Zinc and respiratory tract infections: Perspectives for COVID?19 (Review).
ABSTRACT: In view of the emerging COVID?19 pandemic caused by SARS?CoV?2 virus, the search for potential protective and therapeutic antiviral strategies is of particular and urgent interest. Zinc is known to modulate antiviral and antibacterial immunity and regulate inflammatory response. Despite the lack of clinical data, certain indications suggest that modulation of zinc status may be beneficial in COVID?19. In vitro experiments demonstrate that Zn2+ possesses antiviral activity through inhibition of SARS?CoV RNA polymerase. This effect may underlie therapeutic efficiency of chloroquine known to act as zinc ionophore. Indirect evidence also indicates that Zn2+ may decrease the activity of angiotensin?converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), known to be the receptor for SARS?CoV?2. Improved antiviral immunity by zinc may also occur through up?regulation of interferon ? production and increasing its antiviral activity. Zinc possesses anti?inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF??B signaling and modulation of regulatory T?cell functions that may limit the cytokine storm in COVID?19. Improved Zn status may also reduce the risk of bacterial co?infection by improving mucociliary clearance and barrier function of the respiratory epithelium, as well as direct antibacterial effects against S. pneumoniae. Zinc status is also tightly associated with risk factors for severe COVID?19 including ageing, immune deficiency, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, since these are known risk groups for zinc deficiency. Therefore, Zn may possess protective effect as preventive and adjuvant therapy of COVID?19 through reducing inflammation, improvement of mucociliary clearance, prevention of ventilator?induced lung injury, modulation of antiviral and antibacterial immunity. However, further clinical and experimental studies are required.
Project description:Viruses such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) represent a great burden to human health worldwide. FDA-approved anti-parasite drug ivermectin is also an antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer agent, which offers more potentiality to improve global public health, and it can effectively inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. This study sought to identify ivermectin-related virus infection pathway alterations in human ovarian cancer cells. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) quantitative proteomics was used to analyze human ovarian cancer cells TOV-21G treated with and without ivermectin (20??mol/L) for 24?h, which identified 4447 ivermectin-related proteins in ovarian cancer cells. Pathway network analysis revealed four statistically significant antiviral pathways, including HCMV, HPV, EBV, and HIV1 infection pathways. Interestingly, compared with the reported 284 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related genes from GencLip3, we identified 52 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related protein alterations when treated with and without ivermectin. Protein-protein network (PPI) was constructed based on the interactions between 284 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related genes and between 52 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related proteins regulated by ivermectin. Molecular complex detection analysis of PPI network identified three hub modules, including cytokines and growth factor family, MAP kinase and G-protein family, and HLA class proteins. Gene Ontology analysis revealed 10 statistically significant cellular components, 13 molecular functions, and 11 biological processes. These findings demonstrate the broad-spectrum antiviral property of ivermectin benefiting for COVID-19 treatment in the context of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine in virus-related diseases.
Project description:The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in almost 28 million cases of COVID-19 (Corona virus disease-2019) and more than 900000 deaths worldwide since December 2019. In the absence of effective antiviral therapy and vaccine, treatment of COVID-19 is largely symptomatic. By making use of its spike (S) protein, the virus binds to its primary human cell receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which is present in the pulmonary epithelial cells as well as other organs. SARS-CoV-2 may cause a downregulation of ACE2. ACE2 plays a protective role in the pulmonary system through its Mas-receptor and alamandine-MrgD-TGR7 pathways. Loss of this protective effect could be a major component of COVID-19 pathogenesis. An attractive strategy in SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics would be to augment ACE2 either directly by supplementation or indirectly through drugs which increase its levels or stimulate its downstream players. In this semi-systematic review, we have analysed the pathophysiological interplay between ACE and ACE2 in the cardiopulmonary system, the modulation of these two proteins by SARS-CoV-2, and potential therapeutic avenues targeting ACE-Ang II and ACE2-Ang (1-7) axes, that can be utilized against COVID-19 disease progression.
Project description:In addition to the typical respiratory response, new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is also associated with very common gastrointestinal symptoms. Cases with gastrointestinal symptoms are more likely to be complicated by liver injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). If not treated in time, coma and circulatory failure may ensue. As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects the human body through the combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the gastrointestinal tract, the mechanism underlying the gastrointestinal symptoms may involve damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier and promotion of the production of inflammatory factors. Indeed, after cells in the lungs become infected by SARS-CoV-2, effector CD4+ T cells reach the small intestine through the gut-lung axis, causing intestinal immune damage and diarrhea; early extensive use of antibacterial and antiviral drugs can also lead to diarrhea in patients. Thus, treatment options for COVID-19 patients should be promptly adjusted when they have gastrointestinal symptoms. As SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in the feces of COVID-19 patients, future prevention and control efforts must consider the possibility of fecal-oral transmission of the virus.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2 has ushered a global pandemic with no effective drug being available at present. Although several FDA-approved drugs are currently under clinical trials for drug repositioning, there is an on-going global effort for new drug identification. In this paper, using multi-omics (interactome, proteome, transcriptome, and bibliome) data and subsequent integrated analysis, we present the biological events associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify several candidate drugs against this viral disease. We found that: (i) Interactome-based infection pathways differ from the other three omics-based profiles. (ii) Viral process, mRNA splicing, cytokine and interferon signaling, and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis are important pathways in SARS-CoV-2 infection. (iii) SARS-CoV-2 infection also shares pathways with Influenza A, Epstein-Barr virus, HTLV-I, Measles, and Hepatitis virus. (iv) Further, bacterial, parasitic, and protozoan infection pathways such as Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Leishmaniasis are also shared by this virus. (v) A total of 50 candidate drugs, including the prophylaxis agents and pathway specific inhibitors are identified against COVID-19. (vi) Betamethasone, Estrogen, Simvastatin, Hydrocortisone, Tositumomab, Cyclosporin A etc. are among the important drugs. (vii) Ozone, Nitric oxide, plasma components, and photosensitizer drugs are also identified as possible therapeutic candidates. (viii) Curcumin, Retinoic acids, Vitamin D, Arsenic, Copper, and Zinc may be the candidate prophylaxis agents. Nearly 70% of our identified agents are previously suggested to have anti-COVID-19 effects or under clinical trials. Among our identified drugs, the ones that are not yet tested, need validation with caution while an appropriate drug combination from these candidate drugs along with a SARS-CoV-2 specific antiviral agent is needed for effective COVID-19 management. Graphical abstract Image 1 Highlights • SARS-CoV-2 shares Influenza, EBV, HTLV-I, Measles, and Hepatitis virus infection pathways.• SARS-CoV-2 also shares Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Leishmaniasis infection pathways.• mRNA splicing, cytokine and IFN signaling, and ubiquitin are important pathways.• Betamethasone, Estrogen, Statin, Tositumomab, Cyclosporin A are top candidate drugs.• Ozone, Nitric oxide, plasma components, and photosensitizer drugs are also important against COVID-19.• Curcumin, Retinoic acids, Vitamin D, Arsenic, Copper, and Zinc are candidate prophylaxis agents.
Project description:Recent evidence shows that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is sensitive to interferons (IFNs). However, the most effective types of IFNs and the underlying antiviral effectors remain to be defined. Here, we show that zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP), which preferentially targets CpG dinucleotides in viral RNA sequences, restricts SARS-CoV-2. We further demonstrate that ZAP and its cofactors KHNYN and TRIM25 are expressed in human lung cells. Type I, II, and III IFNs all strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and further induced ZAP expression. Comprehensive sequence analyses revealed that SARS-CoV-2 and its closest relatives from horseshoe bats showed the strongest CpG suppression among all known human and bat coronaviruses, respectively. Nevertheless, endogenous ZAP expression restricted SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells, particularly upon treatment with IFN-? or IFN-?. Both the long and the short isoforms of human ZAP reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA expression levels, but the former did so with greater efficiency. Finally, we show that the ability to restrict SARS-CoV-2 is conserved in ZAP orthologues of the reservoir bat and potential intermediate pangolin hosts of human coronaviruses. Altogether, our results show that ZAP is an important effector of the innate response against SARS-CoV-2, although this pandemic pathogen emerged from zoonosis of a coronavirus that was preadapted to the low-CpG environment in humans.IMPORTANCE Although interferons inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and have been evaluated for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the most effective types and antiviral effectors remain to be defined. Here, we show that IFN-? is particularly potent in restricting SARS-CoV-2 and in inducing expression of the antiviral factor ZAP in human lung cells. Knockdown experiments revealed that endogenous ZAP significantly restricts SARS-CoV-2. We further show that CpG dinucleotides which are specifically targeted by ZAP are strongly suppressed in the SARS-CoV-2 genome and that the two closest horseshoe bat relatives of SARS-CoV-2 show the lowest genomic CpG content of all coronavirus sequences available from this reservoir host. Nonetheless, both the short and long isoforms of human ZAP reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels, and this activity was conserved in horseshoe bat and pangolin ZAP orthologues. Our findings indicating that type II interferon is particularly efficient against SARS-CoV-2 and that ZAP restricts this pandemic viral pathogen might promote the development of effective immune therapies against COVID-19.
Project description:The SARS-CoV-2 virus is an etiological agent of pandemic COVID-19, which spreads rapidly worldwide. No proven effective therapies currently exist for this virus, and efforts to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 are underway. The rapidly increasing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 virology provides a notable number of possible immunological procedures and drug targets. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this review, we describe the latest information in the context of immunological approaches and emerging current antiviral strategies for COVID-19 treatment.
Project description:The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, or 2019-nCoV, which originated in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019, is a grave threat to public health worldwide. A total of 3,672,238 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 254,045 deaths were reported globally up to May 7, 2020. However, approved antiviral agents for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 remain unavailable. Drug repurposing of approved antivirals against other viruses such as HIV or Ebola virus is one of the most practical strategies to develop effective antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2. A combination of repurposed drugs can improve the efficacy of treatment, and structure-based drug design can be employed to specifically target SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses therapeutic strategies using promising antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2. In addition, structural characterization of potentially therapeutic viral or host cellular targets associated with COVID-19 have been discussed to refine structure-based drug design strategies.
Project description:Countries around the world are currently fighting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus, belonging to the same genus as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Currently, there are no proven antiviral therapies for COVID-19. Numerous clinical trials have been initiated to identify an effective treatment. One leading candidate is remdesivir (GS-5734), a broad-spectrum antiviral that was initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV). Although remdesivir performed well in preclinical studies, it did not meet efficacy endpoints in a randomized trial conducted during an Ebola outbreak. Remdesivir holds promise for treating COVID-19 based on in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2, uncontrolled clinical reports, and limited data from randomized trials. Overall, current data are insufficient to judge the efficacy of remdesivir for COVID-19, and the results of additional randomized studies are eagerly anticipated. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of Ebola and coronavirus outbreaks. We then summarize preclinical and clinical studies of remdesivir for Ebola and COVID-19.
Project description:Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is a global health emergency and no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available to date. Intensive research on SARS-CoV-2 is urgently warranted to understand its pathogenesis and virulence mechanisms and to discover target-based antiviral therapeutics. Among various research logics, current bioinformatics highlights novel testable hypotheses for systematic drug repositioning and designing against COVID-19. A total of 121 articles related to bioinformatics facets of this virus were collected from the PubMed Central. The content of each investigation was comprehensively reviewed, manually curated, and included herein. Interestingly, 109 COVID-19-related literature published in 2020 (January-June) were included in this review. The present article emphasizes novel resource development on its genome structure, evolution, therapeutic targets, drug designing, and drug repurposing strategies. Genome organization, the function of coding genes, origin, and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 is described in detail. Genomic insights into understanding the structure-function relationships of drug targets including spike, main protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2 are discussed intensively. Several molecular docking and systems pharmacology approaches have been investigated some promising antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 based on its genomic characteristics, pathogenesis mechanism, and host specificity. Perhaps, the present genomic insights of this virus will provide a lead to the researchers to design or repurpose of antiviral drugs soon and future directions to control the spread of COVID-19.
Project description:Background:The aim of this study was to summarize the antiviral activities of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Methods:Available publications were systematically explored on some databases and gray literature was examined. Publications were discussed narratively. Results:Remdesivir inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication, reduces viral load, and exerts protective effects in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals. Remdesivir also reduces the pathological process, alleviates mild symptoms, and improves pulmonary lesions in SARS-CoV-2-infecetd animals. Remdesivir has been used as a compassionate drug for treating COVID-19 patients. Conclusion:Although remdesivir has shown potent antiviral activities, more efficacy assessments are urgently warranted in clinical trials.