Effect of Polymeric Binders on Dispersion of Active Particles in Aqueous LiFePO4-Based Cathode Slurries as well as on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Corresponding Dry Layers.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and the particulate fluorine/acrylate hybrid polymer (FAHP) on the flow behavior of LiFePO4-based cathode slurries as well as on electrical and mechanical properties of the corresponding dry layers. CMC dissolves in water and partly adsorbs on the active particles. Thus, it has a strong impact on particle dispersion and a critical CMC concentration distinguished by a minimum in yield stress and high shear viscosity is found, indicating an optimum state of particle dispersion. In contrast, the nanoparticulate FAHP binder has no effect on slurry rheology. The electrical conductivity of the dry layer exhibits a maximum at a CMC concentration corresponding to the minimum in slurry viscosity but monotonically decreases with increasing FAHP concentration. Adhesion to the current collector is provided by FAHP, and the line load in peel tests strongly increases with FAHP concentration, whereas CMC does not contribute to adhesion. The electrical conductivity and adhesion values obtained here excel reported values for similar aqueous LiFePO4-based cathode layers using alternative polymeric binders. Both CMC and FAHP contribute to the cohesive strength of the layers; the contribution of CMC, however, is stronger than that of FAHP despite its lower intrinsic mechanical strength. We attribute this to its impact on the cathode microstructure since high CMC concentrations result in a strong alignment of LiFePO4 particles, which yields superior cohesive strength.
Project description:A highly crystalline three dimensional (3D) bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite constructed by nanoparticles in the range of 50~100 nm via a rapid microwave assisted solvothermal process followed by carbon coating have been synthesized as cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The abundant 3D macropores allow better penetration of electrolyte to promote Li(+) diffusion, the mesopores provide more electrochemical reaction sites and the carbon layers outside LiFePO4 nanoparticles increase the electrical conductivity, thus ultimately facilitating reverse reaction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) and alleviating electrode polarization. In addition, the particle size in nanoscale can provide short diffusion lengths for the Li(+) intercalation-deintercalation. As a result, the 3D macro-mesoporous nanosized LiFePO4/C electrode exhibits excellent rate capability (129.1?mA h/g at 2 C; 110.9?mA h/g at 10 C) and cycling stability (87.2% capacity retention at 2 C after 1000 cycles, 76.3% at 5 C after 500 cycles and 87.8% at 10 C after 500 cycles, respectively), which are much better than many reported LiFePO4/C structures. Our demonstration here offers the opportunity to develop nanoscaled hierarchically porous LiFePO4/C structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries through microwave assisted solvothermal method.
Project description:Utilization of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries often requires size nanonization coupled with calcination-based carbon coating to improve its electrochemical performance, which, however, is usually at the expense of tap density and may be environmentally problematic. Here we report the utilization of micron-sized LiFePO4, which has a higher tap density than its nano-sized siblings, by forming a conducting polymer coating on its surface with a greener diazonium chemistry. Specifically, micron-sized LiFePO4 particles have been uniformly coated with a thin polyphenylene film via the spontaneous reaction between LiFePO4 and an aromatic diazonium salt of benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate. The coated micron-sized LiFePO4, compared with its pristine counterpart, has shown improved electrical conductivity, high rate capability and excellent cyclability when used as a 'carbon additive free' cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. The bonding mechanism of polyphenylene to LiFePO4/FePO4 has been understood with density functional theory calculations.
Project description:This work elucidates the manufacturing of lithium titanate (Li₄Ti₅O12, LTO) electrodes via the aqueous process using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG) or pectin as binders. To avoid aluminum current collector dissolution due to the rising slurries' pH, phosphoric acid (PA) is used as a pH-modifier. The electrodes are characterized in terms of morphology, adhesion strength and electrochemical performance. In the absence of phosphoric acid, hydrogen evolution occurs upon coating the slurry onto the aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of cavities in the coated electrode, as well as poor cohesion on the current collector itself. Consequently, the electrochemical performance of the coated electrodes is also improved by the addition of PA in the slurries. At a 5C rate, CMC/PA-based electrodes delivered 144 mAh·g-1, while PA-free electrodes reached only 124 mAh·g-1. When GG and pectin are used as binders, the adhesion of the coated layers to the current collector is reduced; however, the electrodes show comparable, if not slightly better, electrochemical performance than those based on CMC. Full lithium-ion cells, utilizing CMC/PA-made Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O₂ (NMC) cathodes and LTO anodes offer a stable discharge capacity of ~120 mAh·g-1(NMC) with high coulombic efficiencies.
Project description:The chemical potential of lithium in LixFePO4 active cathode nanoparticles and the surface free energy between LixFePO4 and electrolyte were determined with the novel thermodynamically consistent application of the regular solution theory. Innovative consideration of crystal anisotropy accounts for the consistent determination of the dependency of the chemical potential on the mechanistically derived enthalpy of mixing and the phase boundary gradient penalty. This enabled the analytic, thermodynamically consistent determination of the phase boundary thickness between LiFePO4 and FePO4, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. The obtained explicit functional dependency of the surface free energy on the lithium concentration enables adequate simulation of the initiation of the phase transition from FePO4 to LiFePO4 at the surface of active cathode particles. To validate the plausibility of the newly developed approaches, lithium intercalation into the LixFePO4 nanoparticles from electrolyte was modeled by solving the Cahn-Hilliard equation in a quasi-two-dimensional domain.
Project description:Printed batteries have undergone increased investigation in recent years because of the growing daily use of small electronic devices. With this in mind, industrial gravure printing has emerged as a suitable production technology due to its high speed and quality, and its capability to produce any shape of image. The technique is one of the most appealing for the production of functional layers for many different purposes, but it has not been highly investigated. In this study, we propose a LiFePO4 (LFP)-based gravure printed cathode for lithium-ion rechargeable printed batteries and investigate the possibility of employing this printing technique in battery manufacture.
Project description:Hierarchically structured LiFePO4 was successfully synthesized by ionic liquid solvothermal method. These hierarchically structured LiFePO4 samples were constructed from nanostructured platelets with their (010) facets mainly exposed. To the best of our knowledge, facet control of a hierarchical LiFePO4 crystal has not been reported yet. Based on a series of experimental results, a tentative mechanism for the formation of these hierarchical structures was proposed. After these hierarchically structured LiFePO4 samples were coated with a thin carbon layer and used as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, they exhibited excellent high-rate discharge capability and cycling stability. For instance, a capacity of 95% can be maintained for the LiFePO4 sample at a rate as high as 20 C, even after 1000 cycles.
Project description:Silver vanadium oxide (Ag2V4O11, SVO) has enjoyed widespread commercial success over the past 30 years as a cathode material for implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) batteries. Recently, silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag2VO2PO4, SVPO) has been studied as possibly combining the desirable thermal stability aspects of LiFePO4 with the electrical conductivity of SVO. Further, due to the noted insoluble nature of most phosphate salts, a lower material solubility of SVPO relative to SVO is anticipated. Thus, the first vanadium dissolution studies of SVPO in battery electrolyte solutions are described herein. The equilibrium solubility of SVPO was ~5 times less than SVO, with a rate constant of dissolution ~3.5 times less than that of SVO. The vanadium dissolution in SVO and SVPO can be adequately described with a diffusion layer model, as supported by the Noyes-Whitney equation. Cells prepared with vanadium-treated anodes displayed higher AC impedance and DC resistance relative to control anodes. These data support the premise that SVPO cells are likely to exhibit reduced cathode solubility and thus less affected by increased cell resistance due to cathode solubility compared to SVO based cells.
Project description:A novel method whose starting materials was Fe-P waste slag and CO2 using a closed-loop carbon and energy cycle to synthesize LiFePO4/C materials was proposed recently. In the first step, Fe-P slag was calcinated in a CO2 atmosphere to manufacture Fe3(PO4)2, in which the solid products were tested by XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis and the gaseous products were analyzed by the gas detection method. In the second step, as-synthesized Fe3(PO4)2 was further used as the Fe and P source to manufacture LiFePO4/C materials. Also, the influence of the preparation conditions of Fe3(PO4)2, including calcination time and calcination temperature, on the energy storage properties of as-obtained LiFePO4/C was investigated. It was found that the LiFePO4/C materials, which was synthesized from Fe3(PO4)2 obtained by calcining Fe-P waste slag at 800 °C for 10 h in CO2, exhibited a higher capacity, better reversibility, and lower polarization than other samples. The discharge capacity of as-obtained LiFePO4/C can reach 145 mAh/g at 0.1 C current rate. This work puts forward an environment-friendly method of manufacturing LiFePO4/C cathode materials, which has a closed-loop carbon and energy cycle.
Project description:Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are going to play more important roles in electric vehicles and smart grids. The safety of the current LIBs of large capacity has been remaining a challenge due to the existence of large amounts of organic liquid electrolytes. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been tried to replace the organic electrolyte to improve their safety. However, the application of GPEs is handicapped by their poor mechanical strength and high cost. Here, we report an economic gel-type composite membrane with high safety and good mechanical strength based on glass fiber mats, which are separator for lead-acid batteries. The gelled membrane exhibits high ionic conductivity (1.13 mS cm(-1)), high Li(+) ion transference number (0.56) and wide electrochemical window. Its electrochemical performance is evaluated by LiFePO4 cathode with good cycling. The results show this gel-type composite membrane has great attraction to the large-capacity LIBs requiring high safety with low cost.
Project description:Aging is associated with muscle weakness and impairment in performing skilled motor tasks. Still, little is known about whether the link or functional coupling or connection between the central and peripheral systems during voluntary motor performance is compromised in the elderly subjects. The purposes of this study were to estimate functional corticomuscular connection (CMC) strength in the elderly subjects by calculating EEG-EMG coherence during voluntary motor performance, determine the relationship between the CMC and voluntary muscle force, and compare these between the old and the young subjects.Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of elbow flexion (EF) and EFs at three submaximal (20%, 50%, and 80% MVC) levels were performed in 28 healthy older (74.96±1.32 years) and 20 young (22.60±0.90 years) individuals, while EEG and EMG from biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii muscles were recorded simultaneously.Compared with the young, older individuals exhibited significantly weakened CMC at all force levels tested. There was a proportional relationship between the CMC and EF force and high-positive correlation between the CMC and EF strength in both groups.Weakened CMC in aging may be a major factor contributing to age-related muscle weakness, and the linear relationship between the CMC and voluntary muscle force suggests dependence of force output on translation of the descending command to muscle electrical signal.