Eumelanin Precursor 2-Carboxy-5,6-Dihydroxyindole (DHICA) as Doping Factor in Ternary (PEDOT:PSS/Eumelanin) Thin Films for Conductivity Enhancement.
ABSTRACT: The integration of the pristine not-doped commercial poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) PH1000 with eumelanin, the brown to black kind of melanin pigment, was achieved by dissolving the melanogenic precursors 2-carboxy-5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHICA) in the PH1000 suspension. Solid state oxidative polymerization of the catecholic indole allowed obtaining the ternary blend PEDOT:PSS/eumelanin. The introduction of DHICA into PH1000 produced a noticeable increase in the conductivity of PEDOT thin films akin to that produced by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, opening up novel strategies for the simultaneous integration of eumelanin polymer and conductivity enhancement of PEDOT containing coatings, as well as the long term goal of replacing PSS by DHICA eumelanin for PEDOT pairing.
Project description:5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA), an intermediate of melanin synthesis and an eumelanin building block, was recently discovered to be a GPR35 agonist with moderate potency. Here, we report the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of a series of DHICA analogues against GPR35 using both label-free dynamic mass redistribution and Tango ?-arrestin translocation assays. This led to identification of novel GPR35 agonists with improved potency and/or having biased agonism.
Project description:Melanin synthesis in mammals is catalysed by at least three enzymic proteins, tyrosinase (monophenol dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 126.96.36.199) and tyrosinase-related proteins (tyrps) 1 and 2, whose genes map to the albino, brown and slaty loci in mice, respectively. Tyrosinase catalyses the rate-limiting generation of L-dopaquinone from L-tyrosine and is also able to oxidize L-dopa to L-dopaquinone. Conversely, mouse tyrp1, but not tyrosinase, catalyses the oxidation of the indolic intermediate 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) into the corresponding 5,6-indolequinone-2-carboxylic acid, thus promoting the incorporation of DHICA units into eumelanin. The catalytic activities of the human melanogenic enzymes are still debated. TYRP1 has been reported to lack DHICA oxidase activity, whereas tyrosinase appears to accelerate DHICA consumption, thus raising the question of DHICA metabolism in human melanocytes. Here we have used two different approaches, comparison of the catalytic activities of human melanocytic cell lines expressing the full set of melanogenic enzymes or deficient in TYRP1, and transient expression of TYR and tyr genes in COS7 cells, to demonstrate that human tyrosinase actually functions as a DHICA oxidase, as opposed to the mouse enzyme. Therefore, human tyrosinase displays a broader substrate specificity than its mouse counterpart, and might be at least partially responsible for the incorporation of DHICA units into human eumelanins.
Project description:Herein, we report a flexible high-conductivity transparent electrode (denoted as S-PH1000), based on conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and itsapplication to flexible semi-transparentsupercapacitors. A high conductivity of 2673 S/cm was achieved for the S-PH1000 electrode on flexible plastic substrates via a H2SO4 treatment with an optimized concentration of 80 wt.%. This is among the top electrical conductivities of PEDOT:PSS films processed on flexible substrates. As for the electrochemical properties,a high specific capacitance of 161F/g was obtained from the S-PH1000 electrode at a current density of 1 A/g. Excitingly, a specific capacitance of 121 F/g was retained even when the current density increased to 100 A/g, which demonstrates the high-rate property of this electrode. Flexible semi-transparent supercapacitors based on these electrodes demonstrate high transparency, over 60%, at 550 nm. A high power density value, over 19,200 W/kg,and energy density, over 3.40 Wh/kg, was achieved. The semi-transparent flexible supercapacitor was successfully applied topower a light-emitting diode.
Project description:The recent development of eumelanin pigment-based blends integrating "classical" organic conducting materials is expanding the scope of eumelanin in bioelectronics. Beyond the achievement of high conductivity level, another major goal lays in the knowledge and feasible control of structure/properties relationship. We systematically investigated different hybrid materials prepared by in situ polymerization of the eumelanin precursor 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) in presence of various amounts of graphene-like layers. Spectroscopic studies performed by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ss-NMR), x-ray photoemission, and absorption spectroscopies gave a strong indication of the direct impact that the integration of graphene-like layers into the nascent polymerized DHI-based eumelanin has on the structural organization of the pigment itself, while infrared, and photoemission spectroscopies indicated the occurrence of negligible changes as concerns the chemical units. A tighter packing of the constituent units could represent a strong factor responsible for the observed improved electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials, and could be possible exploited as a tool for electrical conductivity tuning.
Project description:The role of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) in the biosynthesis of melanins has been studied by using the incorporation of specifically radiolabelled melanogenic precursors into melanins formed by melanocytes growing in vitro and in vivo. Extracts of mouse melanocytes and intact viable melanocytes were found to incorporate into melanin from 25% to more than 60% of [1-14C]tyrosine. Melanins from melanoma tumours grown in mice were radiolabelled with 3,4-dihydroxy[1-14C]phenylalanine, purified and chemoselectively decarboxylated. Determination of the 14CO2 evolved showed that at least 20% of the precursor incorporated in vivo retains the label in the form of non-aminoacidic aromatic-type carboxyl groups. These results provide the first unambiguous demonstration that DHICA is incorporated in physiologically relevant amounts in mammalian melanins.
Project description:Porous Si/eumelanin hybrids are a novel class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that hold considerable promise for photovoltaic applications. Current progress toward device setup is, however, hindered by photocurrent stability issues, which require a detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying the buildup and consolidation of the eumelanin-silicon interface. Herein we report an integrated experimental and computational study aimed at probing interface stability via surface modification and eumelanin manipulation, and at modeling the organic-inorganic interface via formation of a 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) tetramer and its adhesion to silicon. The results indicated that mild silicon oxidation increases photocurrent stability via enhancement of the DHI-surface interaction, and that higher oxidation states in DHI oligomers create more favorable conditions for the efficient adhesion of growing eumelanin.
Project description:The typical conductive polymer of PEDOT:PSS has recently attracted intensive attention in thermoelectric conversion because of its low cost and low thermal conductivity as well as high electrical conductivity. However, compared to inorganic counterparts, the relatively poor thermoelectric performance of PEDOT:PSS has greatly limited its development and high-tech applications. Here, we report a dramatic enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of PEDOT:PSS by constructing unique composite films with graphene quantum dots (GQDs). At room temperature, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of PEDOT:PSS/GQDs reached to 7172 S/m and 14.6 ?V/K, respectively, which are 30.99% and 113.2% higher than those of pristine PEDOT:PSS. As a result, the power factor of the optimized PEDOT:PSS/GQDs composite is 550% higher than that of pristine PEDOT:PSS. These significant improvements are attributed to the ordered alignment of PEDOT chains on the surface of GQDs, originated from the strong interfacial interaction between PEDOT:PSS and GQDs and the separation of PEDOT and PSS phases. This study evidently provides a promising route for PEDOT:PSS applied in high-efficiency thermoelectric conversion.
Project description:A set of computational methods that contains a brute-force algorithmic generation of chemical isomers, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations is reported and applied to investigate nearly 3000 probable molecular structures of polydopamine (PDA) and eumelanin. All probable early-polymerized 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) oligomers, ranging from dimers to tetramers, have been systematically analyzed to find the most stable geometry connections as well as to propose a set of molecular models that represents the chemically diverse nature of PDA and eumelanin. Our results indicate that more planar oligomers have a tendency to be more stable. This finding is in good agreement with recent experimental observations, which suggested that PDA and eumelanin are composed of nearly planar oligomers that appear to be stacked together via ?-? interactions to form graphite-like layered aggregates. We also show that there is a group of tetramers notably more stable than the others, implying that even though there is an inherent chemical diversity in PDA and eumelanin, the molecular structures of the majority of the species are quite repetitive. Our results also suggest that larger oligomers are less likely to form. This observation is also consistent with experimental measurements, supporting the existence of small oligomers instead of large polymers as main components of PDA and eumelanin. In summary, this work brings an insight into the controversial structure of PDA and eumelanin, explaining some of the most important structural features, and providing a set of molecular models for more accurate modeling of eumelanin-like materials.
Project description:Indium thin oxide (ITO)-free planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated at a low temperature (150 °C) in this work based on the transparent electrode of photolithography processed nickel/gold (Ni/Au) mesh and the high conductivity polymer, PH1000. Ultrathin Au was introduced to increase the conductivity of metal mesh, and the optimal hexagonal Ni (30 nm)/Au (10 nm) mesh (line width of 5 μm) shows a transmittance close to 80% in the visible light region and a sheet resistance lower than 16.9 Ω/sq. The conductive polymer PH1000 not only smooths the raised surface of the metal mesh but also enhances the charge collection ability of metal mesh. The fabricated PSCs have the typical planar structure (glass/Ni-Au mesh/PH1000/PEDOT:PSS/MAyFA1-yPbIxCl3-x/PCBM/BCP/Ag) and the champion PSC (0.09 cm2) obtains a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.88%, negligible current hysteresis, steady current density and PCE outputs, and good process repeatability. Its photovoltaic performance and stability are comparable to the reference PSC based on the ITO electrodes (PCE = 15.70%), which demonstrates that the Ni/Au mesh transparent electrodes are a promising ITO alternative to fabricate efficient PSCs. The relatively lower performance of Ni/Au based PSC results from the relatively slower charge extraction and stronger charge recombination than the ITO based PSC. Further, we tried to fabricate the large area (1 cm2) device and achieve a PCE over 6% with negligible hysteresis and steady current density and PCE outputs. The improvements of perovskite film quality and interface modification should be an effective approach to further enhance the device performance of Ni/Au based PSCs, and the Ni/Au mesh electrode may find wider applications in PSCs and flexible devices.
Project description:The three-dimensional volumetric application of conductive poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly (4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has not been widely reported. In this study, the applicability of the 3D PEDOT:PSS-MWCNT composite for a gas sensor was investigated with different PEDOT:PSS concentrations. The gas-sensing performance of the 3D PEDOT:PSS-MWCNT composites was investigated using ethanol and carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Overall, in comparison with the pristine MWCNTs, as the PEDOT:PSS concentration increased, the 3D PEDOT:PSS-MWCNT composites exhibited increased conductivity and enhanced gas sensing performances (fast response and recovery times) to both ethanol and CO gases. Importantly, although the PEDOT:PSS coating layer reduced the number of sites for the adsorption and desorption of gas molecules, the charge-carrier transport between the gas molecules and MWCNTs was significantly enhanced. Thus, PEDOT:PSS can be chemically grafted to MWCNTs to enhance the connectivity and conductivity of a 3D network, leading to possible applications in gas sensors.