The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in a MERS-CoV endemic country.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The global pandemic of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has led to unprecedented psychological stress on health workers (HCWs). We aimed to assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 on HCWs in comparison to the stress brought on by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemic in Saudi Arabia. METHOD:Between February 5th and 16th, 2020, 811 health-care workers (HCWs) of a tertiary care teaching hospital were invited to fill a questionnaire regarding concerns and worries about the novel coronavirus pandemic, along with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) Anxiety Severity screening tool. RESULTS:Out of 582 HCWs who completed the survey questionnaire (response rate of 71.8%), about 40% were exposed previously to MERS-CoV infected or suspected patients during a previous hospital outbreak. While there were no COVID-19 cases reported yet in Saudi Arabia at the time of data collection, still, the anxiety level from COVID-19 was significantly higher than that from MERS-CoV or seasonal influenza: 41.1% were more worried about COVID-19, 41.4% were similarly worried about both MERS-CoV and COVID-19, and 17.5% were more stressed by the previous MERS-CoV hospital outbreak. The most frequent concern was transmitting the infection to family and friends (2.71/5) than to themselves only (2.57/5). CONCLUSION:Pandemic and epidemic infectious diseases such as COVID-19 or MERS-CoV impose a significant level of anxiety and stress on healthcare workers who are caring of infected patients, with their main concern being the risk of transmitting the infection to their families or to acquire it themselves. Therefore, optimizing the compliance of healthcare workers with the proper infection prevention and control measures is paramount during the infectious disease outbreak, to ensure their safety, to decrease the likelihood of getting infected or transmitting the infection to others, and consequently to alleviate their psychological stress and anxiety.
Project description:As the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to occur in small outbreaks in Saudi Arabia, we aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and intended practices of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic and compare worry levels with previous findings during the MERS-CoV outbreak in 2015. We sent an adapted version of our previously published MERS-CoV questionnaire to the same cohort of HCWs at a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. About 40% of our sample had previous experience with confirmed or suspected MERS-CoV patients, and those had a significantly higher knowledge score (13.16 ± 2.02 vs. 12.58 ± 2.27, P = 0.002) and higher adherence to protective hygienic practices (2.95 ± 0.80 vs. 2.74 ± 0.92, P = 0.003). The knowledge scores on COVID-19 were higher in the current cohort than the previous MERS-CoV outbreak cohort (68% vs. 79.7%, P < 0.001). HCWs from the current cohort who felt greater anxiety from COVID-19 compared to MERS-CoV were less likely to have been exposed to MERS-CoV infected/suspected cases (odds ratio (OR) = 0.646, P = 0.042) and were less likely to have attended the hospital awareness campaign on COVID-19 (OR = 0.654, P = 0.035). We concluded that previous experience with MERS-CoV was associated with increased knowledge and adherence to protective hygienic practices, and reduction of anxiety towards COVID-19.
Project description:In the recent two decades, three global viral infectious diseases, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus disease (COVID-19), have occurred worldwide. SARS occurred in November 2002, causing 8096 infected cases, as well as 774 deaths. MERS occurred in June, 2012, causing 2519 confirmed cases, along with 866 associated deaths. COVID-19 occurred in December 2019, as of 30 April 2020, a total of 3,024,059 clinical cases have been reported, including 208,112 deaths. Healthcare workers (HCWs) need to be in close contact with these virus-infected patients and their contaminated environments at work, thus leading to be infected in some of them, even a few of them are died in line of duty. In this review, we summarized the infection status of HCWs during the outbreak of SARS, MERS and COVID-19, with in-depth discussion, hoping to provoke sufficient attention to the HCWs infection status by more people.
Project description:To study the acute psychological effects of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak among healthcare workers (HCWs) in China, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among HCWs during the early period of COVID-19 outbreak. The acute psychological effects including symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaire, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and PTSD was estimated at 15.0%, 27.1%, and 9.8%, respectively. Having an intermediate technical title, working at the frontline, receiving insufficient training for protection, and lacking confidence in protection measures were significantly associated with increased risk for depression and anxiety. Being a nurse, having an intermediate technical title, working at the frontline, and lacking confidence in protection measures were risk factors for PTSD. Meanwhile, not worrying about infection was a protective factor for developing depression, anxiety, and PTSD. Psychological interventions should be implemented among HCWs during the COVID-19 outbreak to reduce acute psychological effects and prevent long-term psychological comorbidities. Meanwhile, HCWs should be well trained and well protected before their frontline exposure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to cause intermittent community and nosocomial outbreaks. Obtaining data on specific source(s) and transmission dynamics of MERS-CoV during nosocomial outbreaks has been challenging. We performed a clinical, epidemiological and phylogenetic investigation of an outbreak of MERS-CoV at a University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS:Clinical, epidemiological and infection control data were obtained from patients and Healthcare workers (HCWs). Full genome sequencing was conducted on nucleic acid extracted directly from MERS-CoV PCR-confirmed clinical samples and phylogenetic analysis performed. Phylogenetic analysis combined with published MERS-CoV genomes was performed. HCWs compliance with infection control practices was also assessed. RESULTS:Of 235 persons investigated, there were 23 laboratory confirmed MERS cases, 10 were inpatients and 13 HCWs. Eight of 10 MERS inpatients died (80% mortality). There were no deaths among HCWs. The primary index case assumed from epidemiological investigation was not substantiated phylogenetically. 17/18 MERS cases were linked both phylogenetically and epidemiologically. One asymptomatic HCW yielded a MERS-CoV genome not directly linked to any other case in the investigation. Five HCWs with mild symptoms yielded >75% full MERS-CoV genome sequences. HCW compliance with use of gowns was 62.1%, gloves 69.7%, and masks 57.6%. CONCLUSIONS:Several factors and sources, including a HCW MERS-CoV 'carrier phenomenon', occur during nosocomial MERS-CoV outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of MERS-CoV linked to clinical and epidemiological information is essential for outbreak investigation. The specific role of apparently healthy HCWs in causing nosocomial outbreaks requires further definition.
Project description:The COronaVIrus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the critical need to focus on its impact on the mental health of Healthcare Workers (HCWs) involved in the response to this emergency. It has been consistently shown that a high proportion of HCWs is at greater risk for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS). The present study systematic reviewed studies conducted in the context of the three major Coronavirus outbreaks of the last two decades to investigate risk and resilience factors for PTSD and PTSS in HCWs. Nineteen studies on the SARS 2003 outbreak, two on the MERS 2012 outbreak and three on the COVID-19 ongoing outbreak were included. Some variables were found to be of particular relevance as risk factors as well as resilience factors, including exposure level, working role, years of work experience, social and work support, job organization, quarantine, age, gender, marital status, and coping styles. It will be critical to account for these factors when planning effective intervention strategies, to enhance the resilience and reduce the risk of adverse mental health outcomes among HCWs facing the current COVID-19 pandemic.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they are at high risk of acquiring the pathogen from infected patients and transmitting to other HCWs. We aimed to investigate risk factors for nosocomial COVID-19 infection among HCWs in a non-COVID-19 hospital yard. <h4>Methods</h4> Retrospective data collection on demographics, lifestyles, contact status with infected subjects for 118 HCWs (including 12 COVID-19 HCWs) at Union Hospital of Wuhan, China. Sleep quality and working pressure were evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and The Nurse Stress Index (NSI), respectively. The follow-up duration was from Dec 25, 2019, to Feb 15, 2020. <h4>Results</h4> A high proportion of COVID-19 HCWs had engaged in night shift-work (75.0% vs. 40.6%) and felt working under pressure (66.7% vs. 32.1%) than uninfected HCWs. SARS-CoV-2 infected HCWs had significantly higher scores of PSQI and NSI than uninfected HCWs (P < 0.001). Specifically, scores of 5 factors (sleep quality, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disorder, and daytime dysfunction) in PSQI were higher among infected HCWs. For NSI, its 5 subscales (nursing profession and work, workload and time allocation, working environment and resources, patient care, management and interpersonal relations) were all higher in infected than uninfected nurse. Furthermore, total scores of PSQI (HR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.86?4.76; P <0.001) and NSI (HR = 4.67, 95%CI = 1.42?15.45; P = 0.011) were both positively associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. <h4>Conclusion</h4> Our analysis shows that poor sleep quality and higher working pressure may increase the risk of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs. Highlights • Risk factors of the susceptibility of HCWs to COVID-19 remained largely unknown.• Infected HCWs had poorer sleep quality and higher working pressure than uninfected.• Poor sleep quality and high working pressure were associated with COVID-19 risk.• Improving the night duty system, decreasing psychological pressure is necessary for HCWs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, Hubei, China, spreads across national and international borders. METHODS:We prospectively collected medical records of 14 health care workers (HCWs) who were infected with SARS-CoV-2, in neurosurgery department of Wuhan Union Hospital, China. RESULTS:Among the 14 HCWs, 12 were conformed cases, the other 2 were suspected cases. Most of them were either exposed to the two index patients or infected coworkers, without knowing they were COVID-19 patients. There were 4 male and 10 female infected HCWs in this cohort, whose mean age was 36 years (SD, 6 years). The main symptoms included myalgia or fatigue (100%), fever (86%) and dry cough (71%). On admission, 79% of infected HCWs showed leucopenia and 43% lymphopenia. Reduced complement C3 could be seen in 57% of the infected HCWs and IL-6 was significantly elevated in 86% of them. The proportion of lymphocytes subsets, concentrations of immunoglobulins, complement C4, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-? and IFN-? were within normal range in these 14 infected HCWs. The most frequent findings on pulmonary computed tomographic images were bilateral multifocal ground-glass opacifications (86%). CONCLUSIONS:Human-to-human transmission of COVID-19 pneumonia has occurred among HCWs, and most of these infected HCWs with confirmed COVID-19 are mild cases. Our data suggest that in the epidemic area of COVID-19, stringent and urgent surveillance and infection-control measures should be implemented to protect doctors and nurses from COVID-19 infection.
Project description:Objectives: To describe our experience with a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak within a large rheumatology department early in the pandemic. Methods: Symptomatic and asymptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) had a naso-oropharyngeal swab for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and were followed clinically. Reverse transcription polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) was repeated to document cure, and serological response was assessed. Patients with risk contacts within the department in the 14 days preceding the outbreak were screened for COVID-19 symptoms. Results: 14/34 HCWs (41%; 40 ± 14 years, 71% female) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 11/34 (32%) developed symptoms but were RT-PCR-negative. Half of RT-PCR-positive HCWs did not report fever, cough, or dyspnea before testing, which were absent in 3/14 cases (21%). Mild disease prevailed (79%), but 3 HCWs had moderate disease requiring further assessment, which excluded severe complications. Nevertheless, symptom duration (28 ± 18 days), viral shedding (31 ± 10 days post-symptom onset, range 15-51), and work absence (29 ± 28 days) were prolonged. 13/14 (93%) of RT-PCR-positive and none of the RT-PCR-negative HCWs had a positive humoral response Higher IgG indexes were observed in individuals over 50 years of age (14.5 ± 7.7 vs. 5.0 ± 4.4, p = 0.012). Of 617 rheumatic patients, 8 (1.3%) developed COVID-19 symptoms (1/8 hospitalization, 8/8 complete recovery), following a consultation/procedure with an asymptomatic (7/8) or mildly symptomatic (1/8) HCW. Conclusions: A COVID-19 outbreak can occur among HCWs and rheumatic patients, swiftly spreading over the presymptomatic stage. Mild disease without typical symptoms should be recognized and may evolve with delayed viral shedding, prolonged recovery, and adequate immune response in most individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare workers (HCWs) are on the front line of the COVID-19 outbreak, and their constant exposure to infected patients and contaminated surfaces puts them at risk of acquiring and transmitting the infection. Therefore, they must employ protective measures. In practice, HCWs in Israel were not fully prepared for this sudden COVID-19 outbreak. This research aimed to identify and compare: (1) Israeli HCWs' perceptions regarding the official COVID-19 guidelines' applicability and their protective value, and (2) HCWs executives' response to HWCs' concern regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) shortage. METHODS:A mixed-methods sequential explanatory design consists of: (1) An online survey of 242 HCWs about the application of the guidelines and PPE, and (2) Personal interviews of 15 HCWs executives regarding PPE shortage and the measures they are taking to address it. RESULTS:A significant difference between the perceived applicability and protective value was found for most of the guidelines. Some of the guidelines were perceived as more applicable than protective (hand hygiene, signage at entrance, alcohol rub sanitizers at entrance, and mask for contact with symptomatic patients). Other were perceived as less applicable than protective (prohibited gathering of over 10 people, maintaining a distance of 2?m', and remote services). CONCLUSIONS:HCWs need the support of the healthcare authorities not only to provide missing equipment, but also to communicate the risk to them. Conveying the information with full transparency, while addressing the uncertainty element and engaging the HCWs in evaluating the guidelines, are critical for establishing trust.
Project description:A hospital-associated outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was reported. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of infection control measures among healthcare workers (HCWs) who were exposed to a MERS patient and/or his body fluids in our institute.A descriptive study was conducted among HCWs who worked with a MERS patient in Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand, between 18 June and 3 July 2015. Contacts were defined as HCWs who worked in the patient's room or with the patient's body fluids. Serum samples from all contacts were collected within 14 days of last contact and one month later. Paired sera were tested for detection of MERS-CoV antibodies by using an indirect ELISA.Thirty-eight (88.4 %) of 43 identified contacts consented to enroll. The mean (SD) age was 38.1 (11.1) years, and 79 % were females. The median (IQR) cumulative duration of work of HCWs in the patient's room was 35 (20-165) minutes. The median (IQR) cumulative duration of work of HCWs with the patient's blood or body fluids in laboratory was 67.5 (43.7-117.5) minutes. All contacts reported 100 % compliance with hand hygiene, using N95 respirator, performing respirator fit test, wearing gown, gloves, eye protection, and cap during their entire working period. All serum specimens of contacts tested for MERS-CoV antibodies were negative.We provide evidence of effective infection control practices against MERS-CoV transmission in a healthcare facility. Strict infection control precautions can protect HCWs. The optimal infection control measures for MERS-CoV should be further evaluated.