasi-experimental design, including pre- and post-outcome data and repeated-measures process data of 155 intervention participants.Validated multi-item TPB measures, single-item TPB measures, and self-reported SSB behaviours. Hypothesised relationships were investigated using correlation and multiple regression models.TPB constructs explained 32% of the variance cross sectionally and 20% prospectively in BI; and explained 13-20% of variance cross sectionally and 6% prospectively. Single-item scale models were significant, yet explained less variance. All IVR models predicting BI (average 21%, range 6-38%) and behaviour (average 30%, range 6-55%) were significant.Findings are interpreted in the context of other cross-sectional, prospective and experimental TPB health and dietary studies. Findings advance experimental application of the TPB, including understanding constructs at outcome and process time points and applying theory in all intervention development, implementation and evaluation phases.
Project description:In this paper, we characterise tourists most likely to visit a coastal destination by high-speed rail (HSR). Our data came from a survey conducted among HSR passengers during 2014's high season (July and August) at Spain's Camp de Tarragona and Alicante Stations, each of which is near a mass tourism destination on the Mediterranean coast: the Costa Daurada and the Costa Blanca, respectively. We used responses to the survey, which presented binary discrete-choice situations, to construct a database necessary for a logistic regression model that allowed us to examine how passenger profile, trip characteristics, and stay conditions influenced the use of HSR services on visits to each coastal destination. Results highlighted significant differences in the profiles of tourists who arrived at each destination by HSR and, in turn, that no specific tourist profile is associated with HSR, even for two stations that serve sunny beach destinations. Among its implications, to analyse travellers that HSR can attract, it is vital to consider the specific characteristics of each destination and its current market.
Project description:Effectiveness of pandemic plans and community compliance was extensively researched following the H1N1 pandemic. This systematic review examined community response studies to determine whether behavioural responses to the pandemic were related to level of knowledge about the pandemic, perceived severity of the pandemic and level of concern about the pandemic.Literature databases were searched from March 2009 to August 2011 and included cross-sectional or repeated population surveys undertaken during or following the H1N1 pandemic which reported on community response to the pandemic. Studies using population subgroups and other respiratory diseases were excluded, as were mathematical modelling and qualitative studies.Nineteen unique studies were included. Fourteen reported pandemic knowledge, 14 reported levels of concern and risk perception and 18 reported pandemic behaviours. Awareness of the pandemic was high, and knowledge was moderate. Levels of concern and risk were low moderate and precautionary behavioural actions lower than intentions. The most commonly reported factors influencing adopting recommended behaviours were increased risk perception and older age, increased pandemic knowledge and being female.Important implications for future pandemic planning were identified. A remarkable lack of intercountry variability in responses existed; however, differences between populations within a single country suggest one-size-fits-all plans may be ineffective. Secondly, differences between reported precautionary intentions and preventive behaviours undertaken may be related to people's perceived risk of infection.
Project description:The first decade of the present century has been characterized by several economic shocks such as the 2008 financial crisis. In this data article we present the annual percentage growth rates of the main tourism indicators in the world?s top tourist destinations: the United States, China, France, Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Mexico and Austria. We use data from the Compendium of Tourism Statistics provided by the World Tourism Organization (http://www2.unwto.org/content/data-0). It has been demonstrated that the dynamics of growth in the tourism industry pose different challenges to each destination in the previous study "Positioning and clustering of the world?s top tourist destinations by means of dimensionality reduction techniques for categorical data" (Claveria and Poluzzi, 2016, ). We provide a descriptive analysis of the variables over the period comprised between 2000 and 2010. We complement the analysis by graphing the evolution of the main variables so as to visually represent the co-movements between tourism variables and economic growth.
Project description:The impact of human-related activities on the eco-environment of tourist destinations is an important part of recreation ecology research. However, traditional studies have mainly concentrated on the static influences upon the simple factors of soil or vegetation in tourist destinations, and the relationship between anthropogenic disturbances and landscape patterns is little understood. In this study, we constructed a disturbance model on a landscape scale to identify and quantify the main anthropogenic disturbances. The overall variation coefficient (OVC) index is defined as the intensity of different disturbance sources, and landscape structure analysis methods are used for temporal and spatial differentiation, which is applied in the Li River Basin, China. Three typical types of human-related activities are identified as possible anthropogenic disturbance sources in the region, and their notable influential spheres are determined. Then, the dynamic changes in tourism disturbance in two periods and the spatial distribution characteristics related to three factors are explored. The results suggest that settlement and tourism disturbances have exerted considerable impacts on landscape patterns, and the differentiation characteristics are closely related to local tourism development policies and patterns. The disturbance model could be applied in other tourism destinations and provide countermeasures for regional tourism management.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly disrupted daily life in Canada. This study assesses changes in health behaviours during the early stages of the pandemic and examines socio-demographic disparities associated with these changes. METHODS:We analyze data on adults age 25 and older (N?=?4383) from the public-use Canadian Perspectives Survey Series 1: Impacts of COVID-19 (CPSS-COVID). Multinomial regression models assess the association between demographic and socio-economic characteristics with increases or decreases in six health behaviours: alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, junk food consumption, and TV and internet screen time. RESULTS:While findings varied across the six behaviours, overall, there was an increase in negative health behaviours: 14% of Canadian adults reported increasing their alcohol use (95% CI?=?0.12, 0.15), 25% increased their junk food consumption (95% CI?=?0.23, 0.27), and over 60% increased their screen time (62%, 95% CI?=?0.60, 0.65 for TV and 66%, 95% CI?=?0.63, 0.68 for internet). Younger and Canada-born adults were more likely to increase negative health behaviours than older and immigrant Canadians. Adults who reported financial impact of COVID-19 were more likely to increase all negative health behaviours (e.g., for increased junk food consumption, the relative risk ratio (RRR)?=?1.81, 95% CI?=?1.49, 2.20 relative to group reporting no impact). CONCLUSION:Our study documents the overall deterioration of health behaviours during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. To minimize long-term harm to the Canadian population's health, the results highlight the need to tailor interventions, especially for younger Canadians, and the importance of mitigating financial impacts, which are linked to negative changes in health behaviours.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to develop and assess a questionnaire measuring the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) regarding older adults' behaviours towards seeking a hearing test. DESIGN:Older adults who failed a hearing screening completed a newly developed Theory of Planned Behavior-Hearing Help Seeking (TPB-HHS) questionnaire. A principal components analysis (PCA) examined the factor structure of the questionnaire, and a reliability analysis determined the internal consistency of the factors. An examination of six-month follow-up data determined whether the questionnaire differentiated between individuals who did and did not seek out a hearing test by comparing their TPB-HHS scores. STUDY SAMPLE:Participants were 407 adults aged 50 to 89 recruited at community hearing screenings. RESULTS:PCA and reliability analyses resulted in a 4-factor, 18 item questionnaire. Three of four factors demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. The TPB-HHS explained 60.18% of the variance and factors were interpreted to be measuring the constructs of Intentions, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitudes, and Subjective Norms. Individuals who sought a hearing test scored significantly higher on the Intentions, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Attitudes scales than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS:The TPB-HHS provides insight into underlying psychological mechanisms that drive behaviours related to hearing help-seeking in older adults.
Project description:Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998.To assess the effects of planned hospital birth compared with planned home birth in selected low-risk women, assisted by an experienced midwife with collaborative medical back up in case transfer should be necessary.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 March 2012) and contacted editors and authors involved with possible trials.Randomised controlled trials comparing planned hospital birth with planned home birth in low-risk women as described in the objectives.The two review authors as independently as possible assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information.Two trials met the inclusion criteria but only one trial involving 11 women provided some outcome data and was included. The evidence from this trial was of moderate quality and too small to allow conclusions to be drawn.There is no strong evidence from randomised trials to favour either planned hospital birth or planned home birth for low-risk pregnant women. However, the trials show that women living in areas where they are not well informed about home birth may welcome ethically well-designed trials that would ensure an informed choice. As the quality of evidence in favour of home birth from observational studies seems to be steadily increasing, it might be as important to prepare a regularly updated systematic review including observational studies as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions as to attempt to set up new randomised controlled trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is some evidence that loneliness may be linked to poorer health behaviours. Despite this, there has been little research to date on the relationship between loneliness and COVID-19 preventive behaviours. We studied these associations in a sample of the Japanese population. METHODS:Data were analysed from an online survey of 2000 adults undertaken in April and May 2020. Loneliness was assessed with the Three-Item Loneliness Scale. Information was also collected on 13 COVID-19 preventive behaviours. Regression analyses were used to examine associations. RESULTS:In linear regression models adjusted for demographic and mental health variables, both dichotomous and continuous loneliness measures were negatively associated with engaging in COVID-19 preventive behaviours. Logistic regression analyses further showed that loneliness was also associated with reduced odds for a variety of individual preventive behaviours including wearing a mask (odds ratio [OR]: 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.95), disinfecting hands (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67-0.94) and social distancing when outdoors (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.92). CONCLUSIONS:Loneliness is associated with lower engagement in COVID-19 preventive behaviours. Interventions to prevent or ameliorate loneliness during the ongoing pandemic may be important in combating the spread of the coronavirus.