Changing the Focus to the Whole Patient instead of One Oral Disease: The Concept of Individualized Prevention.
ABSTRACT: Oral diseases are highly prevalent and a global burden. Accordingly, their prevention appears essential. Recently, different strategies have been developed, mainly focusing on the presence of singular oral diseases or conditions. This article aims to construct a contemporary concept of individualized preventive care in dentistry whereby the focus is switched from viewing oral health in isolation to viewing the patient as a whole. The basis for individualized prevention measures is the case-oriented profile, including the synthesis of risk- and need-oriented parameters. The risk profile comprises different risk factors within the fields of systemic diseases, medications, and lifestyle that inherently pose a potential risk of complications (e.g., infectious endocarditis) and/or oral diseases (e.g., periodontitis). The needs profile includes factors originating from the aspects of oral diseases, dental restorations/appliances, and dental results with a potential risk of pathogenesis (e.g., the de novo development of caries) and/or the potential progression of oral diseases (e.g., an existing caries lesion). Based on these parameters, the general framework and content of prevention measures, as well as the maintenance interval, should be adapted to the individual patient. The implications of this concept might increase the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of prevention in dental care. A further area of focus is primary prevention, that is, a focus on the preservation of oral health instead of a disease-related approach. However, clinical validation is needed to prove the benefits of the model presented. Individualized prevention promotes a shift from a disease-focused model to a whole-patient-focused model and provides a potential approach for establishing a contemporary concept for preventive care in dentistry.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. METHODS:A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; prevention and treatment of periodontal disease; management of tooth developmental and mineralization disturbances; prevention and treatment of oral conditions in children with chronic diseases/developmental disturbances/obesity; diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental erosion and tooth wear; treatment of traumatic injuries in primary and young permanent teeth and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Abstracts and full text reviews were assessed independently by two reviewers and any differences were solved by consensus. AMSTAR was used to assess the risk of bias of each included systematic review. Reviews judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias were used to formulate existing knowledge and knowledge gaps. RESULTS:Out of 81 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, 38 were judged to have a low or moderate risk of bias. Half of them concerned caries prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low. CONCLUSION:There is an urgent need for primary clinical research of good quality in most clinically-relevant domains in pediatric dentistry.
Project description:Dental care costs in the United States exceed $100 billion annually. Personalized medicine efforts in dentistry are driven by potentially compelling clinical utility and cost-effectiveness prospects in the major diseases of periodontitis, caries, and oral cancers. This review discusses progress and challenges identifying genetic markers and showing clinical utility in dentistry. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic periodontitis (CP) identified no significant variants, but CDKN2BAS variants on chromosome 9 were significantly associated with aggressive periodontitis. Stratifying patients by interleukin (IL)-1 gene variants, smoking and diabetes differentiated CP prevention outcomes. Dental caries' GWAS identified significant signals in LYZL2, AJAp1, and KPNA4; and efforts are ongoing to identify genetic factors for multiple caries phenotypes. Trials of molecularly targeted therapies are in progress for oral, head, and neck squamous cell carcinomas (OHNSCC) and results have been promising but limited in their effectiveness. Current opportunities and challenges for molecular targeting for OHNSCC are discussed.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify dentists' practice patterns regarding caries prevention and (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentists' characteristics are associated with these practice patterns.<h4>Design</h4>The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey.<h4>Participants</h4>The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan, which seeks to engage dentists in investigating research questions and sharing experiences and expertise (n=282).<h4>Measurement</h4>Dentists were asked about their practice patterns regarding caries preventive dentistry. Background data on patients, practice and dentist were also collected.<h4>Results</h4>38% of dentists (n=72) provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients. Overall, 10% of the time in daily practice was spent on caries preventive dentistry. Dentists who provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients spent significantly more time on preventive care and less time on removable prosthetics treatment, compared to dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Additionally, they provided oral hygiene instruction, patient education, fluoride recommendations, intraoral photographs taken and diet counselling to their patients significantly more often than dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that the percentage of patients interested in caries prevention and the percentage of patients who received hygiene instruction, were both associated with the percentage of patients who receive individualised caries prevention.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We identified substantial variation in dentists' practice patterns regarding preventive dentistry. Individualised caries prevention was significantly related to provision of other preventive services and to having a higher percentage of patients interested in caries prevention, but not to the dentist's belief about the effectiveness of caries risk assessment. (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT01 680 848).
Project description:Background. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for a wide range of pediatric malignant and nonmalignant diseases. However, complications, including blood stream infection (BSI) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. While certain bacteria that are abundant in the oral microbiome, such as S. mitis, can cause BSI, the role of the oral microbial community in the etiology of BSI is not well understood. The finding that the use of xylitol wipes, which specifically targets the cariogenic bacteria S. mutans is associated with reduced BSI in pediatric patients, lead us to investigate dental caries as a risk factor for BSI. Methods. A total of 41 pediatric patients admitted for allogenic or autologous HCT, age 8 months to 25 years, were enrolled. Subjects with high dental caries risk were identified as those who had dental restorations completed within 2 months of admission for transplant, or who had untreated decay. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine if there was a significant association between caries risk and BSI. Dental plaque and saliva were collected on a cotton swab from a subset of 4 high caries risk (HCR) and 4 low caries risk (LCR) children following pretransplant conditioning. 16SrRNA sequencing was used to compare the microbiome of HCR and LCR subjects and to identify microbes that were significantly different between the 2 groups. Results. There was a statistically significant association between caries risk and BSI (p<0.035) (Fisher’s exact test). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed children in the high dental caries risk group were 21.39 times more likely to have BSI, with no significant effect of age or mucositis severity. HCR subjects showed significantly reduced microbial alpha diversity as compared to LCR subjects. LEfse metagenomic analyses, showed the oral microbiome in HCR children enriched in order Lactobacillales. This order includes Streptococcus and Lactobacillus, both which contain bacteria primarily associated with dental caries. Discussion. These findings support the possibility that the cariogenic microbiome can enhance the risk of BSI in pediatric populations. Future metagenomic analyses to measure microbial differences at, before, and after conditioning related to caries risk, may further unravel the complex relationship between the oral microbiome, and whether it affects health outcomes such as BSI. Overall design: Dental plaque and saliva were collected on a cotton swab from a subset of 4 high caries risk (HCR) and 4 low caries risk (LCR) children following pretransplant conditioning. 16SrRNA sequencing was used to compare the microbiome of HCR and LCR subjects and to identify microbes that were significantly different between the 2 groups
Project description:The school and community context can contribute to inequity in child oral health. Whether the school and community affect the effectiveness of school-based caries prevention is unknown. The association between the school and community environment and dental caries, as well as their moderating effects with school-based caries prevention, was assessed using multilevel mixed-effects regression. Data were derived from a 6-y prospective cohort study of children participating in a school-based caries prevention program. For the school and community, living in a dental-shortage area and the proportion of children receiving free or reduced lunch were significantly related to an increased risk of dental caries at baseline. Caries prevention was associated with a significant per-visit decrease in the risk of untreated caries, but the rate of total caries experience increased over time. Caries prevention was more effective in children who had prior dental care at baseline and in schools with a higher proportion of low socioeconomic status students. There was significant variation across schools in the baseline prevalence of dental caries and the effect of prevention over time, although effects were modest. The school and community environment have a direct impact on oral health and moderate the association between school-based caries prevention and dental caries. Knowledge Transfer Statement: School-based caries prevention can be an effective means to reduce oral health inequity by embedding dental care within schools. However, the socioeconomic makeup of schools and characteristics of the surrounding community can affect the impact of school-based care.
Project description:Many investigations have pointed out widespread use of medical nanosystems in various domains of dentistry such as prevention, prognosis, care, tissue regeneration, and restoration. The progress of oral medicine nanosystems for individual prophylaxis is significant for ensuring bacterial symbiosis and high-quality oral health. Nanomaterials in oral cosmetics are used in toothpaste and other mouthwash to improve oral healthcare performance. These processes cover nanoparticles and nanoparticle-based materials, especially domains of application related to biofilm management in cariology and periodontology. Likewise, nanoparticles have been integrated in diverse cosmetic produces for the care of enamel remineralization and dental hypersensitivity. This review summarizes the indications and applications of several widely employed nanoparticles in oral cosmetics, and describes the potential clinical implementation of nanoparticles as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and remineralizing agents in the prevention of dental caries, hypersensitivity, and periodontitis.
Project description:Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease that affects billions of people with large individual differences in activity. We investigated whether PRH1 and PRH2 polymorphisms in saliva acidic proline-rich protein (PRP) receptors for indigenous bacteria match and predict individual differences in the development of caries. PRH1 and PRH2 variation and adhesion of indigenous and cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans) model bacteria were measured in 452 12-year-old Swedish children along with traditional risk factors and related to caries at baseline and after 5-years. The children grouped into low-to-moderate and high susceptibility phenotypes for caries based on allelic PRH1, PRH2 variation. The low-to-moderate susceptibility children (P1 and P4a-) experienced caries from eating sugar or bad oral hygiene or infection by S. mutans. The high susceptibility P4a (Db, PIF, PRP12) children had more caries despite receiving extra prevention and irrespective of eating sugar or bad oral hygiene or S. mutans-infection. They instead developed 3.9-fold more caries than P1 children from plaque accumulation in general when treated with orthodontic multibrackets; and had basic PRP polymorphisms and low DMBT1-mediated S. mutans adhesion as additional susceptibility traits. The present findings thus suggest genetic autoimmune-like (P4a) and traditional life style (P1) caries, providing a rationale for individualized oral care.
Project description:The occurrence of severe dental caries is particularly prevalent and harmful in children. A better understanding of parental factors that may be indicators of children's risk of developing dental caries is important for the development of preventive measures. This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of mothers in Salé, Morocco regarding oral health and their predictors.A cross-sectional KAP study was conducted of Mother and Child units in Salé, Morocco. Mothers attending the selected units from November 2014 to 29 January 2015 were recruited. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, administered by face-to-face interviews, to record socio-demographic factors and KAPs. The main outcome measures included knowledge about oral health diseases and preventive measures, and attitudes and practices related to oral health prevention measures and dental care. KAPs scores were then recoded based on responses and scores were determined for each KAP domain. Linear regression analysis was conducted to assess predictors of KAP scores.Among 502 mothers included, 140 (27.8%) were illiterate and 285 (60.9%) were aware that fluoride has a beneficial effect in caries prevention. Mothers' own practices about dental care were statistically related to their children's use of dental care services (p?<?0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the knowledge score was associated with mother's age (??=?0.05; 95% CI; p?<?0.001), education level, and median income (??=?0.38; p?=?0.04). Significant predictors of oral health-related practices were mother's education level and children's health status.Limited KAP scores were observed among the studied population. A great emphasis on oral health education and some risk factor modifications are recommended.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dental caries is the most prominent childhood disease in the world. In the United States, more than 50% of children have experienced caries. Untreated caries can have negative impacts on quality of life, academic performance, and school attendance. To reduce oral health disparities, multiple organizations recommend school-based caries prevention. METHODS/DESIGN:A longitudinal, cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial will be conducted in low-income children from primarily Hispanic/Latino backgrounds currently enrolled in public elementary schools in New York City, New York, United States, from 2018 to 2023. The primary objective is to compare the non-inferiority of silver diamine fluoride and fluoride varnish versus glass ionomer therapeutic sealants and fluoride varnish in the arrest and prevention of dental caries. Secondary objectives are to evaluate differences in effectiveness when care is provided by nurses versus dental hygienists and assess the impact of prevention on oral health-related quality of life and educational outcomes. Caries arrest will be evaluated after 2 years, and caries prevention and secondary outcomes will be assessed at the completion of the study. Data analysis will follow intent-to-treat, and statistical analyses will be conducted using a two-sided significance level of 0.05. DISCUSSION:The comparative effectiveness of alternative caries prevention delivery models is considered to be one of the highest research priorities in the United States. Many treatments are currently available to prevent and arrest dental caries. The simplicity and affordability of silver diamine fluoride may be a viable alternative for the prevention of dental caries in high-risk children. TRIAL REGISTRATION:U.S. National Library of Medicine, www.clinicaltrials.gov , ID: NCT03442309 . Registered on 22 February 2018.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a commonly used antiseptic mouthwash, used by dental practitioners and the public, due to its antimicrobial effects. The aim of this article was to provide a narrative review of current antimicrobial uses of CHX relevant to dentistry in the context of oral diseases, highlighting need for further studies to support its safe and appropriate use. STUDY SELECTION, DATA AND SOURCES:Randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and national (UK and US) guidelines were consulted where available, with search terms for each subject category entered into MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar and the Cochrane database. RESULTS:Some evidence existed to support adjunctive short-term use of CHX to manage dental plaque, and reduce clinical symptoms of gingivitis, dry socket, as well as reduce aerosolisation of bacteria. However, use must be weighed alongside the less desirable effects of CHX, including extrinsic staining of teeth, antimicrobial resistance to antiseptic agents and the rare, but fatal, allergic reactions to CHX. Conversely, evidence for the effectiveness of chlorhexidine to manage or prevent periodontitis, dental caries, necrotising periodontal diseases, peri-implantitis, and infections associated with extraction and aerosolised viruses remains less certain. CONCLUSIONS:The use of CHX in dentistry and oral healthcare continues to be widespread and thus it is important that dental practitioners understand that, based on its differential mechanisms of action on different microbes, appropriate clinical and dental use of CHX should be oral disease specific. However, further scientific and clinical research is required before full recommendations can be made.