1?Palmitoyl?2?linoleoyl?3?acetyl?rac?glycerol ameliorates EGF?induced MMP?9 expression by promoting receptor desensitization in MDA?MB?231 cells.
ABSTRACT: Activated epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are crucial for inducing metastasis in cancer cells by promoting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 1?palmitoyl?2?linoleoyl?3?acetyl?rac?glycerol (PLAG) on MMP expression in epidermal growth factor (EGF)?stimulated breast cancer cells in vitro. EGF stimulation induced internalization of its cognate receptor, EGFR, for stimulus?desensitization. These internalized receptors, complexed with the ubiquitin ligase c?Cbl and EGFR pathway substrate 15 (EPS15) (for degradation), were evaluated by confocal microscopy at 5?90 min time intervals. During intracellular trafficking of EGFRs, EGF?induced signaling cascades were analyzed by examining EGFR and SHC phosphorylation. Modulation of MMP expression was assessed by evaluating the activity of transcription factor AP?1 using a luciferase assay. PLAG accelerated the assembly of EGFRs with c?Cbl and EPS15 and promoted receptor degradation. This faster intracellular EGFR degradation reduced AP?1?mediated MMP expression. PLAG stimulation upregulated thioredoxin?interacting protein (TXNIP) expression, and this mediated the accelerated receptor internalization. This PLAG?induced increase in EGFR trafficking was blocked in TXNIP?silenced cells. By downregulating MMP expression, PLAG effectively attenuated EGF?induced mobility and invasiveness in these cancer cells. These data suggest that PLAG may be a potential therapeutic agent for blocking metastasis.
Project description:Endocytic downregulation is a pivotal mechanism turning off signalling from the EGF receptor (EGFR). It is well established that whereas EGF binding leads to lysosomal degradation of EGFR, transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha causes receptor recycling. TGF-alpha therefore leads to continuous signalling and is a more potent mitogen than EGF. In addition to EGF and TGF-alpha, five EGFR ligands have been identified. Although many of these ligands are upregulated in cancers, very little is known about their effect on EGFR trafficking. We have compared the effect of six different ligands on endocytic trafficking of EGFR. We find that, whereas they all stimulate receptor internalization, they have very diverse effects on endocytic sorting. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and Betacellulin target all EGFRs for lysosomal degradation. In contrast, TGF-alpha and epiregulin lead to complete receptor recycling. EGF leads to lysosomal degradation of the majority but not all EGFRs. Amphiregulin does not target EGFR for lysosomal degradation but causes fast as well as slow EGFR recycling. The Cbl ubiquitin ligases, especially c-Cbl, are responsible for EGFR ubiquitination after stimulation with all ligands, and persistent EGFR phosphorylation and ubiquitination largely correlate with receptor degradation.
Project description:The ubiquitin ligase Cbl mediates ubiquitination of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and interacts with endocytic scaffold complexes, including CIN85/endophilins, to facilitate RTK endocytosis and degradation. Several mechanisms regulate the functions of Cbl to ensure the fine-tuning of RTK signalling and cellular homeostasis. One regulatory mechanism involves the binding of Cbl to Sprouty2, which sequesters Cbl away from activated epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Here, we show that Sprouty2 associates with CIN85 and acts at the interface between Cbl and CIN85 to inhibit EGFR downregulation. The CIN85 SH3 domains A and C bind specifically to proline-arginine motifs present in Sprouty2. Intact association between Sprouty2, Cbl and CIN85 is required for inhibition of EGFR endocytosis as well as EGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Moreover, Sprouty4, which lacks CIN85-binding sites, does not inhibit EGFR downregulation, providing a molecular explanation for functional differences between Sprouty isoforms. Sprouty2 therefore acts as an inducible inhibitor of EGFR downregulation by targeting both the Cbl and CIN85 pathways.
Project description:Once stimulated, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) undergoes self-phosphorylation, which, on the one hand, instigates signaling cascades, and on the other hand, recruits CBL ubiquitin ligases, which mark EGFRs for degradation. Using RNA interference screens, we identified a deubiquitinating enzyme, Cezanne-1, that opposes receptor degradation and enhances EGFR signaling. These functions require the catalytic- and ubiquitin-binding domains of Cezanne-1, and they involve physical interactions and transphosphorylation of Cezanne-1 by EGFR. In line with the ability of Cezanne-1 to augment EGF-induced growth and migration signals, the enzyme is overexpressed in breast cancer. Congruently, the corresponding gene is amplified in approximately one third of mammary tumors, and high transcript levels predict an aggressive disease course. In conclusion, deubiquitination by Cezanne-1 curtails degradation of growth factor receptors, thereby promotes oncogenic growth signals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor (EGFR). This event precedes signaling from both the plasma membrane and from endosomes, and it is essential for recruitment of a ubiquitin ligase, CBL, that sorts activated receptors to endosomes and degradation. Because hyperphosphorylation of EGFR is involved in oncogenic pathways, we performed an unbiased screen of small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides targeting all human tyrosine phosphatases. RESULTS:We report the identification of PTPRK and PTPRJ (density-enhanced phosphatase-1 [DEP-1]) as EGFR-targeting phosphatases. DEP-1 is a tumor suppressor that dephosphorylates and thereby stabilizes EGFR by hampering its ability to associate with the CBL-GRB2 ubiquitin ligase complex. DEP-1 silencing enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of endosomal EGFRs and, accordingly, increased cell proliferation. In line with functional interactions, EGFR and DEP-1 form physical associations, and EGFR phosphorylates a substrate-trapping mutant of DEP-1. Interestingly, the interactions of DEP-1 and EGFR are followed by physical segregation: whereas EGFR undergoes endocytosis, DEP-1 remains confined to the cell surface. CONCLUSIONS:EGFR and DEP-1 physically interact at the cell surface and maintain bidirectional enzyme-substrate interactions, which are relevant to their respective oncogenic and tumor-suppressive functions. These observations highlight the emerging roles of vesicular trafficking in malignant processes.
Project description:Some non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain mutations require altered signaling through the EGFR for cell survival and are exquisitely sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. EGFR down-regulation was impaired in two NSCLCs with EGFR tyrosine kinase domain mutations. The mutant receptors were poorly ubiquitylated and exhibited decreased association with the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. Overexpression of Cbl increased the degradation of EGFR. Treatment with geldanamycin, an inhibitor of the chaperone heat shock protein 90, also increased both wild-type and mutant EGFR degradation without affecting internalization. The down-regulation of the mutant EGFRs was still impaired when they were stably expressed in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the mutations that altered signaling also decreased the interaction of EGFRs with the mechanisms responsible for endosomal sorting.
Project description:Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a GTP-binding protein/acyltransferase whose expression is upregulated in glioblastoma and associated with decreased patient survival. Here, we delineate a unique mechanism by which tTG contributes to the development of gliomas by using two glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and LN229, whose growth and survival are dependent on tTG. We show that tTG significantly enhances the signaling activity and lifespan of EGF receptors (EGFRs) in these brain cancer cells. Moreover, overexpressing tTG in T98G glioblastoma cells that normally express low levels of tTG caused a marked upregulation of EGFR expression and transforming activity. Furthermore, we show that tTG accentuates EGFR signaling by blocking c-Cbl-catalyzed EGFR ubiquitylation through the ability of tTG to bind GTP and adopt a specific conformation that enables it to interact with c-Cbl. These findings demonstrate that tTG contributes to gliomagenesis by interfering with EGFR downregulation and, thereby, promoting transformation.
Project description:Endosomal sorting is an essential control mechanism for signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We report here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor ?PIX, which modulates the activity of Rho-GTPases, is a potent bimodal regulator of EGFR trafficking. ?PIX interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to EGFR, thereby labelling this tyrosine kinase receptor for lysosomal degradation. We show that EGF stimulation induces ?PIX::c-Cbl complex formation. Simultaneously, ?PIX and c-Cbl protein levels decrease, which depends on both ?PIX binding to c-Cbl and c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity. Through interaction ?PIX sequesters c-Cbl from EGFR and this results in reduced EGFR ubiquitination and decreased EGFR degradation upon EGF treatment. However, quantitatively more decisive for cellular EGFR distribution than impaired EGFR degradation is a strong stimulating effect of ?PIX on EGFR recycling to the cell surface. This function depends on the GIT binding domain of ?PIX but not on interaction with c-Cbl or ?PIX exchange activity. In summary, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated function of ?PIX as a strong promoter of EGFR recycling. We suggest that the novel recycling regulator ?PIX and the degradation factor c-Cbl closely cooperate in the regulation of EGFR trafficking: uncomplexed ?PIX and c-Cbl mediate a positive and a negative feedback on EGFR signaling, respectively; ?PIX::c-Cbl complex formation, however, results in mutual inhibition, which may reflect a stable condition in the homeostasis of EGF-induced signal flow.
Project description:The overactivation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is implicated in various cancers. Endocytosis plays an important role in EGFR-mediated cell signaling. We previously found that EGFR endocytosis during mitosis is mediated differently from interphase. While the regulation of EGFR endocytosis in interphase is well understood, little is known regarding the regulation of EGFR endocytosis during mitosis. Here, we found that contrary to interphase cells, mitotic EGFR endocytosis is more reliant on the activation of the E3 ligase CBL. By transfecting HeLa, MCF-7, and 293T cells with CBL siRNA or dominant-negative 70z-CBL, we found that at high EGF doses, CBL is required for EGFR endocytosis in mitotic cells, but not in interphase cells. In addition, the endocytosis of mutant EGFR Y1045F-YFP (mutation at the direct CBL binding site) is strongly delayed. The endocytosis of truncated EGFR ?1044-YFP that does not bind to CBL is completely inhibited in mitosis. Moreover, EGF induces stronger ubiquitination of mitotic EGFR than interphase EGFR, and mitotic EGFR is trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. Furthermore, we showed that, different from interphase, low doses of EGF still stimulate EGFR endocytosis by non-clathrin mediated endocytosis (NCE) in mitosis. Contrary to interphase, CBL and the CBL-binding regions of EGFR are required for mitotic EGFR endocytosis at low doses. This is due to the mitotic ubiquitination of the EGFR even at low EGF doses. We conclude that mitotic EGFR endocytosis exclusively proceeds through CBL-mediated NCE.
Project description:EGF, but not TGF alpha, efficiently induces degradation of the EGF receptor (EGFR). We show that EGFR was initially polyubiquitinated to the same extent upon incubation with EGF and TGF alpha, whereas the ubiquitination was more sustained by incubation with EGF than with TGF alpha. Consistently, the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl was recruited to the plasma membrane upon activation of the EGFR with EGF and TGF alpha, but localized to endosomes only upon activation with EGF. EGF remains bound to the EGFR upon endocytosis, whereas TGF alpha dissociates from the EGFR. Therefore, the sustained polyubiquitination is explained by EGF securing the kinase activity of endocytosed EGFR. Overexpression of the dominant negative N-Cbl inhibited ubiquitination of the EGFR and degradation of EGF and EGFR. This demonstrates that EGF-induced ubiquitination of the EGFR as such is important for lysosomal sorting. Both lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors blocked degradation of EGF and EGFR, and proteasomal inhibitors inhibited translocation of activated EGFR from the outer limiting membrane to inner membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Therefore, lysosomal sorting of kinase active EGFR is regulated by proteasomal activity. Immuno-EM showed the localization of intact EGFR on internal membranes of MVBs. This demonstrates that the EGFR as such is not the proteasomal target.
Project description:Stimulation of cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces internalization and partial degradation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by the endo-lysosomal pathway. For continuous cell functioning, EGFR plasma membrane levels are maintained by transporting newly synthesized EGFRs to the cell surface. The regulation of this process is largely unknown. In this study, we find that EGF stimulation specifically increases the transport efficiency of newly synthesized EGFRs from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. This coincides with an up-regulation of the inner coat protein complex II (COPII) components SEC23B, SEC24B, and SEC24D, which we show to be specifically required for EGFR transport. Up-regulation of these COPII components requires the transcriptional regulator RNF11, which localizes to early endosomes and appears additionally in the cell nucleus upon continuous EGF stimulation. Collectively, our work identifies a new regulatory mechanism that integrates the degradation and transport of EGFR in order to maintain its physiological levels at the plasma membrane.